Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 12, 1862, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 12, 1862 Page 2
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m 2 . 1 ' INTERESTING FROM EUROPE. Eft PA118 AN BEEDLIN CORBESPOMENIE. Opinions in Europe on the Southern Rebellion, Ac.. Ac.. Ae. Oar Parte Correspondence. Paso, Dec 2T.1M1. PhsglantT i Jmmtntt Preparations for War?Her Hatred to the /forth American Republic? The Violation of the Queen's Proclamation?The Hostility of France to Amerios?The Coming RecoguUwn of the Southern Confederacy bp Both Poteen Prince Napoleon on Our Side?A Krst Warning to the Petal??The Ooremmeset of Prance Rnd the Voice of the People, tic., tic. From all appearances England will force upon the Doited Status a war. Dor preparations are of so menar lug a nature, so iruiy waruae, u u> causa uie wunu tu appreciate the steadiness, the malignity of her determibattOB She ttnds the United States engaged in a deadly enfllet, hampered by a civil war of the moat trying and unnatural kind, and at once she seizes upon the first pretext to endeavour to destroy a Power that she fears and hates. She will, she thinks, wipe away the stain of her former defeats: while her hated rival is already at war, aha will strike a deadly blow. Prance and Austria approve of this course; they have, unasked, signified as such to ths Cabinet of St. James. Or course they have. They hate and fear that great republic which is a living Md growing (eproach to their despotism and tyranny. They will liound on England; for, be she victor or vanquished, they gain thereby. The Powers they feared will be crippled, and their accursed governments leas in danger from the deserved anger of their people. England, who, had yon spat in her face a few months since would have calmly wiped away the insult, murmuring Something about "hearty cousins," now Jumps at any pflstext to commence a war of extermination against youIf war there should be, who will have been directly responsible for so great, so awful a calamity? None other than Captain lloir, of the Trent, for direct!/ violating his Queen's proclamation, and Commander Wll'Isiris vaporing, bullying Williams, the would-be hero that".* ved Miss Slide 11 from the bayonets of the bloodthirsty i narincs of Lieutenant Fairfax.'' Tho English governma at owos it as a duty to the United States and Itself toe* bier those o Ulcere for their contempt of British law. But tin along England, backed up by France, Uaa baen eagerly awaiting a chance for a blow. TUc unaccountable qui of thoUnited Slates troops, their frequent rerereee, all th see things emboldened England: she thought she detected w\ takness, and determined she would at once Strike a decisive blow. How the London journals shout with'joy over M. Thouvenol's despatch to Mr. Seward, and his circular t the Powers of Europe in favor of England's aggressive manner towards the United States' lbs Morning Ckn utcle and Telegraph say that the despatch to Mr. Sewai d la written ns though by an English Minister, while the L itter does not fail to point out how In that despatch t '>? Erench Minister (more shame i to him) speaks of the United States government as the " federal govt rnment," the " Washington Cabinet," hat never w the government of the United States. I hart ' always, since the commencesnent of the Southern rebnllion, assured you that in Vrnnee the governmeut w 38 inimical to yoq, and p. esent wvents prove how correct* wa8 rn-r information ujnin that nubjeut I will here digren ' for a moment to state that I have of tea wondered to see oublisbed in ydur other 1'aria letters assertions thai "Frat C:J '3 f?r you," "Louis Kspoleon has his aye on England - ho W1" never allow her to Meet you," sad such like an ' positive remarks upou the Mtyect, ail of which proceed* 'd from the gross st ignoMsos of how political affairs en here. Some of the said respondents, on one or tw. ' Occasion*, flatly contra Moled my assertions to the effec ' t!mt Prance (that is. Its wernment l was against the cat ,0 of *be North. Events *? proved that I was right, ant 'that staled i>osl Mvely facta which we now have " right to doubt. Bo Much for your peace at-all prioe-c* rrespondents. I ho|w Jbag will forward you sow more reliable information, mac# despatches a fleet to yoar w. stars, and will rec< gUsoihe Davis government the mon ent '-ngland has doue . England has held a council of w instructions have MannsnttoaU her colonial author! iP*' announcing to \ nem what IS at hand; ail the stitpa h 1 lh? Mediterranean _ ? Is muster at Gibraltar and >n fa(-'t. *b? is to _i a blow which she hom s wt" be fatal at Tate, ae says ths Pott, theywi i' take Maino and W ft** fV tbs eziieoses of the w? May not ihey wuur?. aa in infancy th* QM(k ? Of the colonic* ?back the redcoats, they may novT* <? likewise, end tatt <?co are used, the Mdeix-nrieni ami ,CJk0 nation may WWM- #?beee, treecbermis cure that wot ld "trikc thcin vrWi?Y*a<tr?gagod, that brfers, "? * nre more ?*? ??? brtWf God grant it:Mr surely haor nod reason mm f* ^cur sldn, while for Engli nd t0 succeed were the of duphditp and coward n?t know what tha^ggfa-too, government wtu tl 'mk of Louis Mapoleon's V.Vtng England aid In her preasn. ' tremendous aimemwi'^' He has sent her 2 000 snow, '??a * "re told f'mbre likely 10,000) to serve her seMt -rswhUe in D* Mile Why should Francs thus openly offend the United Stalest The Opmim JfWonole, Prince Napoleon's > "rgas, still nnhlT for the causa of the North. The ai licles Dow appearing in tfiil paper, written, I have goo. 1 cause to know, by tbe PMflcs himself, must be (all and ? ormwood to B^lacd and Uw seceeeta sheets bore. The OetmU baa received an iwriiton'si rant nat inost liberal of all Ministers of tbe Interior, Persig ostensible cause Is sn artteto written by M. del irawin. In which he states that It Is Lout-: Napoleon who i 1 uWj|*{8 tbe empire, end not the empire Louia Nj poises i ' TJ}1S waa oflbnee enough; but. su fowl. thsre was mor ' Th>* Dchnts has base a Arm friend of the North, and it 10 intimidate this .Journal that this reprimand ha hern gtvsn. One mora, and thoy n-e now given without 'hyme or reeeon, and the government can at ouce supprei J . u Prfuift Of course the sbareho'dors will force (he s *>t'>rs to be more careful. Arrests and e n lemnatlins for I'"'8" offences have now become to frequent as to prove !l ,w Cit Is the fear felt by the government at ail nth r?8 brutality of fear atooe would cause such tirheai ?* cases as those of the Oourrier du IHmanckr and L'Am 1 la Rrligum Pershpy seems to 1ls\s become be.,ide b ,m" self with rage, "ftere will be * tor my cessions tbis y ~ar la the Seoete and Corps Icfrtslatif: for, In the case of E land and the United .States, tbe government is goi ' directly against the will of (be people, and there will ^ found sees bold enough to say so. Pam?, Pec. 27,1*61. Amotetyfor ffeva frtm America? The F.tident Policy? As Jfcipeim Xayolrm?Tie fines of Prince -V<tf si? flU Oourt of Front to Momminy for Prinr- AlUrt? Otfttit of IA? CkrUtma* .1?amm?The l'miil.Hiiij of a JMMassent tf the Ameri an OtfknUy?Th* bpimem af Mr Unit ill, etc., Ac. I need not toll you with what immense interest ina public mind is watch lag for the arrival of tbe neat mud frees Now York, which, H is supposed, will decide the question at yeaci or war with England. Now thai the policy of the French government in mods known by the publication of M. Thouvenel s despatch, it is beriomrg to bo thought that the United States will return the rebel Commissioners, as acting under en overpowering Uoao. France. by ita government,does not absolutely take part with bullying England, hot so tdealthee herself with England that tbe difference is more In nppesrsaoo than ro lily. The truth *, the Emperor thinks be ha* .1 <an \ enough in planting bin dynsefy on the throne of Kracce. i Tbo thing henceforward uppermeat in bin mind >a to per- . t potuau- ihat dynaaty, ami Mint, he t blots, be ran ?nl* 1 manag* by betding o? wuh it. Power wbieb seen* tbe I strongest | <j To make htmaatr, by soma maana o* other. mnaiar ?f the situation, ta always, tsn, the aerer ceasing policy of i Napoleon Ilk II gratui?a inr people of Krsnr* iliat lhay < should always appear aaaa -sry At soinc ruVira day wo I ball aao amvtig iha tmi?-ror'a calms to drnaattr rara. raaca that bin ootenaMllad Iba war tbat km nilH.g tha , J .lemenis betwtil iba at* raa n America and ttrsal I Britain, and It wilt provs a ib< ap tnanaur or axlingi ?b. tag patHlcai capital Tha Ophrtsn .TaffenaJ*. tba organ of Prtocc Napoleon, on tba subject of M. Tboaraoel's despatch, has lb fob lowing think that, l( iba A nor r leans do rsies-s tba Sbntbero (owimlasi'wus, their determination must ba atlrtbutad to <nhe. motives, because It ia evident In batr aysa, an wall as in ours, from tba very Datura of ?a daspatob, that tba French government, In giving Ita support to England, will m l commit the fault of taking an active part ia lbs struggle' Again:?"We lake into our calculation* the Internals of Erscce and we do not fear that tba pnblla will reproach us for giving llietn a Isrgs part la on* preoccupations. It would he Hupvrllum s to repeat bare all the arguments which wa have already brought forward in order to show the propriety and tba wisdom of a policy of neutrality. We shall coo Una ouraeltraa to stating that tba <|oeetKu? of r ighl is un. d?cldad between England and iha rnttad fclta'oB, and wo add tbat, in tba mhlst of tba uncertainties which agist on tbat aubjaat oa both stdaa the Atlantic, it would appear la on much to ba regretted to sea Franco, out of pure eoadawcecsiaa ta tha Cabinet of St. .lames, break tba bawda of frtsadehlp wbtah bare muted bar to tba A mart aaaa far the taat eighty years, and replace la that grant attan by aawttsaanta of hatred tba she baa always fait Inwards as since the day whan wa fought by Bar atda an all tba Betda of battle whan aba defended up, m- England tha snared cause af liberty To tbat, bsasi ir. the InterrsntKm ?t franaa would Hwritably Iha prsasdsnt which tba Hssuin cltaa of tba steamer Trent baa ban largely eanvaaaed bare, and la ounsldsrsd lib... ' T) ft J to (HI a very strong ooa. Bat the polley of Grant Britain baa aver baan to bally tha weak and knack Io to tb? strong. Why, It aha can carry things with so btgb a band, did not she espouse the cause of Portugal in tha Charisa at Oborgee allhir off Moimnbique? A more flagrant breach of international law waa never committed than that of the French against the Portuguese; yet Eng land stood with folded arms, knowing too well with whom she would have te measure weapons. Portugal is almost as Scotland to England?on all other occasions her closest ally?yet sheoould forget it all when it was convenient to do so. The Court of France is In fall mourning for Prince Albert's death. But nothing is allowed to cast agloom on this proverbially gay season of the year. The shops are put ting out their noutvautet, their bijouterie and wonderful specimens* of the national ingenuity, with all their wonted enegry. ttiroux out-Herods himself. Such pa miter* tie chemime, such marqueterl, buhl, and work in the new Algerine marble, which resembles a melange of alabaster and Derbyshire ware, were never before , seen. Moderation' in prices is the order of the day; and really some of the clocks, and other things titled up with similar appendages, i ttsxtraurdinarilv cbean. A very beautiful Inkstand in I oak, with aa exce.lent clock, warranted of perfect works, is offered for forty-two franca. Tlie bronzes are truly magnificent, and be has also some exquisite original paintings, 11*> lowest price of whicb is a thousand francs. The little buts which annually spring into life at Christmas?more with regard to tho jour de la it than to that great festival?are now lining the whole g files of the Boulevard, from the church of Le Madoiaine down to the Faubourg SH. Antoine, a distance of so rue three miles. To appreciate the pleasure these little magazines afford you must come to Paris. It seems strange that when the ordinary shops are always full to the brim of svsry imaginable toy for children, these little warehouses of second rate articles should still rstain their popularity. But to the Parisian mind they are ever new. For a year they fall back into repose, only to spring up again with renovated lustre. What they offer one year is pretty much the same as the next; but the novelty is in the minds of the visiters. The fond memory of what they were the year previous has served as a nest egg for other expectations, and when they appear, de noro, both oid and young arc ready to givo thein the j credit of having fulfilled such expectations, whether they j have or not. Ihe purchases made are enormous. Everybody goes to one, and few. very Tew, return empty handed. The children, fresh emancipated from all scholastic thraldom,are seen toiling to their homes, with difficulty balancing either bags of bon bons or drums, mechanical instruments, oranges, Liliputian balloons,horses, carts, beer barrels; and whole services of dinner and tea ware. The pater familia* Is obliged to lend a hand, while tho maternity holds with ono hand her muff to her nose, to prevent the rubicund effect of the frost, and with the other guides the youngest of hsr fry. Trumpets sound the alarum from one end of the fair city to the other; drums make an incessant roll, and detonating squibs perpetually shock the nerves of septuagenarians, who lor the life ol' them cannot prevail upon themselves to keep at home at this holiday season. Christmas day, ordinarily so partially observed in Paris, was this year quite a diet fettxu. The shops were all closed, and in the afternoon all the world was afoot; and, judgiug from the multiplicity of provender laid in the day before from all the comestible shops, I should judge that there was hardly lees fasting here than on your side the Atlantic. One great scene of attraction was tho Dots de Boulogne, where ihe lakes were frozen over, and admitted thousands of skaters. The long frost of last year has been instrumental In introducing this accomplishment much more than formerly among theFreuch population, and yesra*.l*?'a ATiwrttiMa nrrticwl tha nrov,.rhisl fthilltv with which the modern Gaul can adapt himself to every species of noeieaute, whether in drees or amusement. The weather continues frt sty. The thermometer marks 31 1.3 Fahrenheit. v'fhe remark made in Mr. Russell's last letter to tho L'ndon 7*1 nut?-'considering the animosity of the South towards England, and the syin|<alhies which connects large mass of tho democratic party with (lie Southern politic.ans, it is not quite beyond the range of possibility that a compromise or truce might arise, in which the republican party would be either defeated or forced to desperate extremities, and that eventually a reconfederation might be effected, the animating principle of wh.cb would be resistance to the enomy"?has created peculiar interest in diplomatic circles In Paris. Last night, among parlies in close proximity to the Court, I heard very strong sentiments' expressed in favor of the most rigil neutrality. '-Good Cod," said one gentleman in tho hearing both of l'ersigny and Prince Napoleon, '-will France be so mad as to aid England in crushing a maritime Power which, if suflbred to deveiope itself, must neutralize the might of England on the only arena w here she is really formidable. Should it happen that the North and youth shall be ready to compromise their present quarrel an presence of their hereditary foe, for Fiance tho advantage would prove so inestimable that not a voire, much has a hand, should bo raised against her. It is all very well for Austria to take the opportunity of currying favor with England and exhibiting her little spite to America, but Fram e can never so act." The words were spoken loudly, and seemed to meet with the general concurionco of ail present. I am not at liberly to give the name of the speaker; but It was one of the wa*masi partisans of the government, and a mutual frieud of Trince Napoleon uud the Count de l'ersignv. Oh, if the South would but soe its error and join tho President in maintaining the diirnilv and honor of a common country, what an opportunity t? tlio present? Never again in its future history c.iu such an occasion bo hope J for of raising America?the once more United States?to the proudest position ever enjoyed by any notion -mco the creation of the world. '-Why will"ye die, O, house of Israel." 1 * Our Berllu Correspondence, I'.kkus, Dec. 14, 1861. Ministerial Crisis?Opening of the Chambers?The Berlin Algemeint Zrilvng?lit Btmarks on the Anylo-Amrrican Biffi'Vlty? <etoard, Hapolenn and Palment n the Three Chief Actors in the Great Political Drama, ?fc. Jhintjs *ro going on strangely in this country. The Ring I* dissatisflrd with his ministers, the ministers with ths king, and the pcopio with both. Ever since the elections his Majesty has been in a state of ncrvons irritability which exhales itself in speeches that, to gay the least, are singularly ill timed and undignified, and of I which the most exaggerated versions are issued by the I A*uri Zeitung party, causing a general fed ing of annoyancu.and lowering llae character of an aged aud hitherto popular monarch in the eyes of bis sub let* and of Km ope. The liberal inembors of tha Cabinet ate so mortitled at this belt at lor that last week they come to the resolution to throw up office, and for a moment M. Von dor Heydt? a relic of the Mante iffel ministry, who Ins all along been carrying on a covert warfare against his present c lit agues?was designated as the new Prornier; b it fortunately the King b^antoba alarm? I at the cnese quonces of such a step, and a reconciliation was olTectei between him and b.s ministers, whi'-h resullod in their retaining their pm-fsfruiiiet. lie* long this truce will continue it U difficult to tell: but there is a general impression that h ;ir day t are numbered ; ami as they are the only ministry likely to be toloralcd by the King who can hope to ina uagc the new House of Deputies after the Hrong admixture of liberal elements infused into it by ths Uts e'octioni lbs sdvent of a reactionary Cabiust would t>s th signal for the di solution of the Houae. and perhaps for a second roup d etat after the patterns of 1819. Rut limes have changed to y much since then, and such an u*t woalrl ro :sc quit* a different spirit In tbo country tr i tut it 'lid ?t that period, when tbo nation wan still , haustod by the revolutionary throes of tbc preceding r " Tba Legislature meats oo 'he 12tb of next month, so I kl s affirmed that tba King will taatily his disgust at th< m Ut of tha elect ions by refusing to open the session m ^ .on Tbo first trial of strenglb between the partoo M Id be the choice of a president or speaker; but there irWl easons for believing that th-> democrats, not to prorami royalty to the utrnoet, have resolved to ahstsln rum proposing M Waideck, and will leave the fleM clear ? m, candidate selected from among the supporters ol press n merit. litsa moderate liberal party bare just started a new ptisM under the management of Dr. Julian Schmidt, urates '7 editor of the Lei/nig OranOxJm?a critic ol irsly Teutonic profundity, and author of an excellent < lUtM 7 of <lerman Literature." It u entitled the Berlin ACgtmAt '? ZeUung. and coolants In one of its first numbers in '*fm i ?f the Anglo American difficulty, which appears tosra be rery ably written, and from which 1 subjoin a Jew sxttt After a brief aummary of tba last accounts from the L'n>t"d St Ilea, and staring tha impression produced by them, 'hat rupture between England and America is growing d? i'y more inevitable, it proc <? ls as follows:? Througbi ?t Europe there la a feeling that if such a ?<n flict sb?uki I break out it will soarc ly end without a compffits revolution in the political sy-tcm of our gl"be. This conflictt with tbo above perspective o] ened by it, - commands our anxious attention even dur. ing the arduo it labors of Internal reform which engross m ire or iw# *H the Stains of ilia European continent H it b'fore a; 'erupting to predict the results wbich this conflict may is ?d to, it is neceaaary i>j an lersinod iisori gin. Is it men ely blind pneslun tlmt unwittingly places sucb snortnona inleresta at staks, both on this side of the ocean and on that! N'o doubt there is pn?sion on both sides, b It popul ir passl,* is easily allayed if Hi; master mmdr wh > ruleathe destinies of natV ns evort Iheir inlluanee to appessegfnstead of irritating ami luflamUig it. At the rimineicemeiit of the drama throe leading characters have a'.teedv occupied the stage?'.lie American Hec.rctary ?wwarvl?the soul of the government of 1'rn-|. d?nl Lincoln?the Emperor Napoleon and 1/rrd Palmers lot. It will ba reoell"ct;.l that Immc llaiely arter the inauguration <>f Mr. I.Inc do tbo back wsrdness ?f Heoretnry "award In preparing for tee wotest with tba rebels was the sub a. t of violent attacks on the part of Northern <-n 1 t hue las's. He wa? charged with countenancing tin? secession of the .loutbern Stales, or aiming at a oumpro mate that would grant all their doman is. In tlie eyca of hia accieers?most prominent among wh im were our countrymen, the German citizens of the Union, whore aard tha war Mainst tha South aa a crusade of humanity and fraedom against arlatocracy and alnvary?Mr Seward wta little better than a trailer. The impartial observer moat form a digbresit epiaiou of him. A farsifhte* obaenrer eaanot hut ooosHer a ?ruaade , JEW YORK HERALD, SUJ against Southern society u a disaster even for tbs Northern Stelae. Not only la the South an excellent market for Northern mnnufncturea: not only doea It supply tho North with cotton, which tne latter needs aa much as any other civilised country ; uot only would the conquest and permanent occupation of the Immense and sparsely inhabited territories of the South be a military impossibility, but the riolent and radical destruction of Southern sx-iaty. slavery aud all, would throw back the progress of Amertca for a century, and obscure her future prospects for an indefinite period. But cautiously as the government at Washington has hitherto refrained from malting the emancipation of the negro the battle cry of the present struggle, if the war should continue thsy would gradually be forced by the pressure of circumstances to resort to this last extremity- In the eyes of Mr. Reward and those who share his opinions, this would be equivalent to a suicide of the Cnion, We should never forget that it was not abolitionism that caused the defeat of the democratic or Southern party at the lust Presidential election, but the determination of the North to shake off forever the yoke of that imperious faction. We shuuld recollect, more iver, that the war has only broken out because the South refused to submit, even transiently, to the rale of a Northern uartv To adjust the difficulty between North and South there are oaly three courses open?either to allow the Sooth to ."separate peaceably, or to reslgu to her the undisputed supremacy over the Union, or, dually, to concede to her alt the rights the expected to acquire by it. The secoud ox|>edieiit Seward cannot possibly have in view. Whether he aima at a recognition of the Southern confederacy, or at a compromise, which would enable the South to re-enter the Uuion, we do not pretend to divine. Paring the present state of otfcrvcsccnce at the North, however, it would be useless to recommend either of tbe?e courses. To merge the animosity against the South in the still more violent hatred of England is a fearfully haroic remedy that reminds ono of the traditions of antiquity. It would be excusable if it were the only means left in a democratk: community to divert the waves of popular passion from a rock on which they are about to wreck the country. Lei us cast a rapid glance at the second actor. It would be a master stroke if Napoleon III., by pretending to favur the South, should have seduced England into anticipating him, as she did in Italy. In that event he would not offer to mediate be: ween England and America, but between the government at Washington and the Southern confederacy. - If his and Seward's efforts should succeed in sheeting a compromise,Frafice would have saved the Union a second time, the renown of 1-afayotte would be eclipsed, and a clcse alliance formed between the Tuilerios and the While House, and England exposed to a crushing humiliation. But So ward and Napolebn are pittad against another master in political intrigue. It remains to be seen what cards he will play out. Lord Palngerston will seek and perhaps find his allies in th" frenzied ambition of tho Southern statesmen. He may succeed in obstructing a compromise between the North and South, and thus prevent the restoration of the Union. Then England will apparently have an easy task, if she commences a war with the North. But thon w>< may sac the naval power of France coming to tho assistance of ilie Stars and Stripes against the British fleet, and then the struggle will assumo proportions which set all further ca'culations at defiance. This last passage deserves particular notice, as ft coincides with the change recontly observed in the tone assumed by tho French pro3S Id discussing the Anglo-American question. Your Paris correspondent has probably already mentioned an article in the Opinion Rationale, saying that it would be absolute tuadners for France to allow tho American navy, her natural ally, to be destroyed by tho British, her natural ewtuy. It'cau hardly be supposed that so evident a truth can have escaped tho observation of a Louis Napoleon. A ? S. D. View of Secretary Chase's Report?How the English Look at Our National Debt. [From the London Times, Dec. 20.] American llnaDce is atsumiDg a character so truly unparalleled and marvollous that we must besiieak the careful attention of our readers to the details just received. We should premise, too, as adding to the wonders of the case, that everything appears to be done on principle. The American* are n 4 spending and borrowing in any ignorant or heedl is* spirit, but with a perfect knowI dje, acc irding to thai r own statements, of what they are about. The Presidi nt himself, in his message to < oilgrass, after remarking on the "signal success" which had attended the'opera1) msof the Treasury," proceeded to comment on the subject as follows:?"Much of tho national loan has been taken by citizens of the industrial classes, whose confidence in th ir country's faith and zeal for tholr country's deliverance from Its present nasi 1 hauA inHnpftil tlifkYTk t/1 cftlitl ihiild tfl fh(> BlUKVlrt. fif the government the whole of tbeir limited acquisitions. This fact imposes peculiar obligations to economy in dsb-irseineDt and energy in action." llow far llnae ^obligations" havo boon fulfilled in the charges or results of the pad campaign wo shall not lare inquire, bo*advance at ore.' to the ' principles" which the Secretary of ihc Truasury lays down us those which ought to distinguish American fliiancofrom budgets on the European model. "Tho idea of perpetual dobt," ha) s ho,"is not of American nativity, and should not be naturalized."* This is verv so md doctrine, and its ap plication, wo should havo thought, would have conssted in incurring as little debt us possible, and preventing the accumulation of a burtheu winch is found by experience so hard to bo shagon off. We should havo oxpoctcd Mr. Chase to go to w irk, tike Mr. Gladstone, with n resolution to make the year's reronue support as far as isassib'.e tho yra-'s "Xiicnditures, without Uie supplement <V a loos. Very diilv. out, howev-r. are the cone u-ims of the Amc[iean financier. II re is his whob system oxprossed in a single sen'.ei'.eo:? Taxation t > produce enough for orriina y expend it tes, tor prompt poym-nt or interest on the pub ic deb:, existing and sullro. :t aud a surplus fund s the lent to exting ishthepri c:.? vithin thirty years." In other word-, ev?ry pein.y of l a enormous exp/ndi tu.o mailed l>y the civil war is to b paid with borrowed money,nothing being provided bv laxwr oxcept the interest accruing on the debt and a sinking fund for its eventual extinct.on. The actnai operations of tho Treasury have certainly been in pretty complete ace udance with this programme. The estimated expenditure for the year ending in July, 1S02, is aliotit ?109,000,(>00 sterling. Of this a?m Mr. Chase has got, or especta to get, ?2fl,0o0.o00, nnd no m >re, by taxation; ?40,000,000 he has aires !y raised by borrowing money: and ?43,000,000 he has not yet raised at all. but hopes to raise by borrowing more. Tho federal government, therefore, having ?109,<)U0.000 to provide lor tue wants of the curreut yenr. have deliberately resolved on p. oviding less than one-fourth by lavs and more than three fourths by loans, a.though the No; them Siaies contain 'JO,00<),00*1 of people, singularly rich,as Mr. t 'haso declares, and hitlinrto all but untaxed, as their admirers in ibis country u- e liieemantly asserting. As cases of this kind ore netcr imulo so r! ar as by contrasts, wo subjoin an cxam|>leor two of our own policy In s .cb matters, taken from |>ertoda of marttnd importance. In the yoar 1*13, then twlng Ui twenty-first of a most exhausting and sanguinary war,cuib:acing ail the statm of K.uro|)o, wo warned ? 114,000.iKiO for tho services of tho country. This, it wi 1 ba seen, is indeed ?5 ,<ioo ?00 more than the Americans exi?ect to wa ii uumro .iui) hum, u ii, a? wo nan Wi/ 'CJ,iuo of the sum to pay f.>r interest on debt, and we:c proposing to lend ?12,000,000 inu.e iu subsidies to oth r nations, uot to tuvmi' u . ; ,t wo ha t boon at war aiuce 1703, tho difference can lia.uly bo thought much jga oat us in the way of oarly cxtr.a u gatx e. i;ow.w,|iimo?l this groat d mand we raised ?4>o.000 by i o.niuncnt or ordinary taxation, and ?31,OW.uOO by extraordinary tax -a, imposed tor the support o: the war; nor was it until wo bad this prduced ?73,000.000 frun our "wn pockets we veu t rod in our needs to borrow loss than half a* much, or ?34,000,000. Two years later those te rib e . figures .we'n still furlVr inc-oa*<>d, bul aga.n. with resolute constancy, we maintained tiis proportion between the two items of tho account. We a< t .ally rais I e I, by ordinary and extraordinary taxes, ?8n,00o,o00 tor t tic servico of the year, and then, but then only, we Uor 1 rowed ?40.000,0tH) more. The average amount of < tin yea-ly loan from lT.'d to lali was under ?30,| OO-'.OOO It will tliou be see a the Americans, being almost ' an untaxed ix'opln and full 40,000 000 in u.nnber, a o deliberately borrowing in the very llrst year ot a war twice I ae much aa wo borrowol In oir direst extremity, when wo were barely 18,000,000 in number, and had been groaning (or under the pressure of taxAti.>n 1 Next year they propose to borrow,even accordlug to I their pr. sent estimates, nearly as much more, and, considering that Mr. Chas already liuds the army twice a-, large, and the customs revenue only half as iarge, as lie originally anticipated, wo may be auro that his future esi limaicH are not likely to give turn an agreeable surprise. A few months ago hu th night the war, by J;du Ions ins ttagement, inlghl be lints lied, for ?40.000,000. by the spring of lxflK. He Is now content to sp eulale on July. 1843, as the period of its p<w<lhle termination, and to reck n Hut ?140,000,000 or so will have been s,>ent upon it. i Hut there is another, and an equally important, branch of the account to be cousidered. All this while, as everything is to be borrowed and nothing to be paid, of course tho public debt will be mounting rapidly. Mr. ( hare, to 1 do him justic, grapples bold y with this ngiy II ibiiity, and tolls his countryman what the national debt of Northern America will be iu July, 1843, or withiufwu years and s quarter after the Orst ruinoisnf war. We should not at all overstate the probable event In 'putting this debt, IB round numbers, at ?400,000.000 etorlh.g, Li'"i*u i in iw??>7 r |'i" "rerun nvniu mill),' liniiljf Hi ?180.000,000 or no. Now, m tho public debt of the totted -tales wax but about ?H,0t)0.h00 on tba 1st of July, 1*40. it follow* that in three years lima at Inaat Xldo.oooooo. or upward* of ?50.000,000 a year will hsre b-en add'd lo it. We never male a :rh aii ail'iition duriug the courmi of our ua luteal exliteace. aud it look u* full aeveui.v y ars, of which nearly half wero yoaia of war, lo a compii*h that accumulation of debt which the American* are achieving jmi briskly In nix nid-tblrly month*. At the beginning of th" last c ntury we ow.-d ?1.1,000.(100; In the year 1781, uficr *1* yeam of the American war, we had g i lo ?li.MXi0,0fl0. And thl* I* but half the story. The weight ut a|h i mm: debt M Inefuured not by h* nominal miiouut *o much .* by the umouut required lor the iDtrreet upon tt. If thcfolmal .stale* are really so fortiioat i a* to owe only XUQO.OOO.0VO a year end a half hence,thoy will have to provide at learl XU.fiOO.OOO for trlored of money?a point of iniiebtniiiicsa which wo <nd not reach, with all our war* aod all our wasu, till the year 1704. Hot Mr. Chn* rimtrwqilult* thr. prwltal nnd ?/v?fy nHnr<*m </ ihu Hy what UWun* t I hi* it I ho most wonderful faatu-e in the whole prospectus It roxcmhloa nothing *o much ae those pitiable Heme la a bankrupt's a< count where a lonn or a liability ix labelled with the memorandum, " To be discharged u'ext year.'' How are nrh debt* to be dterbarired, an I why at a future time rather thaa now 7 Wa had a good excuse for borrowing, ? "ever sorrowed till we oonld pay our way no fnrlbai , flui what excuse has Mr. Cha?e, and with what pre* mptton can ho conrludo that the Northern Amcrtc.ius will pay between 184.8 and 18W4 what they will not pay at present? in point of fart, tliay will be worse off then than now. Now they are paying only "enough for ordinary expenditure," with little or no Intoreat on loans Then I hay will ha paying not only tee "ordinary expenditure," inflamed as It will oerlalnly be by the result* of the war, but heavy Interest ua borrowed money to beot tt require# ae gfclll le divine STDAY, JANUARY 12, 18?: tloo to pr?fhecy that if the' federalists win not pay ft penny above the ordinary outlay now they will not be likely to |?y it when that outlay la much greater. They may proviso, anil we trust they will, for the "prompt payment" of the public creditors; but, if they proceed on their present system of paying so very little and borrowing so very much, we may be perfectly sure that ft "perpetual debt" will not only be "naturalized" in America, but reared to dimensions of astounding magni- * tude with a rapidity utterly unknown In the Old World. Tlae Trent Case?Secretary Tomeey's FoTTcjr Carried Out by Secretary Seward. (From the Lundon Shipping Gazette, Dee. 23.1

Whatever may be the silect upon the Cabinet of Washington of the demands which Lord Lyons has been instructed to make, there is little in the language of the federftl journals just received to leed to the hope that the American government will receive the neeiful support in making the required reparation for the violation of our neutral rights, and the recont Insult to our flag. On the contrary, it seemi to have been the prevailing opinion, betu.-e the mail left New York, on the 12th December?by which time it had been ascertained that the news of the boarding of the Trent had reached this country?that the offet of that intelligence here wus more favorab.e than could have been expected, and that in the cominunicaiiona which had jiassed between our government and the American Minister, the seizure of the commissioners had boen "fairly and distinctly settled" in lavor ot the federal government. It will somewhat surprise the law ofllcers of the Crowu to llnd, that they get credit in Am 'rica for the delivery of an opinion the very reverse of that which it is well known they have arrived at, and ou which the demauds of her Majesty's government are actually baaed. Before this, no doubt, the Now York public, a ud the poople of the Northern States generally, have been undeceived, and their government had to deal with the question of the violatiun of the neutral rights of this country, iu the brief but difficult form of an ultimatum preferred by tho British government. Iudecd, the more the cose of the boarding of the Trent and the seizure of the Southern commissioners is examined by the light of the row precedents which ap[iear to bear upon it, tho more clourj iy doea the position taken by tip our government seem to he founded on right and" justice, and in acdbrdance with the recognized maxims of international law, as adopted more especially In'the practice of the American government. It must not be forgotten, however, that so far we have no official Intimation of tliu views and determination of thu federal government on this most Important question. The House of Representatives has, it is true, spoken; but the President and his colleagues have, from whatever cause, withheld their opinion. If, however, thoy are guided by the recorded opinions of former American governments, they will find little difficulty in pronouncing very definitively on the qnestiou of the violation of neutral rights involved in the boarding and searching of vessels under the neutral flag, and especially of vessels employed in tho muil service of a neutral State. Tho publio writers in America who have been diligently hunting up the rasns of the Orozembo and the Mercury, cases arising out OI I lie warm lotz, uugui umg iuumu u uiuw nearor to our time?so near that it mi st be In the recollectiou of every member of Mr. l.incoln'8 administration w ho preteods to any political knowledge. In March, 1855, Ih ' American mail steamer El Dorado was flred into, stopped and searched somewhere on the coast of Cuba by the Spanish war steamer Korrulono. litis outrage?for a gross outrage it was?created surprise ami indignation not < uly at Washington, but throughout the United States. Mr. Ma'rcy gave expression to tltc opinion of tiie government, of which ho was a member, in tho following reraukabie words:?''The act of the commander of tho Kerrolono, as represented to this government, if done by the order of Spain, or sanctioned by her, must be regarded as the assertion to oxercise a police over our commerce upou the ocean, which will be resisted at every hazard by the government of the United States." Acting upon this view of the case, a iloet was despatched by the American government to the Gulf or Mexico, and instructions wore issued to tbu commanding oldcers, directing them that if any such outrage as that committed tu the Eorroiono wore again perpetrated | "on a vessel rightfully bearing tho American flag, th y should promptly interfere, reliove the arrested American ship, prevent tho exerriso of tho asmmc 1 right of v si'ation or search, and repel the interference by force." These instructions were suiTcicut. Hie offonce was not repeated, and reparation was demanded, and wo believe exacted, from the S. anish government. This case of the El Dorado was not only important In Itself, as exhibiting the jealousy of tho federal government in respect of the inviolability of the neutral llag, hut formed the immediato precedent on which Mr. Bucha: naii s government acted In the subsequent atTair at Sage* la Grande iu 1*58, fresh in tho recollection of our readers, and which lot to the settlement of the question of visitation and search as bctwe >n this country and the Uuited States. That affair was debated at great length in Congress, and tho opiuion of that deliberative assembly on tho question involved was thus solemnly recorded on the 16 h of Juue, 1858:?"That American veasols on tho high seas in lime of peace, bearing the American Hag, remain under the jurisdiction of the country to which they beh ng, and therefore any visitation, molestation or detention of such vesse'e by force, or by the exhibition of force, on tho |>art of a foreign Power, is a derogation of the sovereignty of Ih; United Plates." This resolution was not B..llored to remain a dead letter. Instructions followed close upon It, addressed to the officers la command of the American force on the Cuban waters, and directing them In Imperative terms "to prutcct all voosals of tho I'ni'.oJ Ptates from tho oxereiso of the right of search on the high seas, in time of peace, by the armed vessels of any other Power. These instructions [observed Mr. Tooccy, Secretary to the Navy, in his otUclul report for 1SS8| have bca often ropt-alotl, tyud are now rcg.irdod us standing instructions to the navy of the United States wherever employed. Thoy put the deck of an Ameiican v.-ml on tho' same footing as A me rican wql, tho iuvasion of which, uuder foreign onihnritv ie to h? as strenuously resisted In one case as iu the other. They regard such invasion as in tho highest degree offensive to the United States, incompatible with their sovereignty and with the freedom of the seas, and to be met and resisted by the whole power of tho country."' Those ?r? the sentiments Of the Cabinet of Washington delivered just throe yeaia ago. It is impossible to concolvc any language more precise an>l intelligible, while it is in strict conformity with the pritK'Wtt Wf1 down bF Congress, founded ti|on a precedent, th-<t of the H fiorado, which app-onches more nearly to that of the Tront than any case which has yet been c tod. It is true those recorded opinions relate to the exercise of the right of search in time of j>eac;. Bet when tho Trent was boardad and searched, and four paaaeiigera forcibly withdrawn from her. the feieral government wore at peace with England, and they do not admit they were at war with the Confederates. It would almost re-m as if this case of the Et Dorado, wbicii mutt be known to Mr. ??ward aud other members of Mr. Lincoln's Cabinet, has been kept out of view, boca' ho it so exactly meets the cane of the Trent as to be poet lively unanswerable. We have been at the |?ins to bring ont tho '.acta because we feci that no opportunity should bo lost Iu showing what hus b.en Iho conduct of the Am*, rir.-iti government uud of C i agrees whcnct er the neutral rights of the United State* li ne been believed to be invadod or comproniiacd. For the maintenance of those rights successive American administrations liove been ready to go to war, and thry never had a rase iu which 1 the \ i la'lonnf th'se rights was so premeditated and so flagrant as that which form? the sabj.-i t now of a d lnand i for re drers on tho (art of Ui-> British government. If, therefore, the government are disposed t > adept | tho net of lite command r 0T the San .lacinto, they will do ! so in open disregard of that policy w hlch every American government rlnce the days of MadU'on, and the deliberative l>ody of tho stat s, have been the vociferous and unflinching advocates. Tlie Monroe Doctrine?Ita Itclation to Cniiutlu In an Kntillkli Point of View. [F.otn the 1 ?ily News, Fee. 28.] Few things have more puxxlcd those who, with only an , average acquaintance with American artabs, wish to I think well of the people of the United Suites, than their way of talking .about acquiring Canada. It is quite true ' ih it it is en established lmhit in America for politirnl ! ascirants to promise Canada to tho citlx-ns, and lor ths I Clli?.-ns to assume tliat the acquisition of Canada is ' on'y a question of timer. II ts quite true that since tho existing American revolution Psik form the American | Lec.oury of Htate has rapcniod his firmer assumption I i'jow hw nniy nno expojrency 01 annexing r.inada; nud i that public men who should be wise.- und kt.otu scr.ipu lniiK than Mr. Seward hi* over aliown himself to lie. have ' fallen into his way of talking on this matter. When a I leaner of the abolitionist* Iwo Mr. Won.loll J hlllips in dulg.-? In profligate talk of that kind, Knglishmen may wolkaak what it can mean, autl whether the American* imagine the Canadians re idy to make a part of the republic, nr whether they pro|?eic to aeize the country iltet, and propitiate the inhabitant* afterwards. U i salifiable un the in Ik of American orntni* ia, It Is intelligible whnkuew t'anada a .p artor of a century ago, and who have known the Unit d Stales aiuce. Am ricin audience* rnnrt new <pa|irr rendors are apt to linger upon bygone facts and Ideas; and, on (ho other hand, their orator* and jougn iliala are at once dialnclino l to drop Incitements which hare onco li en ctlbctlro, and very apt to believe what Is convenient at the niomunt. Thus wo ho ir something alx.nt annexing Canada every few weeks or nioutlis, though It sounds as strangely ton* a* it would to .nir Danish neighbor* to III 4 our mcmbors of Parliament, or l.ord Ku?seil,or our tunlmal lecturer* refer, ing to nn approaching time when Denmark would hive become Kng ish. llow could such a practice obtain a footing in Atnei l> a? Certainly not tbrotu-h the vanity of the republic, only or < hlelly. allowance Is to hu made for that complacency of which we hear ao much, and for the other nnpoct of the same complacency?the sincere pity which llie America; 8 fe-l for everybody who dott* not livo under their government. Tliry live far away rrom the old countries ol' the civilized world; they sot nothing in their own henusphero l<> compare with their own prosperity; they arc not,as a people, conacious of Uia defects of their own polity, nor aware of any politic*! advantages, or social superiority of any kind among nations whom they oppose thcinaelvtta to have ouUitr Ippsd aa fat ill uil way* aa In tha acquisition of wealth. They arc, In short, a young und su'Ce**rul nation: and they hive naturally taken lor gratilod ilwtt an oil fashioned colony, bit her to alow in IU growth, would be delighted to become a glorious group of Mates In their glorious Union, ltut this general notion snl unlvcraal eomplacetry would not have amic -d without bum definite fart* to auoport them. Meantime, the sccemlanry of the .Southern faction ha I IntrodccM a new pulley of miuexutlua for tbo support of slavery, I'oo wm stolen. Mo \ leo was humbled, fentrnl Awrira wax being got reedy, and Cuba attacked, with this object; and too Northern man, obi" daily antislavery men, made arratigeinouts for adding a frne HI il? to the Union tor every (lave Slato aided by the Smth. They would' cut up Ibclr new Northwest territory Into live Mates; and then thore was Canada, where lens of thousands of fagitlv e negroes wore living already-Canada must bo had for the best anti-slavery and really rcpuoiloeii reason* If the Monrue doelrine waa lo hold good for the South, It must Imld food for the North too. Hence men who Mould hat a been wiser and more scrupulous have talksd too often and too long about poaaeasing a country which doit not belong to theiu. All lhiarhowevar, would havo been mere moonahlns then, a* the talk shout Canada Is now, If Canada had bean I ban what it is now. Ws must remember how Istely It la that a thorough good understanding existed betwean the great liberal party la the ootytty and the mother I f aountry. Long after thara woo a great liberal parly there, and long after It had apparently obtained good government, It believed that it was out of favor at home, and that it waa cheated In practice of the beneflta which had been grated in theory. There waa perhapa no aeaeun of deeper despair in Canada than that in which the people of both racee found themaelvaa little the better lor the reformed methods of government, and regarded as disloyal, while the confidence of the home government was given to the minority who had kept their liberties out of their hands to the last minute. While such were the terms on which the colony and the mother country were living, it waa natural that the Americans should speculste on the disgust and disappointment of the great majority of the people of Canada. Their mistake has been iu not obaerving the effects of constitutions) government from the time of its having fair play, and of thecltisens being satisfied that their political lot was In their own hands. The commercial classes in Canada had other grievances when they felt the first effects of five trade, before ttie Navigation laws were repealed. In the Knglieli market they were beaten by tho Americans, weighted as they were with heavy freights, and in the American markets they were met by protective duties; so that they suffered at both ends of their line of traffic, while their neighbors were protltting by the new free trade from which they were excludod. This was a strung bribe to them to place themselves under the same sysiem which was apparently enriching the Americans. At the same time immigrants were pouring into the United States in preference to Canada, stiui dating jealousy on tho one hand and erouiath n on the other. At such ajuncture there were no doubt many Canadians disposed to listen to invitations to enter the republic, and things woro then said which are quoted now by Americans, and received by hearers who have not kept up with the march of events, and have never been told how the Canadians enjoy tliair virtual independence and self-government. The Reciprocity Treaty, however, turnod the fortunes of Canadian trade iong ago; and the te|>eal of tho Navigation laws fairly opened the European market to the colonists. They and tho mother country are on a good ( understanding. Their self governor nt lias bocn improving, while that of tho United States has been deteriorating through the evil influences of slavery: and only discontented sud ballled partisan leaders now revert to the old proposal of trying republican institutions, at the cost of merging the existence of Canada in that of a republic now suffering under u more formidable-adversity than Canada ever knew. No honest statesman, who is careful to understand what he speaks of, ran henceforth protend to bell'-vo that Canada Is disloyal to England, or envious of tho United States. Tho loss or primary liberties on the American side lias been even greater than tho gain of free government on the Canadian. Auv implication w-ith slavery, such as has always existed in the United Stales, and lias been much aggravated within twenty years, is thoroughly odious to the Canadians. It be long before tho p'r. gressive prosperity tf Iho republic tau bo restored, while present events Indicate a turn <M the tide of immigration into Canada. It is also far I rum agreeable to tho colonists to bo spikoii of as a prey which the republic can appropriate at pleasure, and they resent the assumption that (hoy mnst l?e willing to merge their political existence, as soon as invited, in a system aa yet vitiated by an evil which sjioils its working, and-which must break up the consitutiou, as well as the Union, before it can begot rid oi'. The Ki g'lsh race in Canada are as pleased as tho Americans tor work out their own political course. Wiieu American statesmen and American citizens perceive this, as they soon will, there will then be an end of the insults to Ki'gand, to Canada, aud to the good sense and upright principle of the American people which aspirants to the Presidentship and unscrupulous party orators still Venture to utter, for th > purpose ol gaining over the vanity of the young nation to their interest. Meantime, evcu such a slight review of tho wrongs and relie s of Canada within tho memory of our own generation may pervo to account for the straugo audacity and wioi gdoadedness with which a politician aud an agitator hero and there still undertakes to answer lor the will and the destinies < f the free and loyal people of Canada. INTERESTING FROM NEW MEXICO. Our Santa Fe Correspondence. Santa Fk, l)eo. 8,1861. Tie Military Spirit in New Mtiict?The Territorial Troopt in the Ft Id?Kit Carson an I If is Troops?Description <jj Kit Carson?Fort Craij >ind its Garrison?Martial Lau>? The Government Tax?Humors of Insurrection Ansonrilhe Natives, rfc., rfc. Tho military excitement in this country rival*, and indeed surpasses that felt In the States, for not only have we 'those fearful Texans1' tocombat, but nlpo the dreaded Navajocs and Ai>aches; aud not a day passes hut that some scalpless bodies are found by tho traveller lying hostile th* road, a drove of stock driven to the mount ain=, nv inm. vlll.oa i.r,rr>l ntl i.V^.I an.I ntnn.T ai-aA all ,U,n? by tha Indians. The other day, while riding d?wn to Fort Craig, wo stoppod to lunch beneath the shade of a tall cottoDwood, and while coiling up our lunate, preparatory ' to mounting again, ea.v iu tlio grass, wiluin a "rod of our dining place, tlio bloody liovt of a dead Mexican. New Mexico has furnished tour regiments of volunteers' and now has twelve hundred drafted militiamen alao in the field. Ilioro are a t.-w regulars in the Territory, sta tinned at forts Union and Craig, and in Albuquer.juo aud Santa Fe; but in all they do uot amount to eight hundred inen. Ibc Territory is divided into twomilitury districts. <tue, flrunt Albuquerque south, is c mmanded by Colonel Roberts, whoso headquarters are rt Fort Craig; the other, from Albuquerque north, is under the charge of Coionol U.ubv, whoso headquarters uro at SantaFe, nnd who has also the command of all the forces In the Territory. The roluntoers are ail enlisted as mounted men, but, owing to the great scarcity of horses, only two regiments aro equipped as such. Tlio contractors are now on th<sr way to tho Indian country aud the States to remody the deficiency. Old Jilt Carsop has command of arcgiinent of Mexican voluuloerl. and is stationed a! Alhiejuit"pie, ana has witn him a company of Indians, whoso servicos as scouts and suit* aro Invaluable. IU m iotic young ladles would bo quite disappointed with the appearance of the hero, could they see him. Ho is Iteiow the medium height,chunky, lias smulf grey twinkling eyes, with a heap of wrinkl s branching from their corners; a full,cnoooth-iiiaved, well turned face;a good fundi ait, irregularly placod tee:h, and light auburn hair tiiat reaches lo the collar of his coat, and is slightly silvered, covers his ears, is cut square ail round,aud had luruod und -r at tlio ends. His voire is soft, his words nil spoken very s! wly and deliberately; his laugh la a decided treble. Ins talk is full of '-thars" and "wbars," and his wliolo appearance reminds you of acme go>d substantial Method' t minister: nnd, like all persona who possess true meiu and g .nine, he is very qui;t, modest and unassuming. Fort Cruig has twenty-sixcompanies in and around It, 11 in oniy n "two company post," it is noc< ssuliy very much crowded. A few roiiipvme>> arc Stallone 1 at n little village eight rail<-a bv-luw. It ha* ' o-in sti c iglhenod in every conceivable manner.and outworks, composed of trenchu* and pond bag*, arc thrown uji in every a'vai!ab:e place. Tim enemy in c.nid to bo superior in the number ami calibre of his artillery, but in onor in liicu.ind is cotnmandi d by Colonel !t?y!or. T.iecjminan I at Fort Craig received orders to march brt'.ow and retake Kurt Kill more inoro than two wok* since, hut liavodolayedfur lack of tra..*|>urUt|oii. However, they are now dal'y expccteil to move, and II ijora lluu so an>l, and Hatch's battery, go with tb-tn. Santa Fa ami Albuquerque are oncer martial law, and the g ard bouses .ire wall stocked whb pe-soi s more or to s Unite '. The Mexicans, in the b- gaining, responded nobly to tbo call of livvernor Connolly, and heir hurcdltury and tiivotorate hale of the Tex?ne, wlmm th?y regard as (lie incarnation of all tbat is diabolic 'I, n< iilrtbutid to their alacrity; and a love of the I'u toll, T had bbWalngs and bon tits, In elevating thum from the crushbg and degrading power which the fow rich families tn the country evercisedover them, contributed also to their readiness. Hut there la now some dhsttUfacHcn ain -lig th-m fronting the course government la pursuing lowe d* thein In llio matter of their corn aud wheat, it sends out wagons with an escort of soldiers, offers tlio farmers three dollars a iaiioga (two besheis and a half) for their corn, and if they refuse to so.I it is taken by force. Ttu .- aiue course la pursued in obt lining wheat, 'three dollars a fanega is offered for wlreat, which ismuih in?low,a many Arno. leans say; it Is c nice lei that when the matter is referred to Colonel Cunby?who everybody rays is a per foci ?cn? tlernan, a noble nun ami soldier?be will allow them four and a half or Qve dollars for their wheat, and a dollar extra ror their corn. These prices may seem otuibilaal to Eastern farmers; but it must Is' considered that everything vegetable that Is produced lias to bo cotiauutly irrigated, and the land, except that iu the river bottom, la too |?or to grow ev?n thistles. Government, very reasonably, says that the people v.hum they are defending, and among wh >in they yearly disburse million* of motley, board their means, refuse to dispose of their corn, speculate upon their wants, and prey upon the necessities of those who protect and nourish them. The old moneyed families of the country board and gather all the specie, hiding It In their houses in earthen .iars, or bury it in their grounds. Government very recently assessed thorn for coruiin amounts, and they came lurward very r-dorcUntly and reap uded, m mo of the merchants in Santa Fo endorsing for the government, knowing very well thai the money when pild to tbo soldiers will llow back again into their coders Immediately. There have boon one or two rumors of an insurrection among the natives, mid one waa arrest id iu Socorro; but not much fear is felt. Every American frets hopeful, awl is resolved to put hie trust In Uod antl k ap tala |mwdor dry. Wo all watch ni fit nnxioualy for uowi, and hopo our papera will coma more punctually. John U. Davit, Ei-DI. C., Not (lone Saiith. Rwkviiiji, In.i., Dec. m, IHrtl. I Hurt going tho round* of tho u?w*pu|>er*. in the tolagraphic column, under the head of "Kraut Fortress iMonroe,'' tho following despatch:?1"Ji hn 0. l?nvl?, a member of tho fadoral Dongr-a* from tho Hevcnth diatrirt of Indiana, had arrived at Mopkinsvllle, on bin way to 1tl< hm >nii, hot for what pnrpoi o I* not Mated." I avail myself of tbia method of a'ating to tho public that 1 have not b<-ek. outside the limit* of thin county at any time during tho lant two room tie, nor out of t tiiia Statu since my return from Washington In Marcit I tat, except fin two o> cation* attending to my private affairs In Fata'ern Illinois. Nor bavo I, nl any time, contemplated visiting llnpkirmvllle, Kentucky; Htcbiwrd, Virginia, or any other place .-oulit ou liuniweaof anv kind or character whatever. I therefore pronounce tho above deaiiatch totally and maliciously false, and leara the public to Judge of Hi* mull van of lnrn or them who would, In tlmne like the pro sent, fabricate and put in tin tiiiMlon aucb a banc and w eked slander against on unofTi tiding private citizen. I reajiecirully request yon and tnch oilier paper* as have published the above despatch to publish this card. J OHM 0. DATS. Vailed States Circuit Court. ktmrt TO TUB haii. Jan. 11.?Judge Bhtpmaa announced tbis morning, and wished public not ice to be givnu Pi the bar,thai he would call tho calendar of jury eases on Tuesday morning next, the 14th Inst., for the purpose of lotting down cues foe trial, and that all esses not set down or postpone^ on that day would be put over the term. GENERAL HALLECK'S DIVISION. OUB CAIRO CORRESPONDENCE. Ctmo, III., Dm. M, last. Court Martial in Senion?A Flag of Tntoo Son! Down the Minimppi Htver?BUhop (General) PoUt Resume* Big Sacerdotal Robe*?R*fugto* from the South?The RebM Ram Manama* tit Return to Now Orleam An from Floating Battery Noar CMumbu*?General Pain* Or' dercd to Depart from Padueak to Bird'I Point, Me., Me. A Court Marti?l In now in session hare tor the trial of Colonel Michael Lawler, of the Kighleeath Illinois reg i munt. The charges against him are voluminous, and if the half are proved it ia probable be will have to give up hie command. The Colonel Is an old officer of Mexicaa war notoriety, is undoubtedly brave, aud aa true aa steel; but his groat fault, I suspect, is want of diaoi' pline. The principal charge against him ia for allowing bis regiptent to try and hang a murderer, while located at Mound City last summer, contrary to express orders from General McClernaad, the circumstances or which I wrote you at the time. A flag of truce went down tho river on Sunday as rar aa Lucas'Bend, Ave miles above Columbus, with eighteen of the Camp Jackson (St. Louis) prisoners. At Lucas' Bend we found Ilia rebel gunboat Grampus, who fired * hhot at ua, which had tba effect of rounding us to, when her officers cauie on board to know eur business. Our expedition was under the charge of Colonel Webster, who very coolly informed the epauletted gentry of the Grampus that his business was with General Polk, and that he should do It only with him or bis representative; so Mr. Grampus steamed away down to the rebel camp, whore elie remained for four mortal hours, leaving us to while eway the time as host we could. When the t returnod, I asked thu captain what had detained them so long, and received for an an.-wer?"You see tlio Bishop (General I mean) was preaching when I gut down there, and after service he had a communion ami dress parade, and I could not got back any sooner." Colonels Smith and Rigdon came up on tho rebel boat, and received tbe prisoners. Last night four gentlemen from the South r.amo Into camp at Bird's l'oiirt, ami were immediately sent over to headquarters. Two of them were British subjects und wero supplied with" passports from the British Consul a* New Orleans. Tho other two were Northern men who had bcon living South. General Grant examined them a while and showed thqra to go about their business; but about midnight they were all arrested as spies and kept under guard until morning, but after a further examination wero discharged. They requested not to bo caieChiscd in regard to tho rebel i'orco and fortifications down the river, as th<*y averred they had given their several affirmations to General Polk not to divulge anything they hod seen or know. But this 1 learn from a conversation with thom:?Commodore Ilollius' famous Manassas h s g"ne back to Now Orleans: an iron-plated floating battery mouutiug thirteen guns Is aucliored in the river, opposite Columbus, where there are also three formidable gunboats;.sixteen "torpedoes," or submarine batteries, have been sunk in tbe river ready to blow any federal fleet out of water; over one hundred heavy guns era mounted at] Columbus, and there are from thirty to sixty tho- sand troops there. This is confirmed by a rebel prisoner brought In to-day from near Belmout, and coinrldes with former reports. The last of the steam tenders to our gunboats arrived to-day from St. Louis,and the general impression is that they don't amount to any certain sum in whole numbers. They certainly loo* to be a stupendous waste of money; but time will tell. General Paine is ordered from Paducah to take command at Bird's Point. This looks like business again. OUR ST. LOUIS CORRESPONDENCE. St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 2, 1862. More Prisoner*?General Schnfield Active?Activity qf tkt Army?"The Situation"?Order for ReL-ase of General ih Kins', nj?His Arrest?*' Good Things" forth* Kicrisu of Pope's Essay?Attempt at Smuggling?General Sigel to Return?Fears of Ilit Resignation, <?c. A rumor was current in this city yosterday morning that General Schofield had captured a thousand rebels near the line of the North Missouri Railroad, and would shortly send his prize to St. Louis. Tbe story grew oat of the fact that General Schofleld went several days since to thu vicinity of tho late railway destruction, in pursuit of a rebel force a thousand strong. Last evening information reached headquarters that he had succeeded In capturing, near Martinsburg, fifty or more who ?d> engiged in the recent outrages, and among then were two notorious ringleaders?Colonel Jones and Colonel JeT Owens. Full particulars of the cap. ture have not ?ct reached the city; but it ts known that it was accomplished without loss on our side, the rebels having boon surprised and induoad to make e prompt surrender. Ttiey are to be sent here to undergo an examination, with rerorence to their eonnoctiou with the railroad destruction. Much anxiety ie shown, both among Union men and rebels, to know what wlU Ik* the fate of those convicted of the abovementioned crltno. Some time ago three moa, concerned la burning thf Big river bridge on the Iron Mountain Railroad, were arrested, tried and found guilt/. The ringleader of the party wna put under sentence of death, but before the time appointed for oxeeution ho died Of black measles, and thus thwarted the ends of Justice. Hie two compauions, though fouud to be gufity, were permitted, through somo lojal prestidigitation, to go "at Targf after taking the oath of allegiance. The adinlnis. teriug of the oath to traitors Is looked upon by tho intelligent loyalists as a groat farce, and especially ho when bridge-burners are allowed to parti, cipate in its benefits. We havo been waiting patiently for a few summary oxaraplos to bo made, and when tbeee arc given outrages will he checked. If tho fifty outlawe now In the bands of General SchoQcld are convicted, and inoel the fate promised them by General HaUuck, a new era will dawn upon us. It is quite certain that measures bare been taken by this dcimrtmout t? rid Missouri of tho proscnco of the rebels in any considerable bodies. General frlco's army now numbers somo ton tbous ind men, and is at SpringHeld, halting on Ita way to Arkansas. Iam revealing as p secret whsn I slate that tho cavalry force aent out from Rolla a few day s siiico U designed to oporate upon tht* rebel army, in conjunction with the force of infantry which marched recently from Sodalia and Tipton. Very aoon after lhis reaches New York you will bear of a battle with Guurral Trice, or bis rapid and precipitate rotrnal into Arkansas, probably the latter. as bis laxative highness i? too shrowd to be drawn into an engagement when he d< e.< not desire It. In wither event we h ill -co the practl-al workihg of th sound policy that lias controlled lbs Depot tment of Missouri since thi removal of Gwwral Fremont. lho papers of this morning announced that a peremptoi y order bad boon received for the release of General McKlnstry, who bas been for weeks confined lu tho .St. Lome Arsenal. Mis counsel, Judge Krum and Reverdr l?l Inlnllf ! ;,? ll.a M t?f .L. r> 1 a f ^v4fu""u. irivo ?VJi; i?uu mw iu.hioi wiur? uio itosi'lffdi^ who promised that if should be attended to, sad Um order in ptc^U'm ia probably iho result of their labor*. General Mr.k inatry'? arrssi was made on the luth or tf<v venibcr U*t,by order of (j^uoral McClelian, and. though hcbasainco boon In close cdbfluotnont, no offlcin1 inTormation liaa beon given hfm of the cause of baa arrest. The cnnuuitteu which was lately after Alexander rummtugs with a aharp stick waa instrumental in the a. real of McKlnatry, though they do not oviuca a wnlingr.e a to show their attention* to the latter 04 readily a a to the former Individual. Whatever may be the charges against (ieneral McKlnatry, it I* b it projxir that ho and the public should know Ih-.-m. Since the list of the prieouere aent Iter* by General I'opo has boon mudo out, their Irianda aro atlowod to send In various articles for their oornforl. The seceasluuSta of SI. Is>uls havo opened their hcarta to a wonderful extout, and tlsieo who claim thai General Ilalleck's orders (13 and 114) ere unconstitutional, and who contribute with grout reluctance for the support of Wis refugees from thu South wort, are fovud sending gifts in abundance to the traitors roomily caught In arms against the government. One secee toniat sent a wagon load of provisions and wines for tbe use of ths pi honors, and many families and associations of ladies eviacud their sympathies by donalluua of cake, jelllee and utimeroua del navies that are not supposed to he included In ordinary army rnt ions. Yesterday a roast turkey waa otlbred. neatly stuBbJ end ready for the I able. Its weight excitod suspicion, and on examination the imiocont remains of the ouce proud bird were found to contain select assortment of small dirk knives. Tlie maritime principle that contraband goods taint the ve?eei la which they are carried was applied in thU case, and Its application resulted In furuisbtng a good supper to a portion of the guard. A few loaves of broad presented on Tuesday last r ntalned a fine array of burglar's too la, which jios.ibly by accident had became mingled with tbe do: gb while it was in pr-perstIon for baking. These little attempts at contraband supply render the guard exceedingly vigilant,and It is not likely that any escape will be made, .so far the p; taonors have shown no aims of insubordination, but, on the contrary, are orderly Central c'lgcl Is exported to roach thin city to morrow, ho having been rellevs-l of bin command by tlenoral Curtin. llioro are rumors that ho will resign, and should lio do ?>,M" of the boat O dd and lino Dinners in lite Wool will lod- w hia > * ample. Ilia Mends complain that ha baa not lieoti properly treated in being superseded in the commnnd of the army at Rolla Just at the moment wbi n h<> wan about to tuake n derisive movement. Since this war romnvneed (lotirrai Nigel h ie shown as much mile.iry talent ?s any otther in I he army, ami It will be moat deeply t> be lamented If anything ahould occur to deprive tin of his services. Soma of our oIUcoim?perllo'ilerly those of the regular army?manifest. a deep seated hatred of Nigel end ell other tiermao eummnndcra baeed aolely on the ground that they ere at foreign birth The river et this point la full of floating tee, end nevi Ction above St. I/>ule has altnoat entirely ceeaod. Do,ate ive daily for Cairo and wag points OKNRRAL ORDRIta?NO. 1. HgaDtiraRieits Itar.titTNKVT nv Miasm at,? Sr. i<r>t'ts, Jsn 1,1*64. f 1. In carrying on war in a portion of country occupied or threatened to be altaeked by an enemy, whether within or without the territory of the United Statne, erlntee and military ofTencee are frequently committed, which no not triable or ptiniahahlo by courts martial and which art not within the jurisdiction at nay agisting

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