Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 1, 1867, Page 6

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 1, 1867 Page 6
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NEW YORK HERALD. IAJUW UOUUUK BK.WETT. FD1T0R AND PROPRIETOR ? rric| K. W. COENKK OF FIJI. TOM AM? MAS*AO FT8. VolUM TRIPLE SHEET, Mow York. FrMor. February 1, )?|r. TBS V1WI, EUROPE. By the Atlantic cable we Uave a news report dated jes terday, January SI. The newa from the Rest ii ef a more peaceful char acter. Prance and Russia were engaged in urging on the Porte government the necessity of making conces sions to the CbrUtians and granting reforms Prance ?peaks in the name of the other great Powers, and it is ?aid that a Christian Governor will be appointed tor Candle. Paris rumors say that the Greek mission to she United Slates ie part of a Russian Intrigue, oalch tatod So involve our government in the Rastorh question A United States fleet is looked for tu the Bosphoras. A another ef trading vessels bave passed through the Rues Canal. England demands the rendition of IL Lami vende from Praneo. It is said that the Raffcjr Cabinet must propose n reform bill to Parliament or endanger it? tenure of olBon John Bright made a speech in Roch dale, tn which ho endorsed Napoleon's reform measures. The yachtmen of Rocheile, France, are to present a gold modal to the owner of the yacht Henrietta; and he ts to have an audience with the Emperor Napoleon. Consols sold at 90 13-10 for money in London ye.-ter-' day. United States live-twenties were at Ti\ io Lon don. with n flat market. Five-twenties declined >? in r*n?. Tho Liverpool cotton market wr< tlat at the close, m iih middling uplands at lt^d. Provisions and produce steady. Breadstuff* easier. CONGRESS. In tho Senate yesterday n resolution was adopted calling upon the President for copies of any correspon dence that may hare taken place between the Depart ment of State and foreign Ministers on tbe subject of the policy of tbe administration towards the rebellious Stales. Resolutions were also adopted inquiring Into Hi a expediency of compensating loyal citizens of East "Tennessee for war*losses; calling for a report of fbe con dition of the Indians in Dakota Territory at the time of the outbreak in Minnesota, and calling for the opini >n of the Seorotary of the Treasury on the expediency of a reoiproeltr treaty with the Hawaiian islands. The reso lution colling upon the President for tbe letter upon prhich the Secretary of State predicated his letter of Inquiry to Mr. Motley, Mioistor at Vienna, was called up and elicited considerable discussion; but be fore a vote was reached npon it the morning hour expired. Tbe tariff lull then came up. Amendments making the duty on woollens <>t less value than $1 per pound forty-fl \-e cento per pouud aad thirlr Ave per cent ad valorem; authorizing any railroad company to import shair Iron for their road within two years, and putting animals imported exclusively for breeding purposes on the free list, were agreed to. An evening session was held, the euhiect again considered and the bill was gmaoed. la the-House the Senate bill supplementary to the act On prevent smuggling was passed. Tbe Consular and Diplomatic Appropriation bill was taken pp as tbe regu lar order, and the.amendmenls striking out an appropria tion for the missions to Portugal and Rome wore adopted and tho Mil was passed. A resolution declaring that the mi la depriving Uio President of the amnesty power, and regelating tho elective franchise in the Territories, hod become laws by the failure ot tbe President to take action open them, and directing the Secretary of 8tete to inform the House whether said bills had boon filed in has department, was adopted after considerable discus* ?leu Mr. Trowbridge, who offered the resolutions as a question ef privilege, said Hint if the bills hod not been fiicil with the Set rotary of i. ite it would be necessary to have?eagre.** d ?-terw when they took effect as laws. Tbe oOnaMvmtkm of V 'II to transfer the Indian Bureau to the W sf He uim at was then taken up, and the Ml was passed by *0 y- is to 63 uave. An amend ment to it, ofti-mu by U < hauler, extending to the Indiana tho aamo political rights extended to the negroes, waa rejootod. The bualneas on tbe Hpeaker'a table waa then diapoaad of, several Senate bills of minor import ance being passed, and amendments concurred in. The Hoose then went into Committee of the Whole, and soon after ad loomed. THE LEGISLATURE In me Hnnate yenterdav hills to pieoo all the public park* iidar th* control of the Contra! Park Ommle aionera, and to organtee a department of Public Work* ?a New York wen reported upon favorably. The apecial mnBlHU on the beet mean* for transportation of pas senger* through Nov York city made a report, in which they represent that underground railway* offer th* only apeedy remedy for the waste of the city In aeie and (dteep transportation, mile were introduced to incer porn a th* Metropolitan Underground Raiiway Company, and t* amend an act for the prevention of the rinderpest A hill was passed granting Charles Oil on and hi* asso ciates exclusive right for twenty year* to lay telegraph calilen from this Stat# to France. A select committee wae ordered to investigate the management of canal affairs. After some further unimportant business the Senate adjourned In lb* At-setubly bills for the further protection of female employes in New York and to amend the General Railroad law were ordered to a third reading. Bills to amend the General Manufactumg lew ; appropriating mosey Is pay the principal and iutereat of the canal debt, aad to increase th* salaries of the School Commts oeaer* war# pasted. Th* Assembly then adjourned. THE CITY Hie Board of Councilman met yesterday alleruoon and overruled th* action of the Presided, who appointed the Blending committee* for the year at a prevoua meet ing, by th* pawnee of a reeolation empowering the Board toappomt the committees Resolution* granting a stand of color* to the First brigade of cavalry; direct* tog the Clerk to furnish stationery and badge* for th# members, and appointing an Aamstant .Sergeant at Arms were adopted. The Board of Health met yesterday afternoon The ftepertntendent's report wae read and tb? pen hob of the owner of th* East Fifteenth street lime kite, to con l one his builncm In the city until May let next, was adopted. An interesting discussion conoernlng the '* ae rial evil" was bad between th# doctors The reports of th* Quarantine Commissioner* transmitted to th* Legislature, and ale* of th* Health Officer of the Port, *?? published In our column* this morning Th* com missioned urge the necessity of proper facilities for qnereaiiae In cat* th* cholera should oea* (M*>n seat summer, and th* Health Officer suggests the con tinuance of th* use of Grsvraend Bay as an anchorage far hospital ship*. The amendment* proposed by Sena tor loot to th* Metropolitan Health Mil are given in eat cotamoi also this morning. Th* Street Cleaning Commissioners mat yesterday aad adopted resolutions calling upon contractor Whiting for a report concerning his employ to, and also postponing th# monthly payments required for hi* purposes The Beard of Rxaiea did not meet yesterday a ft ere eon; hot Superintended Kennedy moved thai the President have the llooaaee of in persons, who bad violated their licenses, revoked. Their name* ere given in another coteme. There I* no immediate proepert of a rropening of navigation In Long Island Sound. Shipper* of outward freight are eertouelv Inconvenienced, and ihtNew Haven Railreed ban been overran with freight for a day et two. Masses of Mo ere still floating In the North end Kant r.vern, bnt (hey offer no obstacle to steamers oho Kane was sweated yesterday, charged with arwn tr suing Ore to a tenement house en Hecocd avenue and 'f irty-flmt street on the ISth of December, by the p ilng of whlob Are persona lost their lives, XiaCXLLAJfEOUB. ir NOW Orleans special despatches ny It wat reported irsna that Lady Basal a* and th* Archbishop of v> had left Vera Cru* on the 20th. Ortega was ?ceted of having an nnderatandlng with th* Itnpetal From Matamoros ft is stated that the details ef ?ga's arrwt. as furnished by General Ana, are doubt Ortega's friend* report that en bin arrant th# ion at Zaretecn* froee aad proaounood fa hi* fkror, bo immediately sent a messenger to 80HIII0, Monte t end Matamoros to Maura hie friend* of bl* com -is -1 iceeas. Colonel Bnrriot, who was charged with ufiltering iu* pTia*n?f to Juercj is (aid to be a *trop| ft W If* adherent of Ortega. Juarea had loft Durango, aad ?M moving toward* gu Ul* Ortega and kit gnard had arrived at the aaat of government, whom ho waa re col red by Juarez u a prisoner of war. Coloaol Mejta, of the liberal army, had arrived at Oalvaotoa with despatches from Juarez, which ho wao oonveylng to Washington. The French were practising atrlot neu trality, taking no sides in aktrmiahoo between the ; imperialists and liberals. Oar special telegrams by the Atlantic cable state that ! the tnall steamer fro* Rie Janeiro brings the news that the Kmperor of Brazil has resolved to increase his armies and carry on the war again* Paraguay with ra nt wed vigor. The French Mnt*or to Brasil had died in the city of Rio Janeiro. Our Panama correspondence to dated January S3. The difficulty between Mr. Barton, the American Minister, and the Colombian government was still unsettled. Olarte, the President of Panama, addresses e letter te the Secretary of the Interior, * Bogota, denying that he had ever attributed the agitation of independence on the Isthmus to the Yankees. A heavy deficit had been found to exist la the national treasury. The Panims Railroad Company will probably succeed la buying n re newal of their charter, when they will begin an exten sion of their road to tho islands The United States gun boat Saco had been despatched te Carthagena in (the service of the onaai surveyors about to begin opera tions on the Isthmus ef Barien. Owing do tho dins* of tho thief, Mr. Ravtdson, the whole pasty were to return to Hew York te reorganize. The yellow fever had entirely disappeared. Dr. Hipe, United States Cea sol at Sen Joai, Coats Rica, died en the 3th of January. The-Meodum government had contracted for Winter - oceanic railway aero* the oewntry. another attempt at revolution had boon msdo in Nicaragua, hot had been speedily quelled. The passengers for California who bad been delayed by the sailing of tho Moose Taylor had mobbed Captain Merry, the agent of the line, for allow ing the steamer to sail without them, and he very narrowly escaped being killed. The Costa Rlcan Con gress was to be convened on the 8th to approve the contract with New York capitalists for building an inter oueauio railway. Our Santiago (Chile) correspondence is dated January ? Foreign mediation between the allied republics and Spam had been definitely rejected, and a vigorous prose cut on of the war had been determined upon. Media tion on the part of the United States was looked forward to amiCAbly, and It was believed that a proposition for an adjustment from that quarter would be accepted. The Chilean government had received reliable informa tion that Spain was making every preparation for war, and would relnforca the naval division at Rio Janeiro. Valparaiso was rapidly becoming Impregnable, and tbe allied fleet was being made ready for an expedition of a character supposed to be offensive. The finance ques tion was becoming an ambarrasaing one, although specie remained plentiful, and bank notes were as acceptable as gold. The Mendor.a revolution had assumed alarm ing proportions, and tha revolutionary army, it was thought, would suoceed. In that case a general uprising would probably take place, and the war of the triple alliance against Paraguay would be Ingloriously ended. The lAcltawanna left on the 29th of December for the Sandwich Islands. Nothing had been beard from tbe United States steamer Ioocaater, which was reported foundered of Cape Morn. Tbe Tusoarora was at Yal- I paraiso. A letter from the President of the Central American Transit Company contradicts tbe report that the disss* wbioh broke out among tho United States troops on tho Nicaragua Transit route was cholera He writes that it was only tbe cholera morbus, and originated with the troops, either from previous sickness or from their own Indiscretion. The President farther states that at this dry eeaoon of the year an epidemic in Nioaragaa is al most an Impossibility, and that the ceuntry is in perfect health. An investigation was made by the authorities of Brownsville^ Texas, into the killing reoently of two citizens by a negro patrol. Lieutenant Faulkner, na officer of n colored regiment, was charged with aiding and abetting the negroes, and the Civil authorities at tempted te arrest him, but General Reynolds would not permit it. *i. Colonel Montgomery, who commanded the Missouri State militia at Lexiagtoa tone time ago, aad waa ar retted for violation of the civil rights bill, has been re I leased, tbe judge deeidlag thai the law did not apply te white citizen*. The captain, Ave seamen and n Kanaka woman be longing to the wrecked bark Maora Ken, arrived at Vic toria, Vancouver's Island, on the Mth of January. Tho vessel w as jw recked near Koekomo Soeud on the 2Stb of November, while en her way te the Sandwich Islands from Washington Territory, and all tho orew were cap tured by Indians aad redncod to slavery. Two of them escaped and arrived * Victoria on the 8th of January, sad the* hew arrivals are supposed to be the remaining portion of the crew. Our Special New* (raw Mevleo?1TrlaauHial PrtfrrM of J a area. Since tbe days of Haroua al Rasohid, the invincible " Commander of tbe Faithful/' the records of history furnish nothing in the ad ventures of caliphs, kings or chieftains more remarkable, or abounding more in romantic scenes and incidents, or more touohiogly ex pressing the public feeling, than is recorded in the letter of our special correspondent, pub lished in yesterday's Hmuu>, detailing the triumphal jouraey of President i us res from Chihuahua to Durango. Our last preceding letter from the same source, describing the grand ball givea by Jnares to the beantifiil dark-eyed neRoras and eefioritaa of Chihuahua, was like s chapter from the "Arabian Nights," and ws can only find in those pleasing Eastern stories anything to compare with tBe charms of romance with which the simple feci* of this historical journey are invested. The return of Napoleon the First from Elba was more glittering and imposing, but It lacked the rich oriental warmth and depth of lights and shades of these oharming receptions of Jnares by bis people on hia return from bis exile at El Paso. There was a grand display of Eastern magnificence and emotion in the welcome of Venice, as the bride of tbe Adriatic, to King Victor Emanuel; bnt there is something even more touching thaa this in the ingenious expedients of display by the poor but happy Mexicans in bsbalf of Jusrev. They expose in the boldest relief the glaring mockery of Maximilian's usurpation "by the will of the people," and sannot fell to convince Napoleon the Third that his grand Mexican idea was attempted under a total mis conception of the Mexican character. Tbe Mexicans of the dominant Spanish race may still be traced in their faces, cbaraoter, bahits, costumes, customs and manners to that splendid race of Saracens, or Moors, which for seven hundred years illuminated southern Spain and held it against all comers. The ruins of the Alhambra and Alcazar still attest tb? civilisation and refinement of that people, and in their long contact, even 4n their wars, with the Gothic or Northern Spaniards, tbe two races were so assimilated that it is easy to explain tbe revival in Mexioo new of pageants and festivals wbioh carry ns back to tbeir sources in Asia and the Arabian Nights. Here, too, we have an explanation of the oriental enthusiasm of these welcomes to Juarez from point to point. He left Chlbushua amid the tears, embraces and prayers of the whole population, turning out to bid bim Godspeed. He travelled with only a small escort, and at hacienda, village and city he was reoeived as a deliverer.* At San Pablo, where the citi zen!!, from the ravages of war, bad neither flowers nor evergreens, the women made tri umphal arches of their shawls and mantillas. And so, from point to point, welcomed by a universal meeting of the population, he pur sued his journey, from day to day a continuous jubilee, nntil he reached the line city of Du range. Here the liberal army under General Araada wu drawn up In the suburbs and Minted the President as he passed. Fire works, musketry and artillery thundered their welcome ; the streets were crowded, the win dows were filled with swimming black eyes, the housetops were covered with boys and girls?even the top of the oathedral was lined with them?to see the government of the re public pass. Flags, shawls, haadkero hiefs and everything that would make a show was brought out, and Dnrango was all eyes to see the President. From these manifestations we can under stand the prevailing sentiment of the Mexican people. Juarea is welcomed as their deliverer because he comes m the visible embodiment of the republic. They hail him m the herald proclaiming the departure of the foreign usurper; they embrace him as the restorer of Mexico to the Mexicans. They know by his < coming that their country is again their owjx, and that the days of the foreigner as their mas ter are numbered. And as it has been from Chihuahua to Derange so we doubt not will be the progress of Juarea from Dnrango to Mexico. His army increases as he advanoes; the whole people rise sit-bis approach to strengthen bias. Thus it i^ altogether proba ble that by thp time he shall oome within striking distance of Mlramen and his army of the ultra Church party Miramon will be com pelled to foil back, and perhaps without a bat tle oonstraiued to make such terms of peace with the republic as Juarez may choose to grant him. The withdrawal of the French army, in fact, (is the end of the empire and its appendages, and with anything like ordinary sagacity we infer Juarez may readily absorb all the rival liberal chiefs and factions in his eause, as the first champion of the republic, recognized, too, by the Mexican masses and by the United States as the rightful head of the legitimate government of the Mexican nation. We saw something of the prevailing senti ment of the people in regard to President Johnson's policy of restoration on the occasion of his "progross"?the pilgrim's progress? from Washington to Chicago last September; but in this Mexican journey of Juarez so enthu siastic and universal are the welcomes accorded him touching his plan of restoration that we begin to think it would be wise for Maximilian, Miramon, Marques and company to leave with the French army. Lastly, we would invite the special attention of Mr. Seward to the pleasing information embodied in this Dnrango letter of our correspondent accompanying President Juarez; and likewise the attention of Minister Campbell and General Sherman, who had their wild goose chase to Vera Cruz for nothing. If they had only put themselves under the wing of the Hjmau> commissioner he could have taken them at once to the headquarters of the republio, and thus they might have shared with him and General Wallace in all the honors, festivals, delights and beauties of these won derful receptions of Juarez by the Mexicaa peo ple, rejoicing in their liberation from a foreign yoke. Surely mob a people, so faithfal to the, cause of liberty, so full of the instincts of generosity, and so amiable and charming in their hospitalities, need only a tittle assistance and encouragement to become a united, peace ful and prosperous nation. The Heclel Ktil-lu t'aww w4 Raefdi, Manj well-mean ing people anion# hr are constantly at work deviling mean* whereby muoh misery and the sins resulting therefrom may be cured. The Legislature of the State has under consideration a bill intended to pro vide a remedy for what is called the great so oial evil, and pious persons go about the streets at night distributing traots and good advioe and offering more substantial assistance, in the hope of rescuing some of the victims of poverty from the end they must too surely reach. Suoh good sots are worthy of all praise, but it is like euriag a malignant malady hy simply telling the patient he ought not to be ilL The causes of our sooial evil, and tbey are many, are not touched. To provide a comfortable home is a good and sufficient remedy for those who need one; but no legislature nor association of be nevolent persons, be they ever so well dis posed, can provide homes tor more than a small traction of the class which they design to benefit. Healthy tenement bouses are much to be desired, but they contain no cure tor the evil complained of. The true cause of this thing is poverty, which in its turn has many causes. Everything wo consume is at present enormously dear. We appeal to every housekeeper to bear us out in the statement that house rent, food and clothing have tripled ia price since the year 1860. Wages have not kept pace with this fearful advance in the price of all the neces saries of life. In some instances there has been no increase whatever. IIow much must the poor sewing girl pay for a bare toon now, in comparison with what she paid a few years since? And then, let ?? ask, how much have her wages increased ? Every trsde in Now York and tbronghout the country protects it self by associations and by periodical strikes fbr higher wages. Who ever heard ot sewing girls oa a strike ? It is the only business which cannot protect itself, and yet none need it more. The poor girls cannot afford te strike; they cannot afford enough from their wretched earnings to create a fund for mntual assistance, es the members of every other trade can. To stop work with them is to starve; to fisll ill Is to lose work, food and home; to lose health is to die. Many who turn away their eyes from their "erring sistere," as tbey are hypocritically termed, little think of the cause* which drive them out into the streets in the snow and biting blasts of winter te got something at any sacrifice where

with to sustain dear life. Now, let the wise and benevolent of the nation apply themselves to the removal of the true cause of this poverty, and not remain satis fied with efforts at alleviation, that count but aa a cupful of water taken from the Hudson. The true cause la the financial condition of tho country, by which the high price of everything is kept up. Let them contrive te bring about a return to specie currency, thna enabling the producer, the manufacturer and the retailer to reduce the prices on their goods. It is not three days sines the proprietors of n certain class of bouses in this city held a meeting with a view to devising measures "to protect their interests." The meeting was noticed in some of the daily papers. The very beet plan such persona could devias would be to work for a farther advance In gold and the maintenance of prooent high rates fbr bouse rente, clothing and fbod, and low rates of wages to sewing girls While these ceuses octet the business the? wet together to "protect" wiil safely prosper, in spite of nil the preachers, missionaries, tract and Bible societies in Christendom; in spite of the Legislature, with their Improved tenement bouses, and in spite of funds of millions of dollars for the building of "homes for the friendless." Removal ef the Mldalffht JaSerce. In 1800 the leaders of the federalist party, even after having won over their opponents at tbe ballot box a victory which enabled them to retain possession of every branch of the government, felt, nevertheless, the need of what they styled " a new engine of govern- 1 ment" But their theories differed as to what this should be. Amgs believed in a standing army, that old-feshioned " engine of govern ment," fbr patting down opposition. Hamilton, at least, objected to any present redaction of the regular army. Wolcott, however, had said " it is impossible in this country to render an army an engine of government," and be relied, therefore, upon a very decided extension of the judicial establishment. President Adams warmly recommended this latter measure. Ac cordingly.,in (he Siith Congress, it was carried.. Although-shorn of the magnificent proportions " which its Kramers had originally planned for ft, enongh remained te make It, in their own words, " an engine of government" and " a source of salutary patronage." Moderate republicans, indeed, concurred with federalists in recognizing the principle and the necessity of a reorganization of the judiciary. But the controlling motive of the federalist leaders, as avowed in their private correspondence, was obvious. Theirs was a purely party design. Totally defeated as they had at length been before the people, they "employed tbe last moments of their power in establishing a par tisan " engine of government" which was out of the reach of elective remedies and which would enable them through the lives of one set of judges, at least, to embarrass, retard and often defeat, not merely special measures of the other and elective branches of the government, but the whole system of constitutional exposition which the American people had, as an inde pendent and self-governing nation, delibe rately adopted. The act "for tbe more con venient organization of the courts of the United States" became a law on tbe 13th of February, 1801. President Adams seized the opportunity of nominating tbe new judges, selecting fede ralists, of course, although be knew that within j a few days his own term of office would expire and that his successor would be a republican. He had hardly time to consider and decide upon the claims of the partisans with whom he had determined-to fill tbe offices. His last nominations of judges were sent into tbe Senate as late as nine o'clock at night on tbe 3d of March, and with the assent of the Senate, which did not adjourn until a much later hour, the commissions were made out and signed. Tbe bench thus acquired the popular designa tion of "John Adams' midnight judges." A tremendous clamor was immediately raised. Tbe Judiciary act, and especially tbe appointments made under It, were held up to Epular odium as unworthy manoeuvres, "hav : no other object except to plunder the Treasury for the benefit of tbe federal leaden, ousted by the public voice from tbe ooatrol of the other departments of the government." Several of the State Legislatures instructed their Senators and Representatives in Congress to urge the immediate repeal of the act Mr. Jefferson had early opposed what be stigma tised as "a fraudulent use of the constitution" by which tbe federalists "have multiplied use less jndges merely to strengthen their phalanx." < He wrote, "they have retired Into the judiciary as a stronghold. There the remains of federalism are to be preserved and fed from the Treasury, and from that battery all the works of repub licanism are to be beaten down and erased." J On becoming President he called speftal atten tion iu his inaugural to the judiciary system, "sod especially that portion of it recently erected." The question of repealing the Ju diciary act soon came up in Congress. A motion by the Hon. John Breckinridge, of Kentucky, in the Senate, on the 6th of January, 1802, was the signal tor an earnest and protracted debate, one of the first snd fiercest party struggles in Congress under President Jefferson's administration. The bill finally passed the Senate, sixteen to fifteen, sod tbe House fifty-nine to thirty-tfro. In tbe House on this occasion the Hon. William B. Giles, ol Virginia, made a* memorable onslaught upon tbe whole judiciary system, and upon the entire policy of the late administration. Tbe republicans in both Senate and House listened to no arguments urged by their opponents, not even to the I plausible one " that whether tbe act itself was trood or bad, as tbe new judges bad been ap pointed tor life, that appointment amounted in | s'lbuance to a contract on the part of tbe public, which, consistently with the spirit of the | constitution, could not be set aside." Tlicy persisted in spurning tbe idea that a party trick intended to contravene the deliberately ex [ pressed will of the people " could be covered [ "P by any forms which rendered it inviolable; I I hat a constitution could be overthrown under : the pretenoe of guarding tbe If tter of its Invi olabillly." And tbey passed tbe bill, baffling the ? party trick'' and repealingjthe Judiciary act. ? Jefferson himself. even in objecting to that act aa "a fraudulent use of the con^lilntion," had alluded to the latter aa baring "made fudges irremovable," and be seems to bare been eery doubtful, at least previous to the meeting of Congreaa, "whether the judges had not a freehold in their offices of which they conld aot be constitutionally deprived." At first he lamented the passage of the bill repeal ing the Judiciary act, from the "difficulty of nndoisg what was done," where appointments, "in the nature of freehold," had been con ferred. But be "joined with the republicans generally in the ultimate conclusion that the 'difficulty' was not mads insuperable by the constitution; and that, as much as mere ap parent encroachments on rested rights are to be avoided, and especially as mush aa nil respectable men should shun making judicial establishments the creatures of partisan legis lation, kill the repeal of this peculiarly obnox ious sot wm imperatively called for by the. most important publie interests." Bowing, therefore, to the will of the sovereign people, aa declwed by their representatives in Oon greas, tin President did not hesitate te sign the bill, and "John Adams' midnight judges" were removed. Randall, the biographer of Jefferson, re marks, in commenting upon the bill on which the removal of these* judges depended :?"The idea that a judicial tenure Is so inviolable that, if ones created, it arrests the power of an inde pendent nation to in anywise alter or amend (unless by addition) one of the great departr mente of its civil organization, belongs to the legal superstition* of a past age?though con siderate men will ever approach changes involving the violation of such tenures with a caution and dread wbioh no partisan motives, nothing short of permanent and paramount i considerations of pnblie expediency," can pos sibly overcome." Bat where such "perma nent and paramount considerations" exist they must prevail over all "legal superstitions of a past sge," and the removal of the midnight judges must stand for a precedent. iMHackuHl QiMttM la (he Heath, The question of the impeachment of Presi dent Johnson is creating a good deal of inter est in the Southern States. It has become the subject of diacnssioa among the people, and, naturally enough, finds s place In the editorial oolumns of the newspapers. There is evidently a diversity of ?pinion as to the result of the impeachment agitation in Ooagress. Some be lieve that it is wholly Impracticable; others incline to the opinion that the hostility of Congress to the Executive will be carried out to the bitter end. Looking over our South ern exchanges wo get at this variety of opinion and are, in a measure, able lo make a fair de duction therefrom. For example, we read from the columns of a Missijwippl paper, pub lished in Jackaon, that "it is surprising with what mock dignity the conspirators at Wash ington are playing their little gamo of 'bluff.' As we have heretofore stated, we have no fears of 'impeachment' or 'Territorial governments.' The black republican extremists are all cowards, and they fear tho storm that wonld inevitably follow such proceedings. If au im poaohment were ordered it wonld not bo merely the trial of Andrew Johnson, but also the arraignment of a party which represents a very great and exceedingly active minoHty (a large majority, counting the Southern in) of the American people." In a Mobile journal we find expressed such opinions as these:?"The indications are that tho radicals will not stop short, of the long threatened impeachment, and this is the more ominous of mischief from the understanding prevailing among the leading men of that party, that the impeachment was not to be pressed unless there was a probability, amount ing almost to a certainty, of its being success ful. Tho leading radical papers have hereto fore been opposed to it, especially the New York Times; but in its late issues we observe a ahakiness in the attitude of that fluctuating, vacillating organ, which indicates that it is probably preparing to change its ground and give way to the prefiure of party opinion." Turning to the Richmond Whig, treating on the same question?our political situation?we read suoh language as this :?"Our own sad conviction is that civil liberty is at an end, perhaps forever, on this continent. It had here the fairest field it ever bed or ever can have, unless some new world be again discovered. Lasting only eighty years, it has utterly and wholly failed. The extent oT 'on!* hopes is that in the conflicts to arise foy an imperial dynasty the wars may be confined to the nar rowest possible limits and the shortest time, and the blood that is shed be that only of the most guilty." , These extracts are probably sufficient to show the bent of the public mind in the South upon the subject of impeachment It is evi dently all at sea and does not comprehend the fact which stands out plain and square on the record that, whether expedient or not, the im peachment of the President in constitutional, and that the responsibility of the policy of the movement rests with the Congress which in augurates jt, and which either the present or the new body of representatives has the power to carry through. In the letter of one of onr correspondents who has travelled through the South lately, and published yesterday in our ? news columns, we till upon the views expressed in Memphis, Tennessee, by a persistently loyal Mississippi gentleman, to the effect that so serious convulsion was anticipated in the Southern States from the impeachment of tbs President; certainly no convulsion in which the South would participate ; that the South wants peace more than anything else; that it has no faith in the party that (aleified its pro mises of oo-operation and assistance made be fore the war, and that, moreover, the South had ] no strong leeling of personal attachment lo Mr. Johnson, whose course on the question of reconstruction they do not believe bee bene fited their prospects. Probably the opinions of the Southern people upon the impeachment question may he founded on the facts com pressed into this MissLsuippi gentleman's nut shell, that the Southern States do not recognize their host friend in Andrew Johnson in the matter of their speedy restoftilinn to proa perity. KMllrsaS J?k~An*lk*r Ktllk ktrmit AiMMament. Among the bills introduced in tbe Legisla ture io, we son, one for the laying down of a railroad track In tbe Fifth avenue. The pur pone of tbis cannot bo mistaken. It in aimpi.v another attempt at plunder like that of'tho plan for widening the causeway in the name street The people of New York will newer consent to aaeh a measure. The sentiment that defeated various similar scheme* for tbe destruction of Broadway would Had in regard to it still louder snri morn indignant ex* prenaion. The Fifth avenue id one of the local features of which our cili/en* are most proud, and as tbe main entrance to the Park it is essential that it should be kept undefaced and free from unnecessary obstructions. The pro moters of the scheme know this and also know kow hopeless it would be to attempt to vanquish the opposition that wonld be made to its passage. Rut ibey liavo no serious idea of pusbihg ft to this point. Tbe proposition is a mere threat for the extortion of money. The success of tbe "Hoop'* scheme has em boldened the "strikers" to. make this freak attempt on the purses of the residents of the avenue. There are people so timid and indo lent that they are ready at tbe first threat of anything hostile to their interests to nnter into a compromise or bny off tbelr persecutors. We hope that in tbe present case nothing of the kind will be attempted. The soheme la so unmistakably one of wholesale plander that there will be so difficulty fa getting ear citk sens W^oin in denouncing aud defvptitu it* k *"1? - ?, ok... ',r'? iUiifim, The x exildd Bourbon family van fron first t? Ust v** 80aroe of *"?* diaqaletude to the First Napo 1?0B' Th? ?wr? and arbitrary measures whit ,J he adopted afainat them, in cluding the tola '"M?oded murder of the Duo d'Enghlen, never .. '"rely relieved him of bin terrors. His successv?nd namesake has hitherto been more fbr?.unat<*- From onsoa which it would not be dtih'cult explain the Bourbon fkmily, during tk>lr ,a?* term of exile, have more quietly oubn^'tted to their ihte. Evidence, however, has net heen want ing to show that they have never all hope of a return to power, and thai tuN* silence and apparent oontentment they tier* been but patiently " biding their time." Had such evidence been wanting it would oertainly have been supplied by the letter which wo printed yesterday from the pen of the n?* de Chambord. The Count de Chambord, ft is well known. Is the head and representative of the legitimtot or elder branch of the Bourbon fkmily, ae the Count de Paris is of the younger or Osloami branch. The name and position of the Oeunt entitle bis letter to consideration. QMewiUp addressed to a Mend, it is difficult to regasd ft in any other light than that of a political manifesto Intended for the pub lie eye. The Count has evidently beeu making observations on the political heavens and endeavoring, to Ate extent of his ability, to make himself master of the signs of the times. Alarmed because of existing evils, and convinced that greater, though not "irrepar able" evils are impending?evils all of which are traceable to the mode in whioh the affairs of Prance are at present managed, and to bo removed only by the restoration of a heredi tary monarchy in bis family and person?the Count, many will think by this manifesto, makes a bid for power. His letter is certain to excite interest in the courts aud cabinets of Europe ; nor, we may rest assured, will it fail to call forth the strictures of the press. Of the lotler itself it is impossible to speak in terms of approbation. It is totally destitute of any thing that might indicate superior ability. It is at best but a miserable wail over a dead and irretrievable past. The miseries and grievances which the Count deplores exist chiefly in Ms own imagination. The recent wars in Germany and Italy have, in the Count's estimation, been disastrous disastrous especially to Franco. "No country," he says, "haa felt more keenly than ours the painful rebound of all those sudden blows." In the unification of Italy and the approach towards unification made by Germany the Count sees only cause for sorrow. "Two extensive State* one of whieh has command of an incontestable military force, have been formed at our doors;" and ?the preponderating Influence of France has been profoundly shaken." The affairs of the Holy See are not forgotten by the Count. His "thoughts revert with melancholy to Rome." It b not merely the temporal author* ity of the Pope that b in danger. It b re ligion itself. The spirit that eeeks to overthrow the temporal power, will, if unchecked, soon " demand logically that the idea of God shall be made to disappear from our laws and out tribunals." The ftiture of the Holy Father b painted by the Count in colors gloomy cnaugb' He has no choice but to " leave Rome and wunder without place of refuge, having nowhere to lay bb bead." We mention for the Count's special benefit that we know of at least one home where the Holy Father will find a hourly welcome. This unhappy state of thi?g? ?| Rome would not have been, bat for the "Ideas that now prevail in the government of Franoe." The Mexican failure of oourae is duly alluded to and traced to the same cause. Count de Chambord closes hb letter by sketching the kind of government which he wishes to see established in Franoe and as suring hb (Head that if Providence should one day call on him to serve her he b to real assured he will save her or perish. We do ool ?ay that in the ooming complications of Buropo a Bourbon may not yet be called to preside over the destinies or France. But we do any that if Count de Chambord be the Bourbon eo honored ft will not surprise the world it he share the fhte of the last ruler of hb boos* True to the instincts of hb race he reftisee Is be taught by the Ifesons of adversity. Napo leon has not much to fear from such a rival, nor has France cause to regret the absenoe from her throne and from her territory of the thief of the anoieat line of her prinoea. Tl? Park?Annual Repart of (ha CcaaW iImiw? Tie annual report of the Park Commission ers, t brief synopsis of which we publish to day, contains much interesting matter. Tha operatons at the Park during the past year hare nit been extensive, but much has never theless won done to increase its attractions and enhaice its beauty. There are some strik ing facts let forth in the present report which tend to slow the great public benefit of suok an undertaking. The total eost of the Park np to this time, deluding the cost of land and im provements, ias been ten million dollars, while the inchased valuation of property is the three snrromding wards, consequent upon the constructionof the Park, is nearly fifty four millions. To increased tax secured by this important ria in tbs value of adjaeeni property is nearly fonble the amount required to pay the interes on the gross coat of the Park and its improv meats. The moral effect of such a grand and veil conducted centre foi recreation is illuslraed by the fact that Um arrests made in tbe Pirk daring the past year for disorderly coodne only averaged one in every seventy-five tbnsnnd visitors. Tbs police force in tbe Pak Is, at the same time, strong and efficient, ant no offences can well be committed wltbin itsprecincta with impu nity. From the many itprovements now in course of perfection it it certain that before many years have passed th Park will have no equal in any Ruropsan city Ths WmiHAWXXN FKBKT.-Ths Grand Jury of Hudson county, New Jersb. have presented the Weshawken ferry m a pubic nulsaace. Tbe abases allowed on the boots or boat, of this company have long been tatter of com plaint on tbe part of all respetabl* persona who are compelled to nse he liae. Tha legislative oommituw having 1 charge tha subject of the New York fortes will da wall to look after this Weehawfeo company ' and to take such Action as the on* mar1 to demand