Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 7, 1867, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 7, 1867 Page 4
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TtiL EASTERN QfESTlUN. ATTITUDE OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS. Relations to Turkey of Russia, Eng land, France, Greece, Italy, epain and Austria* Ac. Ac. 40. The Cretan revolt is partly inspired by the aspirations for unit? of the lireek nationality; but it is mainly due to the repugnance for Mahometan rale which pervades the whole Christian population of the Turkish empire. Paradoxical as it seems, It is the so-called Christian Pow ers of Europe which bare for the peet thirty yeers pre vented the release of Christians from ths tyranny of the Mussulman, lor (ear of disturbing ths "balance of power." A clear understanding or the causes and prog ress or the present revolution cannot be had, therefore, without reierence to what is called TBS BASTS UK QUESTION. Ail the other Urge nations of Europe are Jealous of the power of Russia. Already numbering nearly seventy millions of people, and covering a territory larger than all the rest of 'Europe, they do not deem it prudent to permit the Muscovite empire to absorb any more territory in Europe. Russia, on tbs other hand, with all her vast area, feels ths need of seaports, and oan And them to her purpose nowhere else than in the Medltortaaenn. That she must eventually attain this aim seems certain, and hence the anxiety with which the other European Powers watch every development that tends to hasten the dreaded ovent France, too, desires to build up her commerce In the Mediterranean, and through the Sues Canal to control the trade of India. England demurs to 8banng her monopoly in that quarter with either o! these powerful competitors. Especially does Groat J hi tain dread being excluded from the route through Egypt by the changes of government in that region, which breaking up the Turkish empire may bring about. France is constantly intriguing to gel the advantage in this matter. The London Time* recently declared that as to the fate of Turkey, England cared but little, but that her interests in Egypt were such as to justify the expenditure of every man and every dollar sha could raise. This is apparent when we consider that her bold ou India itself would be in danger were sbe confined to the circuitous communication around the Cape of Good Hope. It Is France and Russia therefore which are chiefly concerned with the disposition of Turkey in Curope, when Egypt la thrown out of consideration. The gravi tation toward Russia of the Christian population of that region is stronger from the fact that they belong to the Greek Church. Besides, they outnumber the Mahom etan population by more than two to one. One of the objects of French diplomacy, therefore, is to propa gandise Roman Catholicism among them, and tbns re move the pretext by which Russia claims a natural and special protectorate over them. Another scheme is to extend the dominion of Greece over the whole of Tur koy in Europe, so that the Russian will still be excluded and the "balance of power" preserved. Bat there is a fixed resolve that, however auoh the Christian may suffer, Turkey shall not pass under the rale of the Czar. The attempt which Russia made to relieve them in 1844 was resisted by England and Franoe at Immense cost. Franoe expended 2,800,000,000 francs and 90,000 Uvea la consideration of these sacrifices the Turkish govern ment stipulated, in the treaty of 1844, that the groat Powers should have the right to interfere for the protec tion of his Christian subjects from oppression. rsceuAK rblatiob or orsts to tn morse-rum rows ma The people of Candle have peculiar claims upon the protecting Powers. Their injuries from them date book to the revolution of 1821-4. In that contest the Cretans had succeeded in rescuing their island from the Turk, with the exception of the fortified towns of Candia, Re tt mo and Khan la; and these could not have held out after the destruction at the Turkish feet at Navarino. It was against the protest of their representatives at Constantinople that these "protecting Powers" agreed at the London conferences to deliver Candle over to tne Viceroy of Egypt in con slderation for the. destruction of his fleet at Nnvarino. They promised, however, in tbe protocols of February 10 sad August 8, 1880, "at least, paternal government and assigned rights." The nowfloaUon of April 8, 1830, addressed to tbe Hnblimt Porte by the representatives of Franoe. England and Russia named the conditions on which the islands of Samoa and Candta were reeubjected to Ottoman rale. They set only assured the people against punish ment for their rebellion, bet guaranteed them against arbitrary end oppressive eels; instead of this, massacres end other outrages were permitted. In 1840, when the war between Mehemet All and the Sultan gave tbe Cretans hope of deliverance, they were transferred by the protecting Powers from bad to worse, being thrown again under tbe Intolerable rale of tbe Turk, lbeir revolt ta 1841 mot with no countenanoo from their "protectors." TBI TSSATtSB 00 1854 AND 1858. When, is 1854, then* "Christian" natiooi combined ntWas to save tb? Mahometan empire, It became a mat er of polk)/ to obtain frem the Sultan treat/ stipulations promising amelioration of the condition of hie Christian subjects. This was necessary in order to remove the pretest upon which Russia waged the war. It waa agreed by Turkey in the treaty of March 12, 1854, that the Christian population should have equality before the law, eligibility to all employments, and the- right to testify'in the courts. It was promised that mixed tribu nal ahould be established, that the tax laws should be changed, and that the kharatch (life ransom) should be abolished. Of all these promisee the Turkish govern ment kept only one?they abolished the kkttrwlch. At the end of the war, however, the Sublime Porte came forward voluntarily with a now batch of promises. On the 18th of February, 1850, waa promulgated what ta called THE HAITI BHSMV. OS S A TTT - H I'M A TITL This was a solemn decree, which was regarded by the Christians as their charter of rights. It gave them all tbs privileges -t.puiated for in the treaty of 1864. It promised, further, a reorganisation of the finances, the annual publication of a budget of receipts and expendi tures, the establishment of civil and criminal codes, tbe granting to all foreigner* of right to hold property, and the opeoiog up of linos and *ayap?f communication. All this has baea mere words. Foreigners have sought In vain charters for railroads and the privilege or develop ing the resources of the Turkish empire Tbe Mussul man is afraid of civilisation and prefers, like Gisot Grim, to sit in bis cave and gnnw his Christians at his leisure. thu srrcATKW is 1884. Borh, then, Is the situation In which the Christian populations of Turkey found themselves in 1888. They were left practically at tha mercy of a race of bigoted barbarians, who looked upon them as dogs and treated them as such, and who* ? religion taught ibem that all the promises made to unbelievers war* veld of binding foroe. The " protect ng Powers" were Jealous of each otbar, afraid of Rusaia and tearful of bringing about another great-war, tbe results of which upon their self ish interests they dared not omitemplate. Those facts will enlighten na In noting th* several attitudes and acts of those Powers ? during ths course of ths revolution thus far and in the future. womu. Of all U>e European Powers Russia manifests ths least anxiety. A St. IWtersburg journal of September 26 cooly aaya that "tha Eastern question la coming;" but that Rusaia desires no territory, only that th* Christian peo ple ahould rule themselves; and that. If ths Western Powers will help them achieve this remit. Russia will not oppose. Russia will rant content ff those popula tions are content, but will help them If they call upon h#r to do oo. Nevertheless all eyan an turned upon the Cssr, end his actions an Jaalously watched. Then have boon fre quent statements about ths movement# of his troops, and especially about tbe increase of his nsval armament In lbs Black 8ea. It is alleged that b* la building n fleet of war vessels then, and la to bring it In IS tbe Mediter ranean, in violation of th* Treaty of Paris, "under pro test of meeting a war squadron America Is to send there." General expectation of lbs advent of this Ruts.an fleet is described as prevailing along Uv? shores of Albania? many pretend ng to name the dst* Of its coming?and this has tended to extend end increase th* exottemeat In EVirus and Tl.a-saly Ths Russian peopl* are said t* be Impatient for action in behalf of their co-religion lets In Turkey. There have been rumor* of s proposition by Ruwia of s general conference of th* grant Pewers to Consider the condition ot lb* Christian*. Tbe real attitude or Russia is probably Indicated in an article recently published in the Moscow OvHte, a sstnl offlcial organ of tha Russian Cabinet. It declares that tbe time baa come for Russia to relieve berseir ot tbe false poattiop in which the was placed by the treaty of Pari*, and give her moral support to th* atruygling Christiana It suggests thai the true solution of tbs difficulty Is In declared non-intervention, leaving the populations free to shake off the yoke which oppresses them. It intimates that Russia has no desire for ag grandisement in the East, and that when this is under stood, this grave and terribl* question will be half solved, and th* regecerat.on of the East will follow of Its own accord, wltbont disturbing th* peace and equilib rium of Europe rst nvmo-AmmrA* Atxuscn. An Interesting and somewhat amusing festers of this ?object I* the general diaposltloa In Europe to suspect an a I sal alliance, offensive end defensive, between Russia end the United 8tats*. Th* Russians themselves be 1 ?ved In It, end tb* French Minister, Moustier. is said to have used all hia influence wbll* at (onstautinopi* to or ent tb* cession of any Island in th* Mediterranean < isr to Russia or to tb* Unliad Mates Russian letter In n Berlin paper, in September, 1888, ? menting on tho ordering of ths Ameriesn squadron i n tbe Baltic to tb# Mediterranean, ?/?:?" Tbs alli ii with the United Bute* is of especial value to Russia, i r .tecta us from a repetition of tbe unfortunate iacl ?lintsof the period between 1868 end 1868, and assures lun lead fast friend U case of the opening of the East I ?? question." ?''?# t<osdon Iftwt of September it **???"Bo long jl id*s of t idMrrwuw W ?*? vntod of ('oodla, it de*?rv?Hl only a *-_** s !- !h? Inters aawtloD u confined to tho rayah adoi-ud by a writer like M- h3Uu* ef the Moscow Uazr'tr, woo, In spite, or in consequence, of hie ultra Muscovite extravagance, is protwoiy ihe most Influential id 1111 id Kusdia, and echoed by bis rival of the (Mm , Cue organ of the moderate party, it acquires a certain degree ui in.portance. According to the latter Journal, the United states is desirous of purchasing an island la tbe E,;ean, and may possibly be rewarded with a portion of the rakish empire, when the lime comes for adminis tering the estate of the sick man at Constantino pie" TbeiV'iw goes on to ridicule this idea ot American inter vention as " involving a temporary aberration from po litical sanity " it thinks both the Interest and policy of the United States combine against it. But U says the Muscovites have had their beads turned by this dream of participation by Urn United States in their Eastern polity. novum, The English journals bare manifested decided impa tience and alarm, da usual, tbe London IS met can see no justiflcaUon for any revolt against whatever tyranny, If it threatens to disturb tbe peace or pocket of Great Britain. Tbe Timet of September 17, 1M6, admits that tbe insurrection is threatening, and ''begins to have the appearance of a.preconcerted national movement, stim ulated by the success oI Italy, tbe development of the principle oi nationality in Geraany and tbe recollections of a people who, the fint in eur times, revolted against foreign rulers." But the Timet goes on to scold and fret over the matter. It accuse* the Greeks of eotertalning an idea that they sen get what they want by "storming and screaming for It" By ao doing they expect to dis turb the peace of the greet Powers till they will be obliged to interfere in their behalf. Tbe Greek agitators boast not a little, it says, of encouragement received from dmertoan agents. Tbey expect tbe Ottomans to be drives out end tbe old Greek empire to be re-establighed in the city of its founder. But, the Timet adds, "Sober minded men will not shore these sanguine anticipations ?f the Greeks Tbe place of the Ottoman empire cannot be filled by a nation numerically ao weak as tbe Greeks, and by its restless sad diacordaut instincts so little intended to rule itself or others." Turkey may have to give up C&ndia; but if a general European complication were to arise out of thia revolt "we shall conclude that there are, under those apparently local attempts, secret agencies at work, of whioh we as yet know nothing, but which bare far other objects in view than the furtherance of tbe interests of Greek na tionality, and from which Greece in the end will gain but little of what Turkey msv forfeit. Here is a clear confession that the territory and popu lation. if wrested from tbe Turk, would ultimately be absorbed by Russia, and that for this reason England would rather leave all the Christians m thoir misery and everything as it Is. The Athens correspondent of the Times, wrltlngiSep teinbor 27, denies that there is much onthusiasm in Greece In favor of tbe Cretans. Its Paris correspond ent, writing September 20, says that tbe excitement in Greece is such that it is thought the King will be do throued if he does not interfere. He asserts that tho revolution was instigated by the Italians to help them during their Isle war, which ended so muoh sooner than expected, and left thia ball, started by it, still ' rolling. The Tim s itself of September 20, uses this strong lan guage:?"Tho settlement of the Eastern question in volves a grave general European catastroplio. Tbe ques tion admits of no pacific or diplomatic solution. It will have lo be referred to tbe uLima raiic." Its l'aris correspondent, on September 23, congratu lates hlmselt that the proposed change in the French army organization "insures nine hundred thousand men, enough, If the Eastern question comes up in two years, to be settled for the last time." All these and many other facts show how England dreaded the coming contest, conscious of her own ina bility to hold her own in it Tbe influence of the British government was, therefore, steadily given to prevent a rupture betwoi-n Greece and Turkey, and to induce tbe Sultan to settle the matter by yielding to the demands of hit subjects in tbe way of reforma But the Cretans had passed beyoud this point of asking for new promises only to be broken. Tbey wero striking lor Independence and annexation to Greece, and would not even-entertain the pro|M>siiions ol amnesty offered by the imperial Commis sioner, Mustapha Pacha The revolution was progress ing and spreading its infectious influence. At last, &n December 28, the London Timet disparingly says, that "England, if the Eastern question comes up, will lot events lake their course, without any effort te shape them to her wlsbsa" r . ? . nujrcn. #k Napoleon hu don<- all that be oould to imixwt. the progress of the revolution In the face of the RiSl frassln. alliance, be i. not prepared CoTLoinw^r the-Eaeiern question till hie army Is on a fooiiM ?d?2i also w?ih the German question, ft was probablv^hrnu#K his suggestion that the proportion & Egypt for the purchase of Caadia was, mooted isthl early part of September. On November 3, the Itidepmd anct lit gftInscribed tne French scheme as iacludin?tj^ establishment of a consti'.utional government in EtrvnL Napoleon doubtleaa oounted on having French mte^Tu IB the Eaet primarily recognlaed Jbr ai ment Initiated by btisetf. A^tW iirt^f lh^i.h^' according In Urn wuVlh Roman churches, and thus remove the pretext for a **? S^pr0U*lfnUf betweenthe Greek ami s^SS^ttrj&SSss natural protectors. An cibrt^^J^iLdTWtJJSS Italy, Anetria and Spate la the oommercW qnUtolTrf having Rumta for a rival la the Medlterranaan T^. Paria Patrie, October 10. saggeAs to thoneiwlf'u, la really a hedlterraoem^SSoA .f ttoe, and that as euchthey are lateieeted mfeJITm^ alliance regarding It in lormiag an Oocupted In tbeae schemes for potting off a ilmiii ii isz^vr ?urgsau and indooo thorn to nooopt of the term. i P**0? which wore ofhrod thorn hnnui.1 Greek deputation, prqyioos to September at Tbatthe general state of political affairs in Europe did not permit IWe to support any revolutionary iovemont a?mst ?Ttil**y- Wbea the Turkish 'Ambaamdor threatcSSd T break his relations with Greece, oa account of tberaiiiiM Mimfcssmft5?iSSdrng^ mmH %lhe ,nsurrectl?o, the representative* of Norland andI France supported his representations rbo r?j pendarwe Beige, of Oct. 18, quotes from the Hitvas Hr-r ,l,i wmXVr?K:?0Te''"d"<?*?d P* Pr*"*rvntlon 01 Turkey." The had been ^ -**? j? co???end Greece i,..,}?, prevented from Intervening. The Crctaue /ST*.u ?ub,mlt ?? lh" terms offhred tboT Chrtstinn tribunals would be established, and a mixed SK& lEil ETi " UU,~' and~ thTpESdeTcy $ iftfflr ^ "? ?"? ??" ? nw The Paris Mtmiteur of October 20 indnlgm in pra.se. of "the Emperor's policy nf ^wrvil.m ald progress. Tb? French Ambassador at CoMtAniinon * ^?ssrw8u,un 10 esAmin9 Ss^ssssss of the Cretans, and to appoint o commissioner to Crete At the same time, the French Consul at Caaea "held language calculated to dissipate popular illusions" Mot headed splriU had, however, brought about collisions. Bui Moustler being Invited by Kins George of Orran* tn vtelt Athens on his way to Parts, bad "explained hit views ??k'r- The Ifont'swr then adds?the wish father to h<u now lost its gravity in the islands, and the Greek provinces neighboring Crete." Thus the French agents represented things in as favor able a light aa possible. They said the Imperial com misRloner had been well received in Crete. The Monitor du Soir of Ootober 80 declares paoifloation probable aad congratulates the country on that d*m>urmmL But an fy all these schemes seem to have failed and all hon? of relocation have proved delusive At CacS! "" -lis A depression in money matters has prevailed in Greene which has prevented lie Inhabitants from domsEhTt they would in aid of the Cretans. This fsct explains tn! ?f tb\'"Bdo" Time*' correspondent 'bat the enthusiasm of the Greeks was mere words Th? V.!? niJhiu??1 n'?neT WM Kmrc*, and bust Dees stagnant. The public funds were at such a low ebb that for months u>. officials of the government themselves oould obtain no pay. This state of things Anally brought about a resignation of the Minister of Finance and a^v. ?orh.in!V 1 - 1 ?b!D*t- Th# w?"? really S, t??lrJtruuUa,L c? rehgionleu te any greatVx* lent; hnttheir- sympathy for the revolt wee euchthat It 8J,"Jd tha K|nfi would be obliged to abdicate 'f,.h* d|d "?ot go to war with Turkey. Ail the ^ pie of Greek nationality throughout the buliaa's do minions were, similarly with the Cretans, affected bv a desire for union with Greece. It would not he .nrrTri. lug, under such circumstances, that there should exist bop?8 that, in tbe break up of Tnrktah rule Gimm or0(1)^kMl?diIUi.rul* Bo1 ?"'T 0T**" Turkish 'subjects of Greek origin, but also over the whole of Turkev In Europe, This seemed to be one solution of the Eastern question not altogether distasteful to the great Power? F.arly in September the inhabitants of Eplrus addreea 10 th? ff*la liters of England R mia FvI!^ ?nd Prussia rm.id.at at Corfu, whVcHilS ??n Ih?2 r?*?.? *? 'urthor' vlol^oa o? treiSST crueltlee, unjust banishments, acts of -rrmsnimi m?$ vandalism, Spoliation and r^" of U,e^t?T? ??v ernm.nl against the unhappy Chriril^''_?^rtbmh' I About the same time the King of Greece H.nT? .,. . I spirited addreae at Athena to the Miniatera of foreign Puwera. "Turkey, " said hie Maleetv "haa ChrieUM population to revolt m coni^uenoe of ^he ^l" latlon of treaties. As for me, I cannot prsve? ? jeotai from giving aid to tbslr brethr.n if dlst^a gT.n had I the power to do so I oould not forget tbail amno? enlv King of Greece, but of nil the HeHenen I Z?IJ ratfiw return te Denmark thai dlaavow tSTduUee^Jh my poelilon Impose. on me. From the beginning ff the movement In Creto I proclaimed our neutral,tv ,nd orderad my subjects to faithfully observe the imtii let Turkey has violated these earns treatise In re?rdT; the Christmas, sad neither 1 nor lh# Greeks oan be re sponsible for Urn results " "*s oan os re This speech, together with the addresses of the Cretaa Assembly and of the Eplrota, greatly increased the aular excitement and tended tobrlog about a rupture ?een Turkey aad Greaoe. The Athena Sueie t,?. preeeed the opinion that the European Powam^roald agree not only to the annexation or Caadla to Greece lb Leafy'0 r*cUflcatJ?? <* CroaUers in Epirua and Jf ths first week of September the Greek government Pow^I^^.J^vl^^?,by.ID?,ll,O^Mdu,,l, *? th* protecting r-ZT .? * Klag of tb' Hsllenee" says this man* 3,V.:<=*??<* be passive, la view of the la* to.r am,??r!l!: S"!*0* tutonU,y f*0|* svery cotnmo TK SEX ^WSSSVSklP--'? ? - -1 CreuL.T'Ilf'1lb* Protecting Powers to the which their harsiZ?" *?" .J1" ,nB#d laterfsreaos by them la la.to aid'us? ,r*8do*B '??A been snatched from that Ume down .. .r-?Y-C"MU'd** 01 thwlr fTem ?f Um lurklah "ro?j7 lions which the greet Power* tied asaumed of ?tearing I* lb* Christiana iu?ir right*, era dwait upon. The memecaaiionj xUudea to the progress of vho revolt, end the proapeet of the uenel baibeiitlee oa the pert of the Tnrlia, and cioaae by saying that "to view of these facia the greet Power* .uo. id use precautions to protoct the Christians." The Greek government prescribe no measures, but suggests quite plainly thet the ?nd of Turkish rule over Christian populationa will be found ths only elfoctuel remedy. bo displeased wet the Ottoman government with thee* and subsequent menftu'euooe on th# part of Greece, that the Turkish Ambassador at Athena threatened to break off diplomatic relations, and his representations were supported by England and Franca, A majority of lb* Sultan'* Cabinet at Constantinople advised a rup ture with Greece in October, bat wer* oppaaed by th* Grand Vizier and All Pacha, a* wall aa by th* Influence or England and Franca. This bad feeling continued, heaping the two govern ment! constantly on the verge of war. In the first week of January, 1M7, the Turkish government wee reported to be aboat to aawtil Uraeo*. Th* iaaurgeoU In Crete had notoriously been aupwlled with arms and supplies by Greek veasels, one or which had bean sunk while running th* blockade. The lataet aooounta represent a rupture as Imminent, and prevented only by the advice of England and Franca. xtslt, aram id atmnua. Spain has, ao far, been laart, aad apparently aamoved by Louie Napoleon'? repreaentatioaa at the importance or the " Mediterranean qucatiou." Austria, alee, has observed a strict aeutraiiiy i having a aalutary fear, doubtless, that Ruaaia would abaorb soaaa of her Slavic provisoes, la caaa of an alliance of th* aort suggested by Fraaoa Italy haa aeemed equally regardless of th* oommarcial interests involved ; but her people have taken a deep Internet la the revolt. Garibaldi has contributed hisjwworful influence in lavor of the Cretans, aad la said to be aboat to offer them hie ?word. The Italian government took op vary sharply the caaa of -their alas mar flrdfl upon In Caadlaa waters, bat that la likely to bo settled without difficulty. There does not aaam to be any prwpeot of interference by Italy aa a nation in behalf .of the Cretans, but neither can its Influence or alliance be obtained against them, or in behalf*of the barbarous do mi nation of Turkey any where. Her attitude in this reepect wtQ doubt lew dis able Napoleon from carrying out hie scheme of an alli ance of Mediterranean Fonera. Meantime, Italian and Greek aid will be extended in the way ot volunteers and supplies, blockade-runners. Aa TURK ST. Bat little remains to be said of Turkey. The mora In telligent Ottomans, It is said, have long confessed that there is no permanent help for the Turkish empire It must eventually fall to pieces, and ita struggles for soma time i<ast have been throes of dissolution. Threatened with revolts in every quarter, the 8ultaa haa regarded this Cretan insurrection with intense anxiety. His aim baa been to suppress it as speedily as pos sible, and hence the poor progress ao lar made proves aigulflcantly the weakness of his power, and is an augury of success to the insurgents. The Hultau is lu rood-to keep almost as many troops in all parts of his empire aa it revolt were actually prevail ing there. Commotions have taken piaoo-in The?saly, Kpirus, Bosnia and elsewhere. Servls has ben agitated with revolutionary desires, and has required lrotn the Sultan the same relation of substantial indejiendenco which this Cretan revolt has forced blm to acknowledge In the case of the provinces of Moldavia and Wailacbla, under tlieir Hospodar, Prince Charles ,of Hobenzoltern. In this exigency the Bublime Porte has had no choice but 10 pursue its old policy of conciliating the support of England and France by lavish promises of reform. That it has no more intention of keeping such engagements now than it ever had is'obvtoos from the cruel manner in which the war la carnod on. The spirit of the Mussul man remainssinrhaiiged. He still entertains that con tempt and hatred of Christians which unfits him to be their ruler, or even to live la tba same society witu them. His consciousness of hia own coming doom only aggravates his cruelly by the jealousy whicn it creates. MahometaDism is a hydra whose stings are bitterest and deadliest aa the products of its own decomposition min gle with ita native poisons. iKT THE REBEL VIEW. There Can be Treason Asninet a State bnt None Aarniuet the United Htatee?The Argu ment of Allen B. Mncrnder. In the Supreme Court of the'District of Columbia, in the case of Magruder, claiming the right to pmctioe in the court, though unable to take the test oath, the appli cant made a lengthy argument to sustain the motion to admit, after which Knoch rotten, Esq., replied. The following is a verbatim report of Mr. Magrudcr's remarks after Mr. Totten had oioeed, showing the ground upon which he baaed his right te be admitted:? Mr. Magruder?Will the gentleman allow me just %ers to say a word m Justice to myself t R is proper that a statement.whico has been made should he correct-d. I make no admiaeiontthat I have ever committed the crime of treason or of peoury. In my Jedparat, ?the vtew (hat I have taken of thl*,rahject?if the Court will permit me te define it?neither Of the oBmcen were committed. I was n cltlsen of Virginia. I am n native of that ttate. ?very State constitution undertakes to define treason against itself. whHe the United States oonsti'uUon un dertakes te define treason against the United States. Mow, I suppeee that H never was in the contemplntiea of the framers of this government that there could, by any possibility, ever take ptsoe a collision between the States and the United btalea It was upon Uiat theory, I presume, that all the 8tatas undertook te <1 fine and punish the crime of treason. Now, take the oa?e of a I 'cltlsen of Virginia at tbe breaktag out of this war. Ha nla own territory, upon his native State required hie allegiaaoa and com. iim to obey her laws, to take np arms in her own defease. Suppose be bad fali-d te comply with that requisition and had taken np arms at the bidding -of the United Slabs and against Virginia, would he not have exposed himself to the paicx and penaitlee of treason t On the other band, suppose, aa was the case, that the United States govern ment called upon him te draw his sword against tbe rifato of Virginia, and npea penalty. If he did net obey that mandate, that he should be bung es n traitor. Dose not the < onrt perceive, does net every right minded man perceive a cam el conflicting ellegtanoe f What, In tbat case, is the cittaen todof lam not going to argue tbe question of ssesmien in the abstract, bnt I beg simply to put myself right on thin question, and the Court will, I am sure, under the ctreumstanoes, indulge me, seeing that there la. acoordlng te our system of gov ernment, n duality, if I may use the expreoeion, of alle giance?ueeing that ..allegiance is claimed on both sidee; seeing that In every particular case, if you choose, the State of Virginia had the power te coerce my obedience, to punish urn for my failure to render allegiance to her, whilst the United States government, at the Ume the occasion arose, did not afford me the protection which was necessary and which was due to me in exchange for my allegiance to it The thief Justice?It afforded you protection within this Jurisdiction, didn't It, Mr. Mapuder f Mr. Magruder?Tea, sir; I understand that perfectly well, and I am very glad your Honor has called my attention to that, for I desire te be perfectly frank with tbe Court Mr. Bradley here stepped np to the speaker and made some suggestion, when Mr. Magruder said?My friend admonishes me te be careful as to what I say. The Chief Justice?Net at all; unburden yours If freely. ? Mr. Magruder?I have nothing that I desire te conceal, may it please your Honor. I was a resident of the Dis trict of Columbia Mr. Bradley?What I want is to get throagh with the argumeutmf this case. I de not desire to be led off to tbe discussion of either secession or rebellion. Mr. Magruder?I think I can take care of myself, because "thrice it he armed whs has his quarrel Just," and in regard to tbe matter I have no self reproaches V> indulge. When I left the District of Columbia It was while the Slate of Virginia was a member of tbe Union, before she had seceded, before she had put ber self in a hostile attitude toward the goverument It waa impossible for me to kuow what would be done, but 1 knew this?that my property, my family, rela tives. my interests were all there, and that, in tbe event of civil war, considerations of a private charac ter naturally led mo to sesk my residence in my own State. Tbe Chief Juettce?Voa were a resident of the District at the time f Mr. Magrudtr?Toe, sir, I was n resident In the Dis trict, retaining my pro|ierty In the State of Virginia, and did not leave the District with any purpose, however, to , eater into or take any part in the war, because It wee before, as I have stated, while tbe relations between the two government* wen amicable, that I took this posi tion, or, at least, when there had been ne public outbreak, and therefore I am not within tbe pur view of that class of persons who left tne Distract ef Columbia to take part In the war. Then. I say, the Court will perceive?and ay moral Jus tification is what I wish to Bake out?that in my vtew of the subject I committed neither treason nor potjnry. I waa bound to render obedience to the calls of my State, which had the power te coerce me te obe dience If I refused, and 1 waa not in n position in respect to tbe United Slates government, which gave me the option of claiming its protection; and it is due to frank ness and candor te tar that my sympathies and reelings, end my convlctlone after the war commenced, much as I deprecated it bet ore, were with my own State and peo ple. I waa under tbe Influence of a government I wan bound te obey, and I had not the power of disobeying, and, consequently, I took the action to which I hays re ferred. Mr. Totten?If the Court please, If the gentleman did whet be confesses here be did do, on compulsion, he can take this oath that Is prescribed by the rules or thk Court. On Saturday morning tbe Magruder test oath esse came up, and Mr. Bradley, counsel for Magruder, delivered Uw argument in favor of tbe motion. flMATHM TO BRAZIL TO TIM BDITOR OT TBI MR A LB. I reed yesterday In your valued paper aa article bavlng reference to American emigration to Palestine and Brasll, and alluding to the unfavorable results of the former. You add that the seme is the case an to Brasll, tbe government and local author it lea of which have rejected or abandoned aid emigrants, not Judging thea adapted to the country. I can assure you thet the above statement Is n grave error. Ameri can emigration Is looked upon la Brasll with particular Interest, and, I should add, attended to with preference and distinction. The govern ment end people of Brazil entertain the hope of finding good brothers and fellow citizens in those who mny select Brasll for n new home; end tbe friendly re ception met by the Ant emigrants which left this pert confirms whet I here said above To refute the asser tion alluded te I can refer to the publlo papers of my country, to the letters from emigrants themselves, as well as te tbe knowledge I possess in the subject end finally te the communications of the Brazilian go vein meet addressed te me, aa tbrtr commissioner In tbe United Stales, te further this object Your obedient ear rant O. Boca TUVA. mm Broadway. , FISAHC1AL THB0B1E8. Jauiku Oldbuck to the Bdllar ?? the Herald. For many years I bare sought to eetablish in the minds of our people that the standard of value la not money?gold, silver or paper?but the great law of sup ply and demand, and while it la admitted aa a rule In

market overt in all branches of trade, our theorists will not apply the law to money. One of your correspond enta, Mr. Ingot, admits Its controlling power, but in hla argument Ignores it entirely. The abundance or scarcity of uoaey is known by the rata of interest K will yield In our great market. Doe* any ona doubt tklaf If this -bo so, where alaecan we find a standard that ao adjusts itself to the trade and business of the country r If we oould know how much wheat will be grown and sold; how many bogs, cattle, 4c., will b# raised and sent to maskst: now large a quantity of material will be menu aiswimwv - www iw|v ea t^uouu?y awe ? ** ? ? *? factored, and so running down through all the business and Industry of the oountry, then, perhaps, some shght approximation to the wants of the country may be found In n fixed amount of circulation; but the system la only n Procrustean bed where the body must be stretched, or the limb lopped off to suit the caprice of thi person in Authority. By allowing moaey to conform to this great law no one can ha injured. If money is scarce .the holders have a harvest or Interest; it plenty there will be great dearth in their pooketa. The money lender is thus put upon the level of every brunch of business, and subject by this great law to the fluctuations of trade. This great law of supply and demand ahould also be applied to everything exported and Imported. When we import more than wa export the?excess is indicated by the rate or price of exchange. When we send more or export mote in vakie than we Import the premium en exchange rises in our favor, and we are enabled to buy bills of exchange below per; and than it has often hap pened that gold has bean brought from Kurooe to equal ize the trade exchanges Now, wo have imported more goods of various kinds than the salsa of our exports bare amounted to; and although wa are sending more than sixty millions of our gold abroad sad a large amount of public and private aeooritios. mill the debts Of our merchants continue ao large that exchange le now thirty-six per oent above per and in favor of Europe. This high premium for exchange necessitates the purchase and shipment of gold, aa the great ex haustive d-mand is from Europe. This demand fixes or makes the prico in our city. Mr Ediior, whenever the hard money men shall find that our people are afraid of our coined paper they will see the people here at home overbid the shippers of our gold, and when that shall be so the gold will remain here. If tho people fear depreciation of our coined paper the gold can be easllv bought by paying a fraction over tho pnees paid by the exchange dealers. Is this plain enough to l>o understood! Are not all bills of exchange on Europe drawn by good houses at a premium of thirty-six per c nt, and ir not gold at a premium of thirty-six per c-nt! As there is no demand here and there is a demand for shipment, does it appear plain that the premium on gold la ruled and governed by the export price! Again, you know that every fluctuation in the price of gold from two hundred and eighty to one hundred and thirty-six has been and is in exact con formity with the price of exehange on Europe. You will see, then, that the facte preeented establish beyond all question that the premium on exchange con trols the prioe of gold as well as the price of exportable articles aud all imported goods. In this connection I wish to call the attention of oar hard money people to the question I presented in a far mer communication, and which remains unanswered. "You well remember that since gold was selling for 280 the Secretary has more than doubled our currency, and In the face of his making currency so rapidly the price of gold has fallen to 136, or more than fifty per cent. Will the Secretary tell us bow be oan bring down gold to par by contraction when it falls SO rapidly by expan sion !" This is a plain, practical question thut demands s clear and mathematical answer. If expansion brings down the price of gold fiftypor cent, how much will contraction bring it down ! W ill the Tribune, Timet or Erpreti answer this question for tho Secretary! I am still anxious to have tbis question ef supply and demand, applied to exoliange, answered, so that the peo ple can give a plain reply to all croakers over our coined paper. JONATHAN OLDBUCK, No. 3* Wall street. Mr. Knickerbocker CJetting Frlnhteucd ntthe Preepeet. to tm xorrox or tm bcsald. We should glance at the situation of things before treeUng of the remedies and policy now proposed and relied on by the rulers and.'paapls, and before suggesting another course of measures, we owe a mat debt The amount ef national, State, municipal and corporate nbU gatiomt, trsnsferrable and exportable, may be set down at four thousand millions, or over?about fiy or flSO to every Individual of the enMre population, or $306 to each, if the States In revolt and all elsewhere who own no property and pay no taxas are deducted. The yearly Interest o? this debt, nt an average ot six per oent. In two hundred and forty millions. Our debt to foreign nations represented by national, 8Uto and other puMte obliga tions, may bo oat down at one thounond milltona, and yearly intereot in geld at otxty millions. This swells our debt in these forms to Am thousand millions, and the yearly interest to three hundred millions, a sum exceed ing the amount of tho Surplus produoto yearly which wo oan export, or for wbtah thorn to n market to other countries Our imports (Including entries at nutter valuations and smuggling) exoeed. and bar* for u number of years ex ceeded, our exports, including specie, one hundred to two hundred millions or more yearly. We hare lost the carrying trade for I imports gad ex ports, with ite^xoflte. Ship buildlny and many other extensire and Important branches of industry are sus pended. The annual taxes for interest on our national bonds amounts to about 140 millions, and the other aa tionai expenditures (besides Interest and prlaolpalof the national debt! as oOctailv estimated for the entreat fiscal year, MO millions, together. 400 millions This, added to 900 millions for interest, as shore estimated, makes TOO millions of eunanl payments to be earned, ooUeoted and paid yearly. Following the high price of gold, as n commodity of export, end assuming that its equivalent, the peper which alone circulates, has lest about half its Irani value, the prices of tmpored artiolse, of exportable products and of all other things, labor, rents, rates of Interest are so high as to cense alarm for the future. Resides articles which pay no duties, we are obliged to import annually about two hundred millions at gold valuation, to pay duties enough ia gold to dtaebarge the internet oe gold bearing bonds. As things now look the exports lot the eorrrent year will be inadequate to pay for that amount. If we Import twice that amount wo mutt send specie, or a further amount of bonds if they can be aold, and tnus increase the debt. The muddle is fast working towards a crisis?on which ws aesd not expatiate farther than to suggest that no country can possibly go on for many years Importing for Immediate loosarapttoa one hundred mil lions to two hundred millions more than Its expert of annual pro ducts will pay for?that la, on oredtt In some form. But what are the remedtea end policy proposed and generally relied on? Are they to prevent aa amount of imports exceeding the smenot of our exports, or to stop the export of our national coin, which on account of Its circulation and Its relation under existing tews to the paper legalized as money, Is an absolute and first necessity, and the export and draining away of which is unspeakably more tnjurio ia to the nation thaa the ex port of the tools and Implements of every kind of labor; f?r those indlvidosls could replace by soaking new ones; but com, without which tools become oneiees, they can not roplaoe. Nothing in this direction is proposed. Our commorcia! polloy, which is dictated and managed by Great Britain, is to allow imports (in their shipa so far as possible) of foreign merchandise without stint, and to keep on exporting coin and paying alt balances io gold and silver at par. This will keep oe Id check and reader us aa powerless and dependent as, with the ami stance of their ruling clessee, the rebellion aimed and hoped to do, The chief remedy proposed end relied on in the pres ent aspect and situation of our affklrs la the resumption of specie payment; so that our currency of uniform and rafo paper may regain its lost value and gold lone Its fictitious premium, and both circulate silks sad according to law aa legal money. Being deeply in debt both to foreigners end at home, and having exported nearly all our coin, and, after five years of suspension of specie payments, being alarmed by the aspect of things sad by tear or what may happen, It is with the gravity proper la such* a case proposed as a tlppelv sad effectual solution of the whole problem that we retrace our step* and return to specie payments, or decide sad fix oa the day when we will take that important step. We cannot but admire the prudence and modesty which hinders a proposal to resume at onoa. Ws can do it ss effectually now as eighteen months or fire years hence or at any time hereafter that can be named. True, our ooln has long beta oat of circulation, transferred te the sphere of merchandise and exported to tereign coun tries We are aot able to purchase and bring it back; and If we were able, and should do so, to whatever ex tent, It would immediately be seised or bought up egala at n premium for export till our foreign debt, now tem porarily represented by bonds, and the heavy bnlaaoes naaually accruing were paid off. IflCHOLAS KNICKERBOCKER, Stock Exchange Building. Another Plao to Rraalate the Price of Money. TO TBI KDITOE OP TUB BIRSLD. There are three diverse articles la your paper or Tues day morning, finding much fault with the present state of affklrs and attributing the situation to different causes, hut not proposing say somplete or ad equal a remedy. I deduce from tbeta promiscuously the fol lowing aphorisms:? Europe is shaving our bonds si a most usurious rate of la tenet We are getting la pay more goods than we want, sad paying exorbitantly tor having the goods brought to us. Ws are apparently doing well because wo thus gel gold to pay our interest How long will this continue after the people become weary of paying fabulous prices for foreign merchandise, and how shall ws pay onr Interest In gold when thle source of supply ia diminished? The difference In value between a dollar in our paper and a dollar In gold represents the (dleoount for thai time which must elapse before that paper dollar will be redeemable In gold on demand. The government must exhibit more wisdom In de veloping the roans roes of our industry aad reducing the aa necessary weight of taxation. Contraction of the currency works a constant profit ta fir the creditor at the expense of the debtor. I accept all these as argumsnts in favor of my ptea, wtilob I mtaU ru a date after abaft m oafidrem dfcujl It ?fifiifi ?? new currency, for which the old shall be ft legftl tender ouly aovesMy-flve cents on the duller; Id other won.'*, tax out of existence twenty-five per cent of our preeeivl greenback < urrsncy. lisue the new currency, In ex change for the old, as faat aa wanted, and provide for both by paying fifty cents In gold and twenty-ilve cents in bonds for the greenbacks, and sixty-six and two-thirds and thirty-three and one-third, respectively, for the new currency. Let the new currency be reissued, If wanted, in exchange for gold and bonds, In the ?ame ratio, levy ing a tax of one per cent to pay the cxpensse of re exchanga This would reltare any temporary stringency in the money market. The result would be that nobody would bo aggrieved; the currency would be reduced to a specie standard. The purchasing power of the old greenback would be in no wlsa reduced, but the price of all articles, quoted 1ft ft ourrenoy fts good as specie, would be reduced and fixed. If our bonds rose in Europe the demand for them would bring out specie from both sides until, our currency would oommend a premium over specie to get the bonds with. If they fell on the other side any de mand for specie to bay them would speedily so contrast the currency ss to lower the price here below n profita ble rata for export. The same thing is now effected by n rise In gold. We most sooner or inter recognlxe the depreciation I in our present ourrenoy. Let us do it at JEFFREY URBAN. OUR, FERRIES. Meeting sf the laveetlcntlns Committee nt the City Hall, Brooklyn?Statements Made tn the Committee?Ylelt tn the Ferries af the Ualaa Company, dec. The Committee on Commerce and Navigation, who have recently madn n visit from Albany to this city for the purpose of investigating thoroughly the alleged ir regularities and Inefficiency of the ferry system, held their first meeting yesterday morning at the City Hall, Brooklyn. Several gentlemen appeared before the committee and made statements in reference to the existing arrange menu for the rentage or paasengera between Brooklyn and New York. The following members of the committee were present:?Mr. John Oakey, Chairman; Mr. 8. H. Wendover, Mr. Thomas A. Brlggs and Mr. D. W. Travis The resolutions empowering the oommltlee to make the investigation read as follows:? Whereas the citizens of New York and Brooklyn, who are daily passing over the ferriee plying between tbelr respective cities, are at the present time suffering great inconvenience upon account of the Inadequate ac commodation furnished by the different ferry companies; therefore, Resolved, That the Committee on Commerce and Navi gation be authorized and directed to immediately Inves titrate the prascnt system of ferriage on the East and North rivers, at tho city of New York, and that they re port at an early day to this House a bill compelling the ferry companies to afford better security and protection to the public. Resolved, That the Committee on Commerce and Navi gation also be and they are hereby authorised to send for persons and papers, and to sit at such placo or places as they may think proper, to investigate the matters re ferred to them in relation to the ferries of New York and Brooklyn. In accordance with these resolutions the committee published a notice in the various newspapers of New York and Brooklyn, acquainting the public with the time and place of their meetings, and extending an in vttation U> citizens to appear before the committee and make any statement of facts or suggest any possible improvements that might be efiectod tn reference to the present ferry system. At ten o'clock the committee organised and requested any person who bad any statement to offer to come for ward. After some little delay Alderman Fisher stepped up and briefly welcomed the committee to Brooklyn. In alluding to the ferries he spoke as follows:?Tha ferries are to Brooklyn what the great artery is to the human system. They lead to New York; they are the channel through which flow the population and the business of ?our city to a very great extent. It is natural that people should feel?the people of Brooklyn should particularly feel?that whatever affecta that ohannel affects them vl ally. It cannot be dented bat the eitisens of Brook lyn hare suffered tremendous Inconvenienced during the pest winter from tne difficulties of crossing the river owing to the unusuel severity of the weather. Hew much of that is owing to the lack of accommodation and conveniences which might be rovided, but which have not been provided, I suppose is the duty of this committee to inquire, end I eup Btbat aa inspection^ the boate and of tho oonveo m that are there provided would perbapo aflbrd more llgbt than to expect that eMiaens. who feel tbeee iaooavealences to a certain extent, will leave their bust neee end come to that which perhaps they think It the duty of their public servants to look after, and not theirs. It has occurred to me that, in the first plaoe, these boate do not have proper conveniences for saving Ufa In com af accident. This Is a suggestion that readily ooesura to ?very one?that they are not aefleiently provided with boate. It is a very common remark, to everybody's mouth. thot if a great accident ^oald happen to oae of these boats, sad the boot-should he soak, great lose of life won Id ensue, and more damage, more serious injury, would be Inflicted upon the interests of Brooklyn from onp each accident than wa oaa easily calculate. From conversation I em Informed by boom of tho gentlemen that are interested in ferry management that that objection amounts to nothing?that these beats cannot sink?that they are so bo tit end have ee ranch wood about them they cannot sink. That is e subject which I know nothing about, harases It would require n skilful engineer to decide " l Throe ' upon that question. There is another suggestion that obvioa ly comes to every oae npoa entering the boat that there is nothing to prereat anybody from jumping upon tho boat whether it Is safe or not?safe either before the boat hw touched the bridge or at aay other time?no safeguard. It has oocurred that perhaps some gates oould be arranged. That is another practical ques tion that the committee are aa able to Judge of from an inspection of the boats, apparatus, oonvenieaces and adaptability of dlfiereat appliances, that might ha thought or. as aay one else. It la not aav answer to say that It to open for people to Jump iota the river or not m they please. That to not aa answer, because we are to take men aa we- tad them. People ought not to be careless, but people are careless, and we see erery year more or leas 11 res loot fiMmm from that ? thing. If earthing can be dortoed or any law passed, even though H should be at some trifling ex pense to the company, by which that might be pre sented, why, a single life Is certainly worth the passage of any law. In other words, ooarenieooe and trouble are not to be weighed in comparison with a human life. I think If the saving of a hnman life would result from the passage of some law on that subject, the law is oer tatnlv worth the passage. And then there to another eubject which has been much epoken of this wlntsr, and that Is the non-adaptahtllty of ths boats?the want of their adaptation to loo and winter navigation. Many times their passage has boon entirely suspended, and H to confidently asserted by these who should knew that n proper boat, property constructed for that kind of navigation, would keep the nrer open, and would afford convenient and regular paasage. I see no reason why It should not be so. We see boats navigate the Polar seas?and vessels also, by s little activity, and why should not the Bast river In a cold snap bo aa capable of being crossed end pamod through, as that vessels should make their wny through the Ice la the Polar reglooa, I think the oaae to much stronger with us?that wa should be able to control tbo navigation of tho East river, lying between two cities Uko New York and Brooklyn, and I should hope that your Investigation might lead to some legisla tion that would compel the keeping and maiateuanre of noma proper loeboat, or eomething to clear tho river and keep It dear during theee seasons. J suppoea this is a subject within legislative power. I suppose It to within the power of the Legislature to provide these proper po lice revolutions la respect to the management of ferries, which are not merely and entirely a private stair. They are owned by a corporation, bat are something in which the public at large to Interested. They enjoy certain privileges that are In the nature of a monopoly, and I they certainly should be willing, end I hope j they are willing, to provide the proper con- I veniencea I would Invite the special attention I or the committee to the ferries as conducted in I the Eastern district, running from South Seventh street to Roosevelt street, and Grand stroet and Houston fer ries The boats running on the Wall street and Pulton ferries?those of the Union Perry Company?are fine I I boats, they are comfortable, convenient boats, although I Uiey may be deflcient in some things that might ba - *?? ?tir remedied, for Instance, tl?e protection of life that I have 1 SHen or In relation to life preservers and things of ^?klnd. But the boats themuelvsa aro comparatively convenient and oomfortabln Bat If this oommittee would moat, Instead of at this City Hall, somewhere in tbs neighborhood of ths foot of South Seventh street or where those ferries land, I will guarantee that they will i hevi. a great plenty of remonstrance* agatost the men Hot of tbooe ferries. agement of tbeoe ferries Tbo complaint there la uni versal aa to the ooadltlon of the boats, ths mode of run ning and their general Inattention to tho wants and conveniences of tbs psnssngera It prevails to a very much greater extent than It does Is regard to the fearie* 10 thto part of tha city. If the committee propose to divide their labor* In dltarent parte of the city I think it would repay them to eae that part of the ferry manage- I meat, more especially, rather than that In this part of the city. ? , I Mr. Oaxwt. oo behalf of the oommittee, briefly thanked the city for the cordial weloome extended to them. The committee were determined to make a searching tnves Itigaiion Into tha alleged grievances ef passenger* using Ul? fetfiSf between Hew York and Brooklyn, and, If a remedy The charters granted by J tho ferry oompanleo carried vg|th them hoary responsibilities, and he trusted the men who bad control of those corporations would endeav^^^H I had control of those corporations would endeavor to for ward the present investigation. Mr. Oub?m Ksunrr next addressed the committee, He said hn Mt a deep interest In the management of tbo fen-tee. It was a matter or vital Importance to the otusens of Brooklyn and New York. He bad been In Brooklyn eighty-throe year*, and was on* of tha getter* up of the South furry, and after running It for some year* united with the Union ferry Company, end subsequently the Hamilton avenue ferry was opened. Those thro* ferries ware run at one oent ferriage euoceeafully. There was no Instance of delay in tbs fifteen years during which he was oonuected with this company, They ran tha tbo three ferries upon s capital of lees than >200,000, paying eevea percent to the stockholder*, and.laying by no mom surplus than wa* necoomry to provide for poo sible contingencies. They were not a chartered compa ny, and tho members had to hold the responsibility on on their own shoulders, On that small capital the com pany ran the throe ferries at oneoent successfully. When that company closed It divided forty-two par neat among tho stockholders and that whan running at one oent for passengers, eight ooato for carte, and allowing oil who wished to commute. Tha now company was formed and I took in the Catherine f?rry and on* or two other fTrite, including the Wall street ferry. They raised their capi tal to $100,000, and, as I understand, divided tan per cent among their stockholder*, charged two osato for nanngsrs and allowed na perron to oommsta. With Wmm > groat Increase of travel between tha ?w# wstop that* hM bees do corresponding fa 11 ' Of aecomroodsai^H and In fact there waa nothinr like tV aocommodatl furnished which were furnished by the first ferry c^H pany. Since the organization of the prea. nl oomf^H they hare dropped two of tbeferriee, and only oonUi^H >fo run thoee which they found would pay the beet rt gard to the detention of the bouts, he (the speaker) aee.t no Unte |yet this season when, If they had s^H boute an war* used by the first company, they could hare run without Interruption to iimveL The people New York and Brooklyn had good reaaon to complain ^B this matter, and he felt that it waa the duty of the Sunn government to eee that such a stale of things showM hot be continued. Property in Brooklyn had greatly depreciated in value in consequence of this am management of the Union Ferry Company. B ha (the speaker) could got permission to ran U ferry from the foot of Baltic street to OM ?tip in New York, he would guarantee to run It for enn cent, and have no delays In the travel In regard It the protection of Ufe on the boats, ha considered thai the groat cause of danger to pamdhgere waa the orsm ?crowding of the boets by their unneceeeary detention In the docks If the boats ran at proper intervals, tb era would be but few%ereona on board at each trip, and the danger would be correspondingly la-sened. During the recent storm he had sees beats kept in the slip w^m I they could hare gone through the to* easily, until they .were crowded In a dangerous manner. The oompany could make money as fast aa men eould wish to make & if thoy charged only a cent.for foot passengers, etwhl oents for carta, and twenty fbr commutation. If On boats were built strong enough they eould force theM way through the lee. When the first ferry waa opensi the company paid $10,000 a ~y*ar rent, but t? bad Mass been raised to $100,000. and he thought H was unjust ?e tax the people of Brooklyn to that amount for the beaaM of Now York. As no other gentlemen presented themselves to ghrS evidence, the Committee adjourned end proceeded to the Brooklyn Club House, where appropriate hospitalities were extended to them. Accompanied by several of the directors, the Onmmfc tee In the afternoon paid a visit to eaoh of the five hn rise under the management of the Union Ferry Cecal pany. vtx:?Hamilton, South. WaU, .Fulton and rlne. The Committee closely examined the sfioomam datioas provided for passengers, and made a thorough Inspection of several of the boats, among others UM Somerset, which was purchased by ths govts* meat during the late war, and used as I cruiser, and baa since been repurchased by the com pany. The construction of the boats, their appliaaoal for the rescue of passengers who might accidentally tag overboard, and the meant of lighting them, were a| narrowly scrutinized. Before parting with the connh tee the directors stated that although the control of UM company was vested in their hands they had but a vers smart pecuniary stake in It, only Just enough to qualify them for members. They were, however, large real s? tate holders in Brooklyn, and anything that would serrl to attract inhabitants to that city, such aa ferriage earn vonieocos, would, of course, Improve their property. The committee will meet again to-day, la Brooklyn, ni the City Hall; but on Friday and Saturday they will half their sessions at the Astor House. They also intend la sit one day in Williamsburg. PREVENTION OF FIRES. Hew Fires In This City Can Be Prevestedi Communication from the Police Comnelm eloncra About tho UlBce of Fire Marshal, &o. The Police Commissioners have transmitted the M lbwing communication, containing replica to certain tin terrogations of a Legislative committee aa to tba effective manner of preventing Urea (especially thoaa ai an incendiary origin) in thia city. CavTR.iL DaPAEntijrr or MjrrsorourrAX Poucn,} _ . , Naw York, Feb 6, 1867. I Colonel F. B. Comma, Chairman, Aa. Bbak Sir -Your communication of the 80th uit to the President of tba Board of Metropolitan Potiaa Commissioners has been submitted to the Board. Tba Board baa given such consideration to tba qupsUoim proposed as tba limited Urns at its command has pea m'tted. lab The large number of flres within the Ml r and the great destruction of property caused Is many of them, are wall calculated to excite the alarm not only of underwriters, but of every owner 2 property. It is very desirable to ascertain the oaaaa of every-Are that ocours, whether it be the result el carlesaneea, or the act of an incendiary; whether it am suits in any case from the nature** the goods stored d the piaoe of the Are, and whether the great loan 3 property by fire Is in any manner owing to the latSM cause, even where the Are bee occurred not withstand ing all reasons his precaution to guard against each an accident. It is also vary desirable to know whether the taeantaupplieAatIhapubltoexpanse to arrest and <to Anguish Arm art applied with promptness, enercv ml ?Wo*. A Are marshal, clothed wK? 2 oleatly. If it should be asaartataad that t-t. thsaeAres resulted from soma other oaaaa ""r MgHcowm of these in charge of the pramS **"*? ""A originated, or that toeffS ?trous consequences of many of the Ana Is om3 could be provided. The ofene of Fin Marshal shsnM ha created by law, and the officer soooloted hv designated authority or public to&Sw ft&S independent of the Fire Department His reports la he case of each Are should be made promptyde the m thonty that appoints htm. And that authority, wham 11 ?boaM SHOW that any mi? bars ef the Are, or of aay ether department uj m fault, should oommonlcate the fhet to the bead ef au2 I department If the disastrous effects of the Are aheaM be dae to the vteiaiteae of any municipal ordlnahesTaw statutes rotating to the canirao^^^SirSf^h premises where .Iha An wm snob fhet m facta should ha at onoa communicator! to IW W fcody whose duty n may bo to 5 that each ordinances and otatntea are nnfsiisil ^3 thy violations of them punished. If it be fouadthm Are was oauaed by an larendieij the nftnitm mm Id? pwouaaceof provisions adapted to sueh ions haS rested, and the aridenoe of bta guilt ftaraisbe2%e Mm ? Otatrito Attorney. Aa efficient sad iateliigea! dtaohi^^J ef anota duties as are above seggsated, and of nrnl ere aa would he apowAed In any law ftaunad wMh I and a oomprebenaiva vtaw af the wants of the eoJ nlty, would asnmsarlly be productive of good, not <3 AAI1IMAMM tttliaHnw analnal 1? W_ SU_ . ?7? 1 ? ??uviwiiiM ponce 18, in tn? opinion c Board al Police, a matter af minor importance, ma should be appealed by some authority that Is in a earn Atticato be informed as avoots occur, aa to the manarn la which heperforms his duties, and which would ha disposed and ablffto investigate promptly aay apparel uegteot of duty or Improper conduct on bta part ?nd. to remove him trade office and aoraAta aaothor la his piaoe, wheaever the public good rsauiieA n'lr./fh1"3?*'w<wld * "oooaSy tomm? pltah the desired .reform. M. the ritwnnnasiise sheuld be such that a parson of the requisite aguMtoa intelligence and energy oeuld afford fori! to devoto A Md thoeghla and beat efforts in the discharge of the duties of the offlou Aay person, to be really valuable Jo such a position, should ha one whose hi i em waulff ? .^.T?rtJl " ^??? pw uunnm, end could oomrnemd that compensation elsewhere. It such an officer e?S5 with the requisite authority, and performing his daZ properly, should demonstrate by the results that amS an office is a matter af public importance, he ahouta ta paid out of the public treasury. Such recalls n nnm ?how that the office, end tba proper MrfbmuMrfm I*,D,ml ,to funrtrt *? the Individual mam ovra of too co mm unity tbo protection whlah *4 rigbt to oxp^ct from thcfconnlKutedl lutbonUM, If results sho'ikl demonstrate that the offtoe wee not aM productive of good to the poblle It should be abolished All of which is respectfully submitted. By order of the Board of Polica THOft a ACTON, Preetdenl THE MOAPWAY Aim MfPg Cesinencanent af the Work Teeterday-Dem. rrlptlan af the Bridge, Ac. Oa the 19th of February, 1IM, Alderman Loew tela*, duoed a resolution In the Board of Aldermen, providing for the appointment of a speoial oommlttoe of Mm Board, to procure from are hi tec U and others prnpnM hons to run a bridge over Broadway al Fulton strsaL to order to relieve the large amount of travel at that point, The committee reoelved a dosen or more preiiimlllumi to buUdAi, bridge fto amouata ranging from llt.OOff to Of the large namber of plana presented for this brtte the commlttoe selected one presented by Mean. Riteh daanJ".^""i*1 lUcU' wb* oommenoed laying the fbuto morning on the northwest ooraer m Broadway and Fulton street. Iha following to a tow description of the structure:- * * P?*"on of the four ooreere af flfwl72LZ**. t,io* Of oaet iram 222? 1Che" ,B O'MidW, with ornamental bases, ami forming lamp-poeta. These posts will be the mala asm porta of the bridge by lattice girders oroaatag Fulton etaest, and are made of the beet wrought iroa Theea girders will, in tarn, support three teostau rod gtrdmn crossing Broadway at right angtoo to FnlS ?Mast. There win be four flights of stairs, aw at each of the four corners, to he flrs feet wlta and lamp posts at the bottom, and also fancy iron itota logs at each side, continuing up and over each slum. There will be a curve oa the platform of the mala brldgn to carry off the rainwater to the four corners ef ton bridge. This platform Is to be made or chestnut planta caulked to make It water-tight, aad will be fourteen (del wide end run the full length arrow Broadway, intermit log with the platforms eroaeing Fulton street The height from the curb of the street to the underside el the bridge will be sixteen feet, end will be oapable ef eenialning one* hundred tone weight: md the greetw weight that would he on the bridge should it be crowded to Its utmost capacity would not exceed tan loan, tS bridge will ha completed la about four weekst * SALES tf KM ESTATE. Tie following vales of real estate were made yesterday hp M * sera. Mailer, WUklas A Co.: Rotaw and lot No. 138 East 14th St., Mlim.l |je j House end lot No. a West 44th St., 1R8t|00 ins House and lot Na 40 West 44th si , !&*? 100 i je House and lot Na ? West 44th si., liStlOlX.. m M ltXHK&:Stk::StS:SSlat-?r. fl ? Ludlow A Co. sold the following named Oreeawlqli street, Mellg feet. 'u^tu'A'jffk