Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 26, 1867, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 26, 1867 Page 4
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TEE ALBANY LOBBY. The Legislative Org*an and Who Grinds It. SKETCH OF THE LOBBY, PAST AND PRESENT. The IJeal Law Making Power. THURLOW WEED?HIS RISE AND FALL. &c. &c. &c. SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HERALO. Aibaxt, Feb. 18. 1807. Artn lo 3, section 1, of tbe constitution of 1848 opens with the declaration that "the legislative power of this State shall bo vetted in a Senate and Assembly,'" and most people undoubtedly fancy that such is really the fact. Rat tbev fancy a thing that is not, and indulge in a most stupendous delusion. Tbo legislative power of this State is vested in a "lobby." the constitution to the contrary notwithstanding. Tlio lobby is the real law making power, while Senators and Assemblymen are mere ornamental figures, like tbe little wooden men and women on the organ of a wandering minstrel, which are set in motion by cunning mechanism htddon from the spectator's sight The musician turns tho handle of bis organ, sets the figures bopping and jumping about, and grinds out the music to the delight of the eyes and ears of his spec la tors. A- the musician is to the organ the lobby Is to tho Legislature. The lobby turns tho handle of the mam moth legislative organ, this brings into play a variety of springs :?ud complicated contrivances, cnuse^ the figures up stair; and down stairs to move upparently in a very lifelike and serious manner, nnd grinds out your law for von in the most natural looking style ima ginable. It is a very delirnte performance and quite entertain Ing at time-. As an operation exhibiting a hL-b degree of mechanical skill it is wonderful and might astonish tbe famous curp-nter-mason or Salbris himself, of whom Victor Hugo tells us In his "Toilers of the Sea," Rut is it tho correct thing after all, this cheating of the people out of their most sacred rights?'.lie right to make laws to govern themselves through their legally chosen representatives? It is not only no? correct, but It is a gross violation of tbe provi ?tone of the constitution. If the lobtiv is the real gov erning power, of wlmt use is it annually to go through Willi ilia expensive luxury of electing members to tho Legislature? Rotter to omit tho custom, abolish it alto gether, and transfer openly th"* etiiiro lawmaking power to the lobby, which now exercises it secretly. That would at least have tho merit of lining no cheat." But to treat the subject seriously. If all one hears of the pnst and present lie true, legislation at Albany Is controlled by u four influential men, of whom the public knows little or nothing, and who have little or no interest in common with tbe public. No bills of a private or corporate nature can be passed w itl.out tbo assistance of these few inllu enlial men (about thirty in number), and tlieir good will and service.- arc only to be ob'aincfi for a valuanle con sideration. Pomeunie- the consideration is friendship: sometimes it Is an inter?d in the subject matter of legislation, and sometimes It is money. These thirty influential men profess to he the conscience keepors of members, their intimate and bosom frieuds, and in many roses pmpiietors of their bodies and souls. Tbev boast that they can make or unmake bills, and are regu larly engaged" freq -.eniiv to make and unmake. Home are the recognized and paid agents of millionaires in terested ? in promoting or slaughtering certain kinds of legislation. Others represent smull corpo ration or private claimants; still others come on their own book and hover about here, like WiikmR Micawlier, "watting for something to turn up." They seldom go away without turning up some thing or somebody lo their own sntlsrnctlon The best hotels and tho highest rates of board are patronized by these enterprising adventurer*. Tliev live well genof ??y, ?moke and driuk much, but sleep very homeo pathicalty. They make themselves ubiquitous during tbe Legir.lallve sessions, dogging members as closely as shadows In 18.19 Governor Morgan, in his message. referred to them briefly thus:? The duties of legislators, always arduous nnd 'perplexing, hare keen rendered mure distasteful stid Irksome of Ista years bT tbe growth and prevalence of the prsclice of em ploying agents to surround them In their halls and to nay lay them in their ?? with r*|,re*enlallon* and impor ?unities in behalf of bills in which a personal or corporate Interest Is Involved "these agents gam access to the leg" latlye halls, and follow members even to their seats. Ho general and so annoying is this prsclice that lobbying has become a trade, often gainful but never rrvditaMe. Its existence and tts excesses tend to create a general repug nance to aUtdlla involving a private interest. A claim or other Ml affecting a private interest mav properly be ex udedf " plained and commended by the person or party interested. by some one authorized to aiieak In nl? hehilf, who mild * T" should confine his efforts mainly to the committee or com mitiees bar ing in charge the measure In question. Beyond this lobbying fe objec loiiuhle; and when it follows members ' i their private apartments, and intrudes upon hours re served for studying documents and preparing reports, la in """ " "* so " o?e to ifls autfersble. It is my deliberate purpose lo discourage these praetlees, and to disapprovr all lulls which I shall hare good reasons lo belierc hare been passed !>r such means. SHORT DISTORT or TDK I/IRIIY. I don't know that anything like a regular, connected history of tho Now York lobby has ever been written, and I do not intend to attempt the task. But a short ?ketch of the institution with little photographs of Its leading ornaments of the present day will not be out of season during this year's session. When and where lobbying had its origin I am nnable to ?tale. Perhaps it always existed where legislative bodies prevailed. Out its ? sUbll-hmrnt at a regu larly organized Inatitution does not date further back than some twenty years ago. Thurlow Weed Is the man who built it up and kept It together for many years with n>re t ct and ability. How welt "the old man" martged his cards, how often he carried the highest trumps and won the game in dashing style. It is hardly necessary to dwell upon. Thurlow for years was tho absolute despot of the lobby. He ruled with almost un disputed sway, and held the reins of power in his hand with an trou grip. All who entered his dominions had to do homage before the throne of King Thurlow, and obeyed his commands like loyal and dutiful sub jects. In those davs his associates were such men as Grtnocii, Simeon Draper, Jim Rowen (since Police Commissioner and Brigadier General, and now Com mirstoner of Chariilcsi, "Farmer" Avell, of Livings ton county, Hollis Wltlio, of Niagara Falls: Virus W. Smith, of Syracuse; l'almer V. Kellogg, of I'tica; O. B. Matlleoti, ot I'tica; rberill Holmes, of Penn Yen; (Hirer Ladue, of Liule Falls; Austin Myers, of Syracuse, and others of the some stamp. Home of tbetn are uow passed Into another sphere, but most or them still live, and no doubt look back to tbe glorious days of King ThurioW's tonitu with feelings of pleasant regret. "Farmer" At ell was recently appointed Collector of Internal Revenue by President Johnson, but was rejected by the 8enaie. h would be wrong to represent all the parties I have aame<t as regular lobbyists. Tboy were not so strictIv within the meauiug of the word, but came whenever ??old man Weed' called, and gave I heir assistance with n good will, r-ome ol ttiem expected a large interest in jobs, others stipuia ed for a m anr consideration, some asked merely for their ex pens w, while some more took a band in merely lor thg love of the thing, considering It honor enough to lie summoned by "the old man" or to show Jotters from the veteran chief calling them to Albany. No man ever before or since exer cised (be same amount of control as Thurlow; but like all other sovereigns, no matter how high or how potent, his authority was sometimes disputed. (Vrssionally there would he a defection, and aotnc ambitious lobbyist would strike out on hi own hook, openly or heereUy, but the influence of Thurlow and his uumerous satellites would soon squelch the rash I mortal who dared attempt com|>etltlon with the wily raanipuUior. Tbe squelched mortal would be liappy iudoed if afterwards he oould find refuge under the broad ing is of King Thurlow. WIEO S FOWBR OX TPS WAV*. It is a very common but true saying that "every dog has his day, ' and mi has every human, not excepting oven lobbyists. Thuriow's dey was a very long sod a very bright on#, but it bad its sod. sod power slipped from Ids bands nsver, perhaps, to return. About 1864 there came on the sc ene a new figure which was destined to play a very Important part in the history of the New York lobby. This was a pretty tail and a pretty smart figure known as Annan tax vbtbtsv, or as hs is popularly termed among tho boys of tho capital "Abe." Brought up In tbo wlt-ebarpenlug school of the law, Abe commenced life as an attorney and counsellor, practised regularly for some time, and mad# his dvbut In polite al l(fe as Affjntant General on lbs sun* of Governors Hamilton Fish and Washington Hunt, while filling this honorable position he wes n^??Tr! Z lnto contact with the leading spirits or the lobby, and thus picked up some crumbs or cartons Information aa to it* ways and means. When the term of his adjutant generalsmp expired, be went out a wlner lr net a tieteor man. and look to the lobby, of which be noon became one of the bright, particular stars. He is entitled to come first among thoee 1 intend to sketch, beoauee be was lbs first man that sue eedsd In gaining an Itideitendspt foothold in opposition to tbe power of Weed k Co., and may be said to be the pioneer of the preeent guerilla system or lobbying. Van Vecbten made his specialty New York cite matters taking charge of the interest of hankmg and other corporations, which b* engineered with much skill and ?access. He was as of ten engaged to kill legislation as to promote H, and was about equally reliable m e tber tins. Van Vecbten comes ot one of tbe old si and moat respectable Knickerbocker families In the State and traces beck hit ancestors to tba time of the first wttle ment of Albany by the Dutch. Aa a lobbyist ha has been one of tbe most sncceesfui, and is now said to bs a man of Independent fortune. He keeps a large e*tabli?n In Albany and lives In good style. In appearance be la decidedly Knickerlmckierah. baring many of tbe peculiar features of the old stock, and a good deal of Its thrift and care Of worldly goods. He * a man nearly, If not quite, sit feet in height, has s sharp eve, Is a ready talker, end uses a little Dutch blarney ,ag with y? effhek Altogether u? Is a pleasant though fellow. dax wnon About tho mme time as Van Vecbten * enccemfhl effort ht independent lobbying, "an Wood, of Hyrasase, m m *4rwelq rf mm! Ufumg about I k r,r;,C &sr ?,*!& " JPt'Pi"icni 111 iIiih I ne, nun ? 1S r,i.i|C Successful Indeed hi* flel.l ?f OViTUWBH Was m * unsure one untrodden by any before and bo did twi. More, nr.- I.ave to enoennter the mm* opposition ns oiiiyi.s wno invtho ixHttiliar nm'iiici^ ?.* X"o1^V" .< Mr* W ??f may oft <-?oe*'|uent. j to lute b illt up iho canal claim buain&tt him.?elf md it <? ic or'.i a be did not find It unworthy ot hi* laient Kumor h i if that the aiuillng, oily and Insinuating Dan found tbo t atialH an fcl Dorado more reliable and cer ium lb.iu lalitornta or Australia. Humor has aalan. derous tongue, however, and this may be on", one of her malicious inventions. Whether or no do not bark her ud in this InHtance Wood' according to Henry Smith, of Albany, i? now??w? venerable and exjierieiiced gentleman from Onondatra " So longer u member of the third house b? la at preient tho republican leader of the Assembly. He has to7 member for many years, and in tbo "present Houm fills M "ana He f chwrw,*n of ,h? Committee of Ways and ihetU!Li a * prosy speaker, but a good worker and a lion HehiCpf .tricki Bna lnlri('a<'"* of Icglala attribntes 17 l?7 "i 18 fi'"l0r<hK but some of tbe solid miin? i .1 loader: w decidedly better in minipu whTJl i CU* discussing a nice point In debate rbbc<?^,ir.M"i tokln,t wu are <?i?ntiaU. Ha is the recognized champion of tbe canals. . ... sax riBLn. comrdete8*^thm'? ^ '?bbr' ,0n" 0r ghort' wouM *?? >?' Or^ns coT.LIl some mention of Ben Field, of Albion. 1, , county, u would be wrong, perhaps, to els** SKSTa'ld V?bbyi8lS' for he " not ? ATij i s..obs;,y <&r2rL2rsE Hd".C'r,hat fl2,urished 10 u'l'? ^ o?d Uma?"now dead and gone. He docs not bur and eell for nersonsi gain, nor doe. ho advocate jobs bet^usT he b?*P m tT^iuIi pro*|>?<'liv? **lare in Aem. Ben is what may toe a lobbyisl- H? h" figured in Albany cimes ror a number of years, and has worked himaAir ind^wn! ^,ti0nK0f ,ftader by dint of *??<i management n shrewdness. Ben war. originally a Weed man, liko most of tbe prominent politicians of his nnrtv but he fell out with 'the old man-one One day aid h? Bll?cc heon ??o of the mosf determined, able and Industrious opponents or tbe deposed king of the lobby 1*1,.?^' ber0,.r*Suhrly ?Terv winter, boards at the ^.17! ,u, ^ legislative term, and occupies him l?n* AhSJK B f?y Rod against bill* for' political rea ^ Bend^n/,? ?rmore "*? 1 ???? yon a sketch oanvaI-. lt 1aUo,ndlnR Senatorial I? werfi R?r faithful photograph as Tar as with a *1 " LalTe' P'nmp. rosy mortal, Tr hoi massive head surrounded with plonty mil **, an<1 . mFRl*r.v. Ho is a strange tin to hniuuhlo genius, over moving about with a thought fill brow, and supposed to be eternally plotiiug and plan " "f*p tremendous schemo or schemes that arc to I .?.n? lba,"y.^..U'S ,vei7 ce,tre- Ho 13 provoklnglv re. ?lii ii.i' 113 1,ulci 'llt0 most oracles; never oo.'f oi?^ nor blurhi out his secrets unnecessarily, hut cets all ho can from everybody else Ben Is Interested l believe, in sleeping cars, and has a nice farm in Albion. Orleans county. with these preliminary observations as to the lobby in geneial in the past ami present, let me without further ado proceed to sketch the live men of to-day, who seem l"iIon ,r?'' 0a< b 'a bis own way' tbo m#clliucry of legia It is proper to promise that I do not wish it to be un derstood that the people whom I have and shall moS Wlt,!ln J'10 descriptions I have already given ?L? . K; ral dia-acterloics of the lobby, gome of m wli0,n?,,,r occupy high social positions, and who are above the breath of low suspicion. This Is particularly the case of a Tew of the old associates of ^ w<,u w ? da,'bled in lobbying merelv for the love af'onfXC. ?nt ?f tbe 'hin?- But thc sketches I am fume makl7 1? k lnr1'vidualR wbom common and I hnva ,?mHer?. of th0 lobby, ii, r.i . j doubt common fame is right . ? individuals. Van Vechten, f have already gl\ eu a wj triie and sufliclentiv correct account but I may and here that tho success which he and Wood met with was the menus of inducing others to attempt in th???vlni lo',byin?' ?'ln<, thus "as undermined gradually the \ieed tnfluence. until now the "Old Man'' is a mero tCoP* ,evr"dtSr^ bv1nM:ly a" bis former adherents and I ,,if,ropcded by the new men that are springing I p all over tho State. There Is no successor to bis power dlvini i ,;{,|Ke' ''oivevcr. What be wielded Is now h! ' . a??>nif some wore of hungry imitators, each in dependent of the other, and no one exercising (tint large and extended sw-ay over both democrats and re publicans that so distinguished the Weed era A groat big job has now to lie aerompli>hed bv a combination among several of these people, eflected by nice diplo t77*?rAe ' ?h ,D08, a*,'""1 manmuverine. while before or frown ?r 001 *.,dono by ,h0 "'mi''" nod cLoZd man' Vcr;,y ,,m0? kave indeed The leading lobbyist.* of tbe present time seem to be A. B. Barber, Abram Van Vechten, Hugh Hastings. ThomnQ f?' ^ P William Ricb^m Tliomas C., Alvord, Honry 8mith. Dan D. Conover. J ?: ^y' F^erick Lltllejohn, James J. Bcldeti, Peter IAo T>' Brtl,c.e' c- p- shaw, Charles h. Tbomp t?n; Thomas^B. Van Buren, Coorge SherrilL Waldo Hut en ins, O. P. Stuart, John Thompson, D. D. S. Brown Vtllliatn S. King, Colonel Vsndcnberg, Jas. B. Swain' Benjamin F. Maniere, Charles Vandervoort ex-Sneaker ttSe- N;lao0 J- Watarbury, and AmtmeA and friends of the Citizens' Association. Behind mot^in K , ^ po,wen' who all the machinery in motion, but who seldom appear here tpiu per ton u. art< siich men as George Law, the VandeHWlts, Oliver Charlock, Jacob Bharpe, Peter B. Sweeny Henrr ttun host of?",if0bli a*?' Tw00*! Hugh Smith and a host of national, State and municipal olficera besides many business men ot tbe meiroimlis interested in tbe Parage or slaughter of certain legislaUon BCTH HAHTIXOfl ,'f "?0, 0f. the tnost remarkable and prominent among 'b00? 1 b*v* enumerated as actual lobltyists. His first appoaranco In Albany was In the role of a bright Irish Isd, fresh from tha native nod, and overflowing with the I w,th n ,D<1 adT,ntope- He was wftbont friends and oie of h?.??r|'i V 800,1 m,nnK0d w fa" ??> with both. y?.0-.hl* farllest occupations was that of clerk to an auctioneer, In which capacity be does not appear to have hammered away much to bis own profit pecuniarily But he attached to him the good wtu of all tbe fast young fallows of tbe town, and by their efforts was soon elevated to the dignity of editor and proprietor rfS weekly paper called tbe <SWri'cft, a publication which bad a meteoric-like e.lstencc?ehort but brilliant. The Switch Indulged continually in tba expensive luxury of sensation Dbal^ and its Celtic proprietor finally met hie reward in "hap0 of * proeecnUon for defamation of character who V. ^K?ied 8u>n.e "f 1 am correctly Informed), ho carried the thing on with ao much earnestness that Haatinga, It ta said. In order to escape a regular trial pub r L for AftMe he had written, acknowl edged tu falsity, and in fact performed that very refresh 1?,*.?^ of ?P h,? ?w?? words. This occurred h??n ???lYy**r* *?d *a* a heavy blow to our hero. But be was not to be daunted by such an u!Ler,.^b hto ??*laie* mad0 ">? moat of it. hi - th? necessarily excited against him by this unfortunate Incident of bin career ton. KhU" poioU M "?? that not vmy he was elected Clerk of the Senate Tbe fitntch, meantime, had switched Itself completely ?"t pf *?'yrnce, and Us quondam owner established the iSXTSrfcilS d,,ly papw-?which Is still In existence, under the fostering care of the gay but erratic Hantlna* Hugh served bis tnrm ont an Clerk of /the Senate, aod wJ^ll7??t^k.KU> lobbyJng' 10 wh,oh he ha* since Daeome one or the mwt famous adopts of tbe d?v Ho Mn.i^7"in#^."*Jr?*!U,r' P"1 "P 8 'ar3* brown alone ?nol, opposite tbe Capitol, and lived "f Wth his naw and elegant estab vi . what Is popularly called "a good freely Him I mIh'ir' ?akP" jokw' *nd *P*nd* monev taknT'ih. A ''ospitality Is genuine sod cordial. He X7 ie 8 Phll,*<>Pher, and has lbs . ^ 1 worried when unpleasant passages in hi* checkered caseer are ' niked un f?r "hla morttdeatlnn by political enemies. Hugh b*-?aseal in the Hoti?e, betug one or tha regularly appointed reporter* of the Assembly, and may be seen f?? i ^J? *. session perchod on s somewhat high ?tool before a still higher desk, with a pen stuck over his left ear and his bsnd* stroking the rull-grown whls inul hTr1" his ,millDK rountennnce He 1* said to have had a finger la several very Isr-e ,?es that Have beeu cooked In this virtuous capital, and some ?tatc he I* now worth aliout $300,000. Hl? operations a^e not comtnedwlthln strict boundaries, but he haa beemsome what identified with city bills and haa olten worksd HePta ah^r'rLbUt? "om,,tlm*R 'a^'H to defeat them. He la about forty-five years of age. I ^ t A. O. SARHSa i' * ba" brother of Judge Noah Davis. Jr., the lata fe""td*b'a fundldate for I'nited Bute* Senator, sgainst Roscoa Conkllng and Ira Harris. Barber took a verr active part in that contest, sad In lanonng for tbe else tioa of Davis found himself, it is said opposed be the fa favor or CoaktlnS "F***' Th0 in iifor of Cookhng. The refinlt nf tbnl intnrutttnff rac# hnwT * mM**r history, but It Is not generally known how large ? share of the aacret working and maneuver ?aLunL bT ,b0 ,obbyto*? "arber and .if *5m? P^P1* "V tbet these two skiltol guerilla together, of course, with tha veteran Ben Field and a few others did the chief part of the or ^f .,?VB*nPrOCarin, of Voim- "arber is now a man St ulAi e^Hr??iT*??v^,Ml " b*h*v?<? to be worth JJ 1100,000. Originally bn wm the kwtxtr Sin* nw lft77ryw^u ,B ,',7 1IUI# T,"a** of New Lou delegate to armia a7fh!f 2A. 7oni,g he m sent as ? ~ aoma of tha whig conventions, and showed ha wMniAd ^r* ult,lt7 M a po'ltlmu worker that wanamThe STmliIUmf Ior h|a?a?". Soma twenty ^*7? a?8 h? waa made saperiataadaatof canal redsir* and held offloa as such for tan year* when he ?? pointed one ofibeHarhor Mailer, for Naw York His time aa Harbor ifastcr expired two rAri ien h! joined tba lobby fitteea years back ei!d n?f?r *h! tbat'aScullar rtimiiT %,^^^dv'*ool, wame a proficient in tout peculiar celling. He ha* ever stare been a regular flmmdmw*lon?. faneraiiy en W? Mpponlng ftcbnmniL but for iho laj?t few ^M^amil?W?DLOOF^?PIA?,0l,l e' "?cb Job*as be could ??! aa iBMrcit to. for about fl??^ k? Haa Tburlow Weed's latlmate friand. ?Traln|j_ nnoaoa m juxc. Is a'plump, Jolly, rosy looking restomer. food of cigars and good things generally George halls from By recuse, a?*/00''* of tbe sharpeet and shrewdest members ? tbe lobby. He commenced bis political Itfb as a Know Nothtngduring tbe exciting period when Dan Ulma7n (since become famoM as tbo first organiser of colored soldiers) ran for Governor m tbo triangular contest be tweao himself, Seymour and Oarke. For two or three year* ha figured aa ? light la tbe native American firma ment, nod then turned up m a member of Ut# hardshell democracy. About tba mine period be commenced dabbling la legislation, and In a abort time became a recognized ornament of tba lobby, and ? bright one at '?at. Hi* principal achievement* have been the passage of show's Iron piers aad wharves bill, aod Some measures of equal Importance. Ha resides la Albany, and devota* bis winter* to A# lobby and hla summer* Jo wall street He Is lond of speculating, and If he is J?ot rich. It is more the fhntt of Wall street than the P?sent he seema I? ba tnteramed la railroad ?egis.atloD, and work lag against commissions g?!.h* "?Pr*aentatlve of Central Railroad Interests here, ,1," .J"11" 'be opponents of commission* Ha baa m "?m* 'be Naw York railroad scheme*, tboush *li aoeh as George Law has aa lalarast in. and tobbvUL^I 1-iy ?no"- ?'?"or in Aa capaoky of ma^tm, M jaatiy rsgard^l M tm of Ae AftwAAta tbe State. Until thU winter ho hail not made his ep in?nranr.* ?t Albany for three yeirn. Whenever ho li -urv.i here, howe.-er, iio takes A Very leading j-art, ?nil itiii i? due ue much to hl< own adroitness ae 'o ti e fart tliat hit rojwoeento George, the wealthy en 1 grasp ing umuo]>oIist. 1 hhould htato that Bern U> or ll'oarlla vil'.W I 111 Oh fillH llAftl ftltun tfl t>0 t 1.I6U Ueed'e -elcrtmen and uaed oiten to beH Albany by "the old man" to perform Important ner vine*. The Kkill and success bo exhibited on these oc'asions brought him to the notice of Lrastus Coming and George Law, and thus be con tracted t>nmucus relations with two of the most in fluential men of the State. he mis sa- connected with Law's ferry and gridiron radraad schemes. He resides at Mayvllle, Chautauqua county, and was many years ago clerk of that county. He is a farmer, and has a nice property of between one and two thousand acre* He is said to be now worth nearly half a million. He is a pleaant, gentlemanly fellow. WILLIAM RirBARDSO* is a gray haired, smooth faced Englishman, who some years ago carried on In an humble w?7 the paper hang ing business In Albany. By a lucky combination of cir cumstances he became Clerk of the Assembly about ton years aince, and from being a teetotal temperance lecturer and a demure Baptist deacon, suddenly emerged into a trading politician and successful lobbyist. While Clerk of the House several most im portant city railroad acbemee were passed, and the ex deacon and Croton water advocate gained great credit for his services in helplnc the Jobs along, he is now Pre i dent of the Dry Dock Railroad Company, and is snug. Mr. Richardson's name was mixed up recently with a capital joke played on one of the Kings county members. During one of the severe snow storms that occurerd a few weeks back tho afternoon passenger train of the Harlem Railroad for New York got snow-bound near Chatham Four Corners. Among the passengers were Richardson, the Kings county member in question, and a number of other member*, b -sides some ladles. A good deal of fiia snd practical joking took place, and the following 8unday an exaggerated account of the whole affair appeared in one of the metropolitan sensation weeklies. Richardson was represented as cutting up capers unbefitting his gray locks and pious antece dents. The Kings county member was the author of the article, and on his return to Albany was alarmed to bear from his friends that Richardson - - -- - kli...,.?n nf ieo to near iruui - ? ? _f hud taken mortal offence at the _V?MicntiM of find taicen rnon?i UiiffliVP n* swv ? his name in' such a connection. The same evening the member discovered a note on his desk, and on open ing it found it to contain tho following warlike invita tion:? Hin?In last Sunday's I find an article which I think era-sly assails my character. Understanding that you are the author of the scurrilous composlpnn. I demand an im mediate apology, or warn you I shall chastise you on sight. WM. RICHARDSON. The Kings county member looked aghast. Ho bad got himself into n nice flx by his con fonnded cncoe'aet tcritmdi.' Visions of pistols, coffins and graveyards floated before his mind's eve in n moment. He saw himself a corpse, or his friend Richardson '-a dead body" and he a murderer, nn outcast from society. He was not marriod. but there were ids constituents, who depcuded upon him uud looked to lilm to become famous or perish In the attempt. Would be offer himself up a sacrifice to the bloodtliirsiy ex-dencon, or would he not? That was the question. Would he apologize or fight? Ho would do the former, and forthwith dusticd oil an humble explanation to the terrible Richardson. He showed this humble answer to some of his friend*, at whoee suggestion he tore it up, and rosolved to go boldly forth and confront hie chal lenger. Accompanied bv two of these friends ho sallied out from tbo< apltol and bent bis steps toward the Iieia van Houso. On the way he favored his friends w ith a singularly accurate and close analysis of tiie disparity between Richardson and himself in the in liter ol feet and inches. Ho deinnnstrated how readily Richardson, supposing lum to lie caun balistically inclined. might "chaw" him (the member! up and reduce him to a pulverized condi tion in a remarkable short period. He exposed iho posi tive folly and downright impiety of duclliug. and strengthened liis a-guments by some liaif dozen or more drinks all round at different hotels and restaurants be. twoen Hie Uapilol and the Delavuu House. At length (lie latter place was reached, but Richardson was no where to lie seer, neither in the banoom nor refectory, nor reading room nor office. The moro Richardson was* not to lie seen the moro anxious the member was to soo hint In fact, the meniiier plaved a second Winkle to perfection. Inquiries of Mr. MoCloskev, the clerk, al last disclosed the important fact that Ricliamson was not in Albany at all. and that the member consequently had been sold. Subsequent developments showed that the challenge was the invention of some Xew York member, who desired to test the Kings county member's melle. The coolest part of tho proceedings Was the pro tesUtfion of the victim-zed legislator that bo knew ail along it was ? mere .ioke, and waa only keeping it up himself. toomas a ai.voho is ? too well known public chnructer to require an ex tended biographical sketch, and 1 shall merely ststo that be has been a member of the lobby for many years, looking after the mieresta of salt manufactories at Syra cuse. and that he has at present a nice little job before tho Committee on Roade and Bridges. He is one of the proprietors of the Palina and Central Plank Road Com pany, a corporation given great privileges by the Legis lature aome years ago, and author zed to charge certain tolls to parties travelling on their road. He now aaks for tho privilege of increasing the tolls and having the time originally allowed extended for many years. A singular feature of the Job Is that Alvord has placed before the committee a pe tition from people living along the road begging that the i Legislature allow tbem to be charged more by Alvord and his oompany. This, of course, is a humbug on its tace, but It Is so perfectly ooot that it can only he de scribed as the sublimity of impudence. When I eat I spoke with members of the committee about it they were teetotatly opposed to tbe Job. Alvord got Dan Wood to introduce tbe bill and petition, and bad writion on tbe former, "Shove this through," but to little effect It may have been shoved through since, how ever, for aught I know to the contrary; for strange things sometimes happen la oommliteee. j. c. CARRY, of Brooklyn, figures quite largely end mysteriously here as a lobbyist. He Is one of the queer, whispering geniuses who affect an air of profound mystery all tbe time, and strut about as if their every move was big with the fate of unheard of numbers or jobs, aad even legislation Itself would have to stand still without them. He would not for the world wish you "good morning" la a rone above a whisper, fbr fear it might be inspected he was talking of aomething of no importance. He srears a I arts diamond cross, oa a shirt bosom liberally displayed by a low vest, dresses in black, aad coltivatea side whtakers, which he delights to stroke. With all his nonsense, however, Carey Is s shrewd lobbyist, and was often employed by the late Dean Richmond la mat ters requiring tact and judgment in tbe handling. His present job seems to be the Christopher street twos town railroad scheme, which he works at day and night un ceasingly. He is also supposed to be ready to take a hand in, whenever assistance is needed by tbe Central Railroad folks. VRBDRRICK LITTUUORX is made after pretty much the same pattern as Carey, and belong* also to the City of Churches. He lea brother of the able ex-Speaker, Hewitt C. Littlejohn, and ie a dark-eyed good looking man, of medium size and fair ability. Ilia hobby tbia year Is the Three Tier Railroad of General Swain, in which he is interested, and by which he swears. Dan. D. Conover, of your city, and Charles Thompson, are also here to assist Swain in his enterprise. Loacxzo ssasrosa is a brother of the present Senator Walter Sessions He is from Chautauqua county, the same place as that from which Governor Kenton bails, ami is said to poea'ss a very large Influence with the amiable gentleman now at the head of the Executive branch of the State govern ment "to" Sessions, as he is familiarly styled, Is said to have manifested considerable power in procuring par. dona, and to him in connection with a certain Nsw York { Alderman is believed to be <iuc the liberation of Zeno Burnham, the auctioneer, about wbom there was such a fuss a short time since. There ts a queer rumor that young Ketrhum's pardon will shorty be insured, through the negotistlous of this champion of big criminals. Sessions lias the fame of being a very reliable men in anything he undertakes to manage. CHARLM VAXOKRVOORT. It may be William, Frederick, or Henry Augustus Vandervoort, as well as Charles, for I am not sure as to the Christian prefix, lint the mu himself was originally a reporter on the New York krming Ktprm, next a member of Mayor Woods pulling bureau, next e police clerk, and dually e lobbyist. In the few things he has undertaken he has been qnite successful. At present he Is striving to change the law aa to police clerks, with what prospects I know not. jaiks t. rfidrk Aim kirk users have as their peculiar province of the lobby canal claims, a very extensive and lucrative Held. The former was last year in with the Jacob Sharps railroad combi nation, but has been counted out this year. He aleo figured in the baggage express bllL He has the repaU* tloe of being a sharp busineta man and people say he ! makes piles of greenbacks. He Is a large contractor on { canal repairs and has conaiderdbie employment In at tending to bis own Interest*. With the '?Canal Ring" be Is believed to be on the beet of terms Kirk Bruce is a brother of General Bruce, member from Madison county, end Is here to look after (particularly) the Oneida Lake Canal. He lobbies claims through both the Legislature and Canal Board. KX-ar>AKKB eosum aim rxnta a ward flit about here occasionally on lobby business. Hosktns Is from Wyoming county and Ward from Steuben county. I scarcely know what the former Is particularly in search of, but the letter Is nursing his old darlings, to wit, roads and bridges and internal amirs of towns and ooantiaa. H1NST SXTTTt, better known under the euphonious prefix of "Hank," appears on Ibe scene again, It it supposed in the Interest or Jake Sharp* to slaughter things generally and to slaughter the little commission bills of the ottlssns association. "Hank" Is President of your Board of Supervisors," and has such s decided hankering for the good things enjoyed by htm in that capacity that bs objects to any legislativa action having a tendency to curtail or abolish tbem. WALDO BtTTOniNS, NKLSOS t. WATKRRURT AS* ORLAKDO SWART make visits here every other week. Hutchins, with hie broad brimmed hat and unctuous countenance, wee quit* busy during the Senatorial contest working for Greeley, but with liUle effect. Instead of hoieting the Tribune philosopher Into office, he managed in hoist a democratic member, Lewis Gregory, from his seat, contested by Colonel Stephen Baker, for the which b* IS to be well paid, it is to bo presumed. Nelson J. Waterbury, when he comee up, has bis poeketa chuck full of little bills to abolish and reforafeverything under the municipal sun. Hi* pet measure is on* to got himself into the Crotoo Board, vice Tommy Stephen*. Orlando Stuart early in llie session appeared aa oae of the supporters nf Judge Davis fi>r t ailed States Senator,

but later turned up ss an advocate of Carey's cross towa railroad scheme and the Cltisens' Association bill for a Board of Public Works. n. n *. rroww a*i> wiixiam a i?o are acting as the friends of the underground railroad sv heme of our old Inend Sam Nowian, who calls It "the arcade plan." Brown and King are proprietors of tho Rochester Demnerat, and the latter has s seat lithe House at a reporter. Tbsy are assisted la their eflbrta bv Messrs. Gardner sad Smith, friends of the herd struggling Nowlsn. onatmcrr a. netutw avd runs a mrrtsnta cannot fairlv be classed mug regular teihfleie. both appearing here Mmplv 03 tbe counsel of the Hudson River and Harlem Railroad Companies. I mention them, Iiowev?r. an prominent parties who figure here during the legislative .*e*4l?u. IttNJAMI* r. MAXX1KK* has quite a number of irona in the fire. Indeed he U one of the great powers at Albany, having at his hack so many influential people, and being thoroughly posted in all the dodves and arts of law making and law shaking. His chief projects this winter are one, seeking increased powers for tbe Hoard of Police Commissioners, and another to remodel the whole school system of tbe metro polis as developed in Assemblyman Berryman's bill. Both are highly important measures, and tbe latter has created a vigorous opjtoeltloo from nearly every class affected by it. Manniere's antecedents are well known. He was State Senator, United State- Provost Marshal in his dis trict during the war, and filled other positions. He ia a small man, but? full of vitality and Inexhauetiblo In ex pedient*. For tbe closing sketches of my picture gallery of lob bvista I have reserved some of the underground and elevated railroad folks, not because they are least im portant, but because I prefer to wind up, as well as open, with some of tbe big bugs. Foremost among them I should mention OOLOSRL VAXDlVRPItCIl. who is a perfect enthusiast on the subject of a tunnel railroad for the relief of Broadway. He is a civil en gineer by profession and is undoubtedly * man of con siderable ability and extensive information He was born somewhere in the interior of the State, but has had tho rustic vordancy knocked out of him by travel abroad and close study. Happening to be in London ? during tho construction of the underground railroad there, ho became thoroughly acquainied with ihe subject of tunnelling, ventilation, grades, seworg. gas and water mains, and overytblng re lating to subterranean pa?sage-making. On returning home he found the Idea bad just been broached before the legislature of relieving Broadway by a tunnel railway, and be announced himself as an ardent nd ocate of such a plan. A Canadian named Wilson hsd subm tiod to the legislature a rather impracticable plan for a route down below the sewers and gas and water mains sonv'whoro in the region of Orcus. Colonel Vandenburgh changed tho whole design, and prepared one which recommended Itself somewhat more strongly to the common sense and ontlcs of the learned Senators and Assqmblvmen. Ever slum? ha has been the most devoted triend of the tulncl system, and has spent his timo and money in improving and forwarding the prospect* of his darting scheme. It is hi* theme of conversation by day nud he dreams of It by night. If he falls into a premature grave, it will cerUrnly be from an attack of tunnel on the brain. fit tRI.EY SHAW Is Vandenburgh'* shadow. Wherever "the Colonel'' is there Charley is almost sure to he found, unless It be early in the morning, wh"n Charley's head is snuggled under the bedclothes, while -'the Colonel's" Is Indus trlously marching up and down the halls of the hotel. Charley is a gay and festive, dapper little body, full of gossip and good nature. He Is a distinguished gradu ate of Vale or Harvard, and a lawyer by profession. He scorns to be called a lobbyist, and believes all loboylsts are his mortal foes: snvs they regard him as an intruder, and won't tolerate bim at nil. A smart, industrious little feHow is rbaw, wPh a tongue that never tires un 1 ss his throat ts sore, and a brain that Is constantly in a ferment. Ho has been mlxivt up wi'li a few Important schemes, and Is row Vandenhurgh's Indefatigable assist ant in the underground railroad project. TITOM.VS B. VAX BERK"*, an ex-member of As=semblv and a prominent republican of the Twenty-first ward, :s another advocate of the Vandciiburgh 'scheme, nnd, a3 a lobbyist, is olever. Ho is said not to object to take a band in anything that comes in his way. (.EXSItAr. J ALES R. 3 WAIVE is tbe or'sinator of tbe tbr-'o tier railroad scheme, about which so mucli has been beard of Is'e, and is one of that class of people who wheu they lake hold of nn Idoa allow themselves to be run away with nnd stake every thing on its success. lie is an enthusiast on the subject of Ins railway plap to relieve Broartwav. The Genera! keeps bachelor's ball up here, and keeps plenty on hand for his friends. He is a hard and porsiaient worker. Fred I.itib'john, Dan Cnnov.-r and General Serrell sup port him in bis efforts to have his plan sanciioned by law. johx rnoifpsov, the principal partv Interested In tbe underground rail road scheme recomtucndod bv the special committee of the Senate, is a small man. about bhaw'ssize. and a very 6hrewd, sharp fellow. He was originally connected with Vandenlturgb. but i? now associated with Wolf and other wealthy men of the same stamp. He Is aided here by an ex-Trifmur reporter named Croffut, a sort of a hair developed lobbyist, who does the scribbling for Thompson and tries to operate favorably on the corres pondent* nud reporters. Croffut is a fair newspaper man, bnt of hi* genius for tbe lobby there has been littlo chance to judge yet. Davison, tbe Pneumatic Railroad man, is also working in the interest of Thompson. Beside* those I have mentioned above there are a few other und -rg round and elevated railroad men, such as Willson, the first projector of a Broadway tunnel plan ; William*, inventor of an elevated mode, and some parties interested in the bulkhead and Youker's patent pro jects But I have giveu you a sufficiently full account el the lobby for the present, and if I have more that might bo added will reserve it for a future paper. CUBA. OUR HAVANA CORRESPONDENCE. Treaty Betweea St. DomIiko and the United Mtatea?(iallaat Act of the United States Steamer Wiaooekl?Impertaat Falla re Commercial, Ac. Havaua, Feb. 20, 1807. The result of my investigations about the Havana mall bag per Eagle, sent to Key West and not returned till recently, is that the bag was erroneously labelled "Key West;" end therefore the delay was caused by your Poet Office. The mistako has done a good deal of mischief, without saying anything about the disappointment and confusion which It created. The Bay of Samana, affording us as good a harbor as we could desire, baring, besides many other advantages, a good ooal mine, for the supply of our men-of-war, is wall worth all the perse re ranee which our government has brought to bear in that quarter; and Samana must now be supposed to have been Anally secured. If It is not in my power to say so officially or upon authority, let mo at all events announce to your rseders that the "Treaty of amity, commeroe, extradition," he., which our Chargd d'Aflhires In 81. Domingo, Mr. Sommers Smith, had in hand, has bean concluded, and goes by this steamer?the son of Mr. ttmlth, who arrived here last Sunday, being the bearer of that very Interesting document Mr. Folsom, our Consul at Cape Hayti, accompanies Mr. Smith, in the Columbia. We wish them a safe trip, and congratulate Mr. sommers Smith, whatever may be the tenor of the treaty. On ttuudav morning last, at half-past ten o'clock, the English Consul happened la meet Mr. Minor, our own representative, and speaking of the disaster consequent upon the wreck of the Bngtlab ship Martha (recentlv advised to you), and of there being no English man-of war at hand to rescue the beings that may have re mained on the veeeel, Mr. Minor spontaneously offered to send one of our gunboats to the wreck. Tho gener ous offer was gladly accepted by the English Consul, and as promptly responded to by the commander of the United States steamer Wlnooakt. The object being to aave, if poe?lble, the lives of sixteen of the mi-Ring mariners, Including the captain, the Winooekt left the hart>oc in less than hair an hour, the mate and three of the Mprtha's men (which had been picked up and brought In hare by the Arcadia), serving as the pioneers in the search. When the Wluooskl got to the wreck, as near as was deemed prudent, the necessary signal swere ftred; but. not being replied to, It was evident that no one was on board. Toe Wlnooski made a thorough search along the coast, but, not bstng abls to And any of the missing men, she returned yeeterdav afternoon. Aa the weather has been fair for several davs past It may be presumed that the men have been picked up by some vessel or vessels bound to other porta. A humane act like the present on the part of s man-of-war, which generally have other Ash to fry, I could not allow to pan without recording, I regret to have to register the suspension of the old Arm or Don Cosmo da la Torrieote, merchant and plant er, of Matanvee, who owns three large sugar estates, and waa always supposed to be Immensely rich. The aroato, according to book statements, sre estimated nt mora than $8,000,000, and the liabilities at only about 82,800,000. I understand that ha oAara to pay his creditors la full at the rata of $180,000 for two successive years, and than at the rate of $200,000 annually, until the total extmetlon of the debt It is foared that this misfortune will be followed by the stoppage of hie bro ther, Don Antonio, who Is one of our wealthy merchant planters. It la besides rumored that the Raaco de Sen Carlos, of Malanaa, being a sufferer from the failure to the extant of $900,000, may fail or have to suspend Its payments Mercantile matters look very dubloes, and there la no tack of persona who pretend to foresee a deplorable future. Some predict a real crisis in August: others owlae that we shall be In difficulties as early aa April or Map. All I can my It that the Bank of Barc elona, which waa to have remitted a targe sum, my $000,000, bv the tact mall, has flailed to do and that while the Madrid Bank has iu own difficulties to get ever, It can scarosiy ba expected to send the promised million and a half, which I allnded to previously. We have already had half n doten failures of dry goods dealers since the December panic, and It le feared that more will follow, not only In this, but also In other branches of tmde. Fur these and many othsr reasons I would merely warn your traders with Cuba, without creating any autoes aary alarm. Aa a proof of the prevailing state of things, I can cite the sale st auction of the coffee plantation "Plasencis," near Santiago de Cube, consisting of eight hundred and twenty Ave acres of good land, and including tho entire gang of negro slaves, the cattle, buildings, Ac., for tbe ?urn of $84,000, of which $12,000 in cash, and the balance in four years, without interest. According to tho news from Spain by the last malt ths army Is to ba augmented to two handred thousand man. Tbe sugar market la not very lively, and it la difficult for planters to obtain 8 reals at prosent far Ma 12 Wa hsva seen vary good lots of No. 1214 sold at $M reals, and No. 1$ at 9*4 reals. The stock ia Havana and Matanma is about 150.000 boxes, against 170,000 at same date last year. That of muscovado compares more favorably, being 11,200 lihda , against 9,000 last year. Tbare is no variation In molasses. Tho markot la dull. Fraighta to Europe are la fair demand; tbe supply of tonnage has been tietler; charters have bean made at ?2 6s. to ?2 Ta fld. Tbe demand for tbe United Btatm has improved, and tbe rates have advanced The last freight coastwise was effected at $0 per hhd. sugar. Ex change continues Arm. sterling st 14 to 14)4' 9* ?*"1 premium a fair buslines la does on the United States. Now York currency at W*< s M per mat demon at, and sixty day gold buie at 1* a 2)g per cent premium. MEXICO. OUR ZACATECAS CORRESPONDENCE. Ortega Meat to 8u Luis for Comrt Martial? Junrrx Wonts Civil OImcmImi ta be, ?Avoided?The Mine* Near Memhrerete?Do ?rriptloa of NreealUe?Arrival at Zacaterae. Zacatbcas, Jan. 23, 1807. We left Durango Monday, January 14, 1867, about tlx A- M., escorted out of the city by a number of the lead, lag citizens. Tbere was not, however, ao much enthu siasm displayed as has heretofore been noticed at other cities and towns. About two P. M. we reached the hacienda of La Pun la, where we breakfasted. We after wards proceeded to the hacienda of San Quentin, which we reached at a quarter to eight P. M?seventeen leagues for the day. Tbe road throughout the day's journey was very rough and the country thickly spread over i with volcanic limestone boulders. The valleys traversed ?re well watered, (tor Mexico, by the southern branch of the Rio del Mezqultal, which flows through Northern Jalisco into the Pacific. The mountains are tumbled about in wild confusion and frequently covered with extensive forests of mesqult and other trees. The lands in the valleys are of a good quality, and; irrigated by the waters of the river, produce bountifully of tbe cereals, principally corn. In tbe afternoon we passed two large cornfields, one of which had five thousand and the other seven thousand acres. Immense forests of noprel are scattered along tbe road, many of the trees thirty feet high. Pan Quentin Is a little collection of mud huts, with the usual caw grande of the haci?nda in a prominent position. There are, perhaps, one hundred and fifty in habitants. The accommodations for tho night were rather poor, and the President, as well as the rest, had to rough ft a little. On Tuesday we left San Quentin at half-past eight A. M., breakfasted at San Felipe hacienda, and reached El Mortcro hacienda, a ten leagues' journey, at three P. M. The toad was good as far as San Felipe, tbe lands that bordered it very fertile, but not so well watered as yesterday. A few immense cornfields, which we passed, were surrounded by wood and stone feneas. The moun tains around us were very lofty, and we were riding probably at an elevation of seven thousand feet above the level of the sea. San Felipe is a small agricultural hacieuda. with perhaps seventy-five inhabitants. El Mortero is a true old baronial residence, beautifully lo cated upon a commanding eminence, and overlooking an immense and fertile valley, completely locked in by lofty mountains. Around tho great castellated mansion are tho huts of the peons who live upon the estate. Over the rront entrance arc the family arms of the Cbunt of Guallntapf-, the former owner of the estates which, during the time of the Spanish Mayor uzgos, belonged to tbe family. These states were then immense, and extended northward beyond tbe capital of Durango to the hacienda of Guadalupe. Estovon dol Carnpo was tho last heir of the domain; but bad manage ment and a prodigal lire finally reduced him to the hacienda of Guadalupe, which he afterwards sold, and died in a miserable rancho. El Mortero in former d#vs must bavo been a glorious old feudal castle, where feasting and the wassatl bowl were the glory of the hour. The old mansion is about one hundred and fifty feet square, and built around an interior court yard about one hundred feet on each side. Pillared corridors run around, the interior, and balconies are found at all the front windows of the second atory. From these balconies you sec winding througlj the great valley the little river, which, like a silver thread, glitters here and there in the sunshine. So vast is this valley that you can trace the clumps of mezquit trees as they grow smaller aud smaller to the view, and, gcutly climb ing tbe long slope of tho mountains, are finally, four thousand feet above and many a league from you. lo3t almost, or at least appear like verdure on the mountain side. On the side of the mountain, two leagues from tho houso, the grass and bushes were all on fire and a strong wind blowing up the slope. In the darkness of the nieht tho sight was wildly grand. On Wednesday we travelled from El Mortero to Sora brerete, oleven leagues. We left El Mortcro at seven o'clock A. M., after the usual cup of chocolate. At a point about one and a half leaguos beyond, and near the hacienda of Conoepcion, is the dividing line between Durango and Zacatdcas. I observe that there has bben a marked differonod in the reception of the government along tbe route to-day. It la Chiboahua over again. Every rancho poure out its Inmates who wish to stop the carriages and to Shake hands with the President. Bo fore we reached the breakfast point a commission met us from Sombrarete who welcomed the Praaldent and I UUS?1 UP*.1* of M* onw*rd- At the Arroyo del I Marfll, about one leagoeTpom the town, another com mission met thei President, and the whole party gathered 'h.? b>ntof if* fiver where ? welcoming speech was rw?d end responded to. In this speech I observed that which I have noticed in nearly all his speeches; he never r .VvldI?!Ln,8h -th? P6?P,? th"t '* not the conclusion P5?. J"r en.ibey hav? h??" rh??d from the KFrench, but afterwards comes the "oonsolidatton of tZ* J2vU d"??t?,oo?," said he, "cultivate >ny and obedience to the laws." i and *'nlst?rs then took the carriages which bad been sent for them from the city, and, pre P?^?d bT w!* mu,l,c ,0 ? carriage, rode into Som J?" poor Paopls?men, women and children. n?ked "I harely covered with a row miserable rage-crowded the mad- outside tbe J J hill aides on tho route ioto town, he enurad.Cr0W nld* P"*1 dent's carriage aa t J***"*!*'* b?"?T?' hed turned out m twuv. i-fl H? th!nk that a single human being that could ? ?!n" ed 'nabouao. In tbe suburbs a battalion dra*n up to salute the parsing coiun.n. The eyes of tbe efhol* population were lighted uu wi h * happy brilliancy, different from any 1 have ^ ?* -??1 ?n the route. The President was re ceived at the pr nclpal building of the place, and three m wh?Jh"h?,ed MmA jr.,h * sP*?ch read by one of them, to which he responded In a few appropriate wordn The country traversed to-day Is along a bread and very fertile vallev, bounded on the north and south by lofty limestone ridges. This valley fs a vast corn field, and lt6da!llih haciendas and machos of rrom fifty to one hundred and flfty inhabitants Hie wln'?sl>(thr,^?h0.Hb?reU 18 vcry mi,d: com1 *'?d* through the mountains for about four miles tra\ ersing, for a part of tbe way, a wild look ing mountain atrsam which Is now quite dry: hut In the must be a. perfect torrent Buge pinna nr^.iu.-W> '?V0C-f."" hntfrpsaes to the laaocessihle ??? either eldo; and theee pinnacles are somo uraes crowned with immense boulders, anmy tons la weight, which threaten at,every momeat to launch hom3 m'd air and plunge to their eternal At the entrance of the building occupied b.v the Presi dent the people had spread a French flag on the pave mcct, over which whoever eutsred the building bad to walk. I did not observe tbe President as ba went in; but walking out with the Minister of War, General Vgna cio Mcjia, I observed that he avoided stepping upon It aa much as possible. One of the principal citizens of tbe place also noticed It, and exclaimed "Yon do not tread on the French flag." I admired the answer:?"It is the French Emperor, not France, that makes war tipoa us France is republican nt heart, and will toon lead the van lb republtcanizing the Old World, while we, m connec tion with the Tutted States will republican>ze the New. That flag represents tbe French people, and will yet as sert Its republican rights; let us therefore respect it In that light." Sombrerete la attoated in n mountain valley upon tbe margin of a little river. It take* Its name from a pecularly shaped mountain, which looks like a sombrero or bat. It la a celebrated mineral district; and now, within a radius of seven leagues, are found numerous and valuable silver veins, unworksd on account of the condition of the eonntry. It Is reported that to 1702 tbe owner ot tho mi do known as tho Veta Neurit took out |11.000,000 In nine months. This mine, about three hundred yard* deep, la now abandoned and full of water nearly to Its mouth- Another famous mine ts tbe Pa belion, only four hundred vans deep, is also full of water and abandoned. The largest power ever used In an attempt in free these mines has been a fifteen boras power engine working some maiacatea (hid# buckets) The effort was unsuoceeat uL Tbe usual yield of the Som brerete minee Is about |26 to three hundred pounds of ore; considerable quantities of ore have been taken out, however, that have yielded flfty per cent of sliver. Tbe mines era all of them, doubtless, exceedingly rich, but I am told that water 1s the great enemy with which the minora have to contend. The Veta Negra la oonstdnred the moat valuable. There waa oaoe a population of from Ave to six thousand bore, but for lack of mining development there are now but three thousand people There are seven establishments still existing for the beneflciaalag of the ores; four of these are by fire and three by quicksilver. It costs here about seventy-flva cents par oae hundred pounds of ore to beneOciale by quicksilver, and about one dollar and fifty cents per one hundred pounds to extraet tbs silver by the melting process. They find tbe barrel process chsapest but do not use It These establish menu are very little worked now, and when worked It la la tbe most primitive man ner. Many poor people make a living b> working over the clay that has been thrown away, also by washing tho sands and mine draining. Many work in abandoned mines or la new veins on their own account, and in three days of the week maxe a little lump ot stiver which they sell for from |2 SO to |& Tbia they make last until poverty forces them to go to work again on the fol lowing week. They thea, from week to week, support themselves In an uaoartato existence. Charcoal is verv iTi ?L!*?!!i lbr"? ,h,UDdr,Hl PO"1*' An enter pnse on a large scale would pay here, providing there an*d*oapftal!,*,*,IW6 for Pa?c? and protection toenterprtee ii Op >** Fombrarete at half-past seven A. raached^lMut fn..l*r<>?f0*?.d'"Unt' wh'cb |>olnt we p. IL The sir. like a September day ta New York, waa cool and bracing. We rode near inrt Tk tCb "4?mhr,'r*<# takes its name, g^bfft.*ld">ylntb? ?>?* stopped at a little ramcKc co??tsUBg of s rew mud beta Here ?? brauhfanted, while a waedertag harper gave as a brmisiu nTt.l'r ABOit'*t JHUa jauat of three leagues t? c*Btana.. where we fed the mules an J re ^ fw>w Akqu wkloU tUtitlid Um hospitality of the town to the government. One of the IHdMM made ? short sprtx b, lo which (he President reaponded in ? few words. We then started for Seln. The people, as usual, crowded the suburbs and were all enthusiasm to greet their President The women and children tilled the corners end door-ways: shawls were stretched across the streets, and ever}" demonstration made which could be offered for % warmth of greeting.' A band of music, good for the place, escorted the Presi dent into town. Houses were freely opened to all, and n true heart-welcome given. Seln is n purely agricultural town of about three thousand inhabitants, with a number of quite good buildings, and a church with some pretentions to beauty. The town Ib extremely liberal; and a month before the French evacuated Durango, Sombrerete and Fresnillo. the people bad pronounced for the liberal cause, and threw ell their elements into opposition to the empire. When the French evacuated Durango and pawed through the town, as a last remembrancer, they pieced a heavy line on the people. The geatlemau in whose house I stopped for the night was forced to pay $600. I am la formed that wherever there has been an uprising against the empire, it has been in fkver or Juarea. This is a good sign, and bodes well for the future. General Arcs left here to-day with Ortega, a prisoner, on hie war to ' San Luis Potest. The country travelled to-day Is leas cultivated than yesterday; a heavy rolling dlrtrlct for the Brat few leagues; now and than a very small cultivated patch; n great want of water; the mountain sides barren; and everything quite denotata. The land might serve for gracing purposes, but never for agricultural, unlaw God sonde more rain than now. The district around Sola la. howorer, quite well watered by the stream that runs near the town. This river gives the town its whole ex istence. There is no mineral wealth wtthtn the Imme diate vicinity of the place. Seln, it appears, was eo liberal in Us sentiments, that they sent a message to Governor Auza to helo them throw off the French yoke. Auza answered that he had no force; the town said tbey wanted only one man. This one man being sent by Ansa tbey threw off the yoke, established a liberal government and thus held a strong i>oint on the main road or the French occu pation from Zaoatecas to Durango. It caused the French much trouble to have their communications thus cut, and horrid tho evacuation of the latter city. When the French occupied Fein the flrsd time the clergy.pourad into It with them, and Immediately there, despite the recognition of the " l-aws of Reform " by Maximilian, overtoppled them and established the old order of things with all its ceremonies. The French laughed at it, for they commanded whore they pleased; but the clergy saw the regeneration of their lost power, and worked hnrd to fortify it. It was tho same in every town and city occupied by the intervention. The elerev as quietly disappeared upon the occupation of the different points by the liberals. The extreme liberal condition of Zaca tecas, it is said, Is due very much to Governor Francisco Oarcii, who governed in lktl4. His lows were so liberal, salutary and valuable to the State, 'bat they gave an im pulse to llbertv which was nevsr lost It was he who raised the first gro.v armv of liberty, which was so ern elly massacred by the 'op-ervaiivo troops underwent? Anna ? On Friday we left Fein at li.ilf-pa3t seven A M and reached Rancbo t.rande at one P. M.?ton leagues. Some people from Fein escorted us a fow leagues and then took leave of ns. T!:e only point passed on the road was Fence, consisting of half a dozen miserable mud huts. The first seven leagues wn* ocer very rough and brokou ground, barren, uncultivated and quite useless. Deep ravines bail been frequently cut into the valleys by the now dry watorcourses. A few stunted shrubs covered the sandy and desolate mountain slopes. The lest three leagues were a ldtlo better, but not much. At Rancho Pre-ideot. A little church aitached to the hacienda rang out its joy for a full hour. Rancho Grande Is the centre of a little agricultural district, and is situated upon the bank of a small stream, which irrigates its lands. There is an excellent billiard table and several cages of wild beactn and birds upon the estate; also many other things wh'ch m'ght add to tlie pleasure of Hie family wbo oc casionaiiv oecupv the place as a country resort. (in Saturday we left Rancho Grande at half-past seven A. M., and reached Fresnillo at half-past twelve P. M.? eight leagues. The country is very barren along the whole route, and covered for the greater part or the way with thick clumps of nopal trees from two to nine feet high. About two leagues from Fresnillo we were met by its deputation?numerous carriages wore in attendance, several of them with ladies. The President and Minis ters rode Into town in the Fresnillo carriages. At the outskirts of the place a large crowd of people wished to draw the President's coach into tho city, but, as usual, he refused to permit it. The crowd In the streets was dense, and the enthusiasm unbounded. Arrived at the principal building, there was a reception by the cay authorities, who escorted the government to a tine par lor, where threo speeches of welcome were delivered and a short response made by the President The speeches finished, the government proceeded to its quar tors, at tho famous mining hacienda of Fresnillo, and then had a dinner, which was one of the beet 1 have tasted in Mexico. It was gotten up in a style worthy the great mining oojnpanr existing hero, and which ex tended their banquet to the President On the way to the hacienda we passed under a very beautiful arch, finely decorated and surmounted by tho Mexican eaglp. The names of the most noted among the liberal leaders were potted np in conspicuous places, and various verses written under tbom expressive of the jov and bonor of the occasion. On Sunday, the 20th, Governor Auza arrived in the afternoon from Zacatecas, with a request that the Presi dent would give them two days longer to complete their preparations tor the reception of the government To this th? President acceded, as at the same time be could gratify the desire of the whole party to see the celebrated mines belonging to the Fresnillo Mining Company In the afternoon a bull fight came off in honor of the occasion. The President attended. There was one bone and rider tossed into the air, and one young fellow badly gored by a furious bull. The bull fighters were mere amateurs who entered Into the ttrts tu tneor of the occasion. From time to time they received decora tions (Tom several ladies, queens of the tournament. jl ride around tho town shows it to be finely located, and to have an appearance denoting much thrift. Two churches of considerable pre tensions to architectural beauty exist here. The houses are generally well built: several email parks and plazas afford places for diversion. Of the plans the principal ope Is sear the great church; the seeood used for market purposes, and the third, which I rode through, was entirely filled with gamblers?men, women and children?who were busy with all kinds of games that might gratify this great passion of humanity. LRUs cloths were spread on me ground in many places, end surrounded by eager contestants for the small change, while booths, erected temporarily, served for heavier betting. It la nine years to-day alnce the Presidency of the re public fell to Juares. It was mentioned at the dinner table, with conaidernble comment, the Preaident saying that he bad good cause to remember it. A ball wno given at ntgbt In bonor of tbe President. On Monday, at ball-pant ten A. M, the govern ment visited tbe mi nog, examined the ponderous pumping machinery, the workshops of all kinds and the shafts, which are very nuraeroua. Then waa no one but your cnn-espondeDt who bad n desire to go down one 01 thorn. The magnified dangers were a great tempta tion, and at last, suspended over a bole eight hundred feet deep, I waa graduallv lowered down in the bowels o; old Mother Earth, where for two bqurs I scrambled about In her veto*, climbed notched poles and slid down otbers; but of all this iu a lettsr which I propose to de vote entirely to the great Pre.-mHlo mines, tbe moot famous is Mixlco. There is In Frennillo a college established by the gov verninent as a practical mining school for graduates of the Mining College of Mexico. It ie now abandoned, and tbe practical school is located near Mexico, at tha great Real del Monte mines. The building here ie a fine edi fice. It was built as a kind of tax ou tbe Fresnllle Com pane, which constructed it. A manufactory fer tbe producing of sulphurate of copper has been established here for a short time. It enn turn oat $2,SOO,ooo annually. It now employs one hundred operatives The material i? produced from copper ores existing in Zaca tecas, and is used In the extraction of stiver from the ores by ihe fratio process. On Tuesday we went irntn Presnttlo to Zacatecas, four teen leagues- A band of music waa in front of th? door before daybreak, and continued to play until sunrise, at which time we loft town, escorted for soma distance by the director of tho Mining Company and several gen tlemen from Presnillo. At tbe end of seven leagues we passed the little rancho of Calera, one hundred Inhabi tants, where they made all tbe display possible with their limited means. They bad a frugal break fast prepared for the government, and warn much disappointed to hear the President decide to continue on three leagues further to the foot of the mountain, where the moles might rest provisos to the ascent and entranoe Into Zacatecas. At this point? Los Piles?about fifty horsemen, the young gentlemen of the city, met us and formed a part of our escort to thair capital. As wa continued up tbe steep ascent the number of horseman increased until tbe road was com pletely lined with them. Men and boys on foot mat tho government a league outside the city, and bare also three coaehoa met the column. Tbe President, Minis ters sad your correspondent exchanged their carriages for thess and continued ou. We finally reached tho summit of the mountain, and winding along a precipice about one thousand flvs hundred feet above tbe valley caught sight of Zsaatscna, Jammed iu among the moua the mountains. It was a beautiful sight, sad more singularly beautiful from the tact that It wae fairly afloat la a sea of flags. Down the mountain wo rode and through a denaa mam of people, who livod la the suburbs, finally reached a tastefully arranged pavilion. Horc wo entered, and were received by Governor Ausa and the city authorities, who gave a warm cresting A speech of welcome wae read l>y the celebrated Mexican lawyer Palancon. and answered la a few words by the Presi dent. Two little girls, dressed in Ihe nations! colors, then presented the principal people with some verses dedicated to Juarei. Ws were then escorted ou foot through the principal avenue of the city by the Governor and the municipal body. The streets were densely lined with people, who were only allowed to walk on tbe sidewalks, a line of troops being stationed along the line of the curbstone to prevent their crowd ing Into the middle of the street. The house top* were erowded, the balconies lined wltb ladles, who throw arti ficial flowers upon Ihe President and Ministers Two carrier doves were let loose with wreaths around their necks; they flew Into tha crowd. Utile papers were showered over the rorlfpr, they contained mottoes in i Ttress laudatory of lltierty and Its defenders We finally reached the palace, situated in the central part of Ahe city and fronting upen u>e main pi ixa Front of the potacio wan a very beautifully designed feudal caetts. covered with tnrrete and battlements. It was about thirty by forty feet base, and about forty feet high, built of boards and oovered on the outside' with brown cloth, llued ofl in imitation of stone. Tbe de Signer was John McArther, of Philadelphia, a celebrated an hiteet, who happens to be hare on a tour for hit health It Is a structure that does much credit to his skill and lasts. At ntgbt it s? lighted up by a variety of colored lights, which distributed around the battlements and turret* gave tt a novel an I beautiful appearance f rowning tbe central battlement wa* tbe national flag and the twenty.two Statoa wero represented by smaller nags distributed over Afferent points on tbe structure Through this nastls we all en lb# wav to the tuctuuon rootn of the pplac*.