Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 27, 1867, Page 10

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 27, 1867 Page 10
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WASHINGTON. CONTimiED FEOTi THIBD TAOF.. rf their cor duet certain efrati'fs of Congress were U> full Qfou, Itiin tuid report ui * fut'iw meet ug to Uj held lor lilt) purpose of bourn# their repufV 1 nese persons called 'upon ihe President and reported thai lie ex pressed a will ngncss lo confer with such gentlemen a? luiiftoi nee fli to rail u|>on him. Members of Coniiremi tliiu called upon him, and a meeting was tailed at ??amber place to hear their report. This meerng was on the evening prior to the introduction ol the resolution auihon/in# the creatiou of Una corn uutio. Their re,.ori was ihat Hie parties who bad represented the President aa desirous of flndiug miine .amnion ground which he and Congress could occupy oo th? subject 01 reconstruction were rnoro than Justified by hm position as communicated to them. The pre. ip ailon of events in Congress prevented other Miecuugs. Members .ittended one of the meeting* who did not attend the other, and member* invited to each attended ueiber. Such is substantially the testimony of the two persons who claimed that they originated this movement. They declined to give names, and the < essmittee did not insist upon it, because they could be called should further developments render it necessary, riie committee had proceeded no further when <alled upon to report and as the witnesses have had no oppor tunity to revise their testimony since written out by the shorthand reporter, and as there are some portions of it that ouktit to be suppressed if the examination is to go no farther, the committee have deemed it prudent not to bring the testimony before the Hou*. Indeed some of it is not yet written out, and the committee have not been able to obtain the least knowledge of the reported propositions for reconciliation to be discussed between the President and members of Congress attending the meetings, nor have they relia ble expectations of obtaining such knowledge from other witnesses, as It appears that only the disposition of the purties to reconciliation was asserted at the last meet ing, and that waa bat the Friday evening before the last measure for reconi'ruction was so unanimously support ed by the opponents of the President's poi cy In the House. No testimony has been given reflecting In the least upon the integrity of the President, nor had. there been the h-nst testimony r-llecting upon the In tegrity of any member of this House. The har mouions vote of the majority upon the last recon struction bill, compared with their earliest vot?? n|>on mutters of dlllernnce with the President, show, no Inroads upon their rights, while the fact that ao member of the democratic minority wqm invited to ? l.esu private meetings by the professed friends of the President outside of Congress is a testimonial to their hrmno-s of purpose and principle. Houretting their inability to make a more elaborate report in the short space of time allotted to them, and fe ling confident that whatever were originally the arrangements for the bringing the House to a more har monious action with the President, Ihey are now etlect ?nti v interrupted, aad the committee ask to be discharged from the further consideration of the subject. JOHN WKNTWORTH, Chairman. UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT Import tint to Importer* nnd Canelcneee? de duction from DulieN on Account of D it itiu.it e In (<?u4e at Sea Will Not ke Made After Entrv nt the Custom Hoaae?Derisions ia Other Case*. WisnwoxoK, Feb. 26, 1867. Philo f. Shi!km ft at., Flainiifft fa Error. or. Arthur W Austin, < ollrrM r, dc?The plaintiffs imported mo lasses from Matanzas, Cuba, which when shipped was sound and sweet, but which when imported at Boston was soured, the souring having taken place on the voy uge. The molasses was entered In the usual manner at the full value of the sweet article. After entry the Im porters asked that the damages might be appraised and allowed la, the computation of duties. This was done, but subsequently, by dir-ctlon of the .-ecretary or tbe Treasury, the Collector refused to mako the allowance, and exacted and collected the whole anount of duties from the plalntifls, who paid them under protest, and brought this action to recover them back. The Court below, for tbe district of Massachusetts, held that the damarcs could not be allowed after entry of the goods, and gave ludsineiu for the government. Tbe case was appealed, the plaintiffs In error contending that ttnder the flity second section of the act of March 2, 1799, tne dainagea silo ud be allowed. Mr Justice ">wayne now delivered the opinion of the court, hoidmg that tbe act of 182a repealed the provis ions of the act of 1799, tinder wbicn the plaintiffs claim, and that, had it not done ao, the plaintiflh were not within the ten days prescribed by the act of 1799. In wbich proof of tbe damage must be lodged in the Cus tom House. Another objection, which is also conclusive against the piaintitb' claim, is thai the act of 1823 re quires the damage to bo asoerlained before entry of the go^ds at the Custom House. Tbe plainiifffe entered their pro|>erty at the invoice prices, and then insisted upon au appraisement of the damace and a corresponding re duction of duties, and this being refused, paid the in I amount under protest The pro nst was unavailing, aud the claim lor appraisement of damages and reduction of duties came too tale, the doer of relief oeing thus closed and there being no power to open it hut the Legislature. The right could be assorted or waived at lh? option of the importers, and the entry of the goods before ascer taining the damage* was a waiver, and there was no power in the Executive Department of the government to restore the right. The decision rusts, there!ore. on two grounds?Orst, the requisite prgof was not lodged in the Custom House within tbe time prescribed by the act of 1799. and secondly, tbe molasses was completely entered before the proceedings authorised by the act of 1823 wore demanded and taken. The judgment below is affirmed. The following decisions were also rendered No. 114. Kclty and another vs. ( ross, et al.?Error to the Circuit Court fo the Northern District of Illinois. Judgment alttrmed. with costs. Opinion by Justice Field. No 124 Townsend. et al., vs. Greeley.?Error to the How*?e Court of California. Judgment allirmed, with costs. Op.nion by Justice Field. No. 130. Panuaiee, appellilit, vs. Sampson.?Appeal frtm tne .-upreme Court of the Territory of Nevada. I>ecr*e aflirmed. Opinion by Jtist.ce Davis. Ne 421. City of (ialenu vs. the I'mted States, ex roL Army.--.Error to the Circuit Court for tbe Northern Dis trict of I llinoia. Judgment attirmed, with costs. Opinion by luetics Swayna. No 134. Boston vs. Forsyth*.? Error to same court an above. Writ of error dismissed for want of Jurisdiction. Opinion by Justice Pliilord. No. 130. Oilman va iJlckwood.?Error to the Circuit tourt for the distr.ct of \\ >sco?sln. Judgment reversed and the cause rem.u.ded for proceedings, kc. Opinion by Justice Clifford No 3th Supervisor* of Marshall county, 111., va. Fchei.ck.?Error to the Clranit Court Tor the Northern district ol Illinois. Judgment allirmed, with costs. Opinion by Justice UilTord. No 136 Purcell vs. Coleman et aL?Appeal from the Haprouie Court for the Dlstrlot of Columbia. Judgment alf.rmed with co-is Opinion by Justice Crier. No 12.1. Tbe Washington, Alexandria and Ueorgetow* f*toam Packet Com|iany vs. Sickios et al ?Error to Mi )>reine Court of the District of Columbia. Judgment rev rsed and cause remanded, with directions to award vau re de novo, tipinion by Jostle* Nelson. No 3A9. Bradley et al. vs. Pcepie or llliaota.?Error to HupretM of lllinots. Judgment reversed and tbe cause r manded, with diroetioM to enter a judgment affirming the decision of the Board of Supervisors. Opinion by Joitiee Neison. No 316. Tbe Pacific Insurance Company va Soule.? CertMcate of division from Mrcait Court for District of twnmou Cause dismissed for want of jurisdiction. Opiaion by Chief Justice Cnase. So. 346. Jones apt>ellani vs. De lavallette and hua baad Appeal from Ctrcult Court for district of Loulstaaa Appeal dismissed for want of Jurisdiction aud cause re> manded to lb* Clr:ait Court for saio district, tiptuion fey Chief Juettes chase. No. 11 Original state or Texas vs Chi Ids et. al.?Mo tioo to bear demurrer to bill set for argument flrst Mon nii May next o. 162. Francif vs. 1'nited States.?Submitted. No. 164 City of Philadelphia va Dlehl. ? Argument cfninienoed. rOUKT Of CLMWS. Wasuiimitus, Keb. 20, 1867. M.c .mrd W. ifeod. A dminittralor. Sc. e . Ikr CnUrd .Tlatx ?This Is tbe old aad familiar Spanish claim of K W. Meade, deceased, tbe fMher of Geaersi Meade, and of tbe present claimant, (femmodore Meade, of tbe navy. Th* deceased bad claims againat tbe Spanish govern ment in M10 for supplies furnished durlm* tbe invanion ? .hat country by tbe French, under Napoleon, and the ?|ii**tion to be tried in, whether under the treaty with f-pain of I81t, the I'ntted Slates assumed tbe settlement of this claim. The Cenrt of Claim* once decided tbe case a'tvemly to the claim, but Congress referred It bank with a view of having it taken thence to the supreme Court. tb? jurisdiction of thai court having been eatended to eui h cases from this. Joseph h. Bradley and Oaieb < 'ishing appear for the claim, and tbe government m ?? presented by Solicitor Norton and Aasletant Solicitor Weed. KOVCH OF Tin SUHME COURT OF TENNESSEE. _ N *shviu.s, Fsh. 28, 1M7. The -'aprrrae Court of Teanessee has decided that the note* of tbe Bank ot Tennessee could not be received In payment of taxes due to the fliate. The decision csused a i><<.iiue of the notaK of the hank lo 26 cent*. fE?IU STATE CI VENT UN. Dim, n. Y? Feb. Jt. is?7. The New York State Convention of tbe Fenian Brother hood heid a moening >easion here to-day. President Roberts and anmeroua uUier prominent and Influential inember* of Uie orgsnianKon were present. The sttend Miioe of delegates was large, representing nearly every portion of the fhste. aad th* (clegatee ti^mselve* ar* ?*n of hifch therwier and know a usnerlski' T Tke Ooovenliivi ? la secret session this evenisc and nothing posittv* i? known ss to the nature ?if the ' proceedings. It la ba-lleved. however, that not bins ha* been dooe except the delivery of President K hertJ* adiliane. wbich ooctipied aKouf tbtee hoars. The aildrees Is said to hear on topic* hitfMy Jmponsnt tc Bis Hrothemoed and the objects they leave J* view. There ?" " Tiwblle mooting to mom-w ^reaing, wi.es 1 issMieat Roberta will deliver aa sddrass. Can CaerxLTV ? Al a late hour ysatarday afterneoa Bernard Finland was found lying la a slate of laaaaai bUltjr ander th* archway through which the <?r* paar lilssi Barclay aad T*s*y streets. Tbe ssferiWaaie. who had evidentiv fallen upon tbe track while la a State of laeasleottoa, had sustained a severe fraetsrs of fbe tefl leg, tbe limb having been crushed by the whedta af eaS of th* ears fhs sufferer wss removed t? Belles ue Jiea^iiaJ t? U?- r^jjrU precinct polio* THE MONKEYS OF SOUTH AMERICA. loir renting and In^ructhr LrMirt fcy Pr# frscor Louh Agasjlz. The Urgo ball of Cooper Institute was crowded last evening with a highly intelligent . A ,*p?ctable nudl once of ladies and gentlemen, on the ?? uion of tTofen sor Louis Agassi*',, IMt lecture under the auspice, of the "Association for the Advancement of SUonce and Art." Having successively unfolded la a popular form the treasures of knowledge which he had acquired of the Amazon river and the region over which it traverses, ob tained by hi* recent extended survey of that portion of the \merican continent, so far as refers to the configura tion ol that immense water basin or inland ocean, its Hiatal traces, geological structure, land and aquatic ani mals, and the wealth and variety of its rich tropical vege tation, his lecture last evening had reference to the monkeys of South America and to its native inhabitants, so far as they differ in habits, appearance and ethnologi cal conformation from the people of other portions of the American continent. On the subject of the monkeys of Brazil and the region of the Amazon tho observations of Professor Agassiz woro taithful to nature, and so pointed by on advanced scientific knowledge as to be enter taining and instructive and highly interesting. a "tile before eight o'clock the lecturer wu in troduced bv Dr. Griscom#ond proceeded to discuss the subject of bis discourse, "Tho Monkeys and the Native Inhabitants of South America." as follows:? T.aoiih x vn OiTTLKnw?ln an unguarded moment I proposed for this evening's lecture the subiect which has been announced upon tho tickets. If I had con sld'-red tbe matter mora maturely I would pmbab.y have abstained from bringing into such public notice a subjcct so rail of difficulties, respecting which, after all, so little is kftown, and with reference to which there are such extreme views entertained by tbe moot competent investigators. As It is, I have nothing left but candidly to express uiy convictions without reticence, and if I can, without prepossession. Of course you do not expect that 1 shall present to you ano 'dotes concerning the moneys which I have seen playing among the trees in the valley ot the Amazon, nor contrast with ihem the habits of the native inhabitants; but that I stroll take a broader view of the subject aud discuss before you the relations which exist between the monkeys and mankind. This subject for the last ten years has engaged the direct attention of all naturalist?, and with reference to which all the investiga* lions made wituin the last ten years have beon more or less directly connected; tor nowadays when a naturalist studies the anatomy of an animal it is with reference to the possible explanation of the manner in which that complicated structure was brought iuto existence If a naturalist nowadays Investigates the embriology of an animal?that is, its transformations, its successive changes?It Is with a view of ascertaining how that law which regulates those changes is stamped upon it as a living being. When naturalists nowadays Investigate the geographical distributions of animals upon (lie surface ot our earth It is with a view of ascertaining r U can possibly be done, in what wav the diversity which prevails all over the globe has been produced, what is the primitive origin of this treat diversity. When geologists investigate the fossils the remains of which are buried in the -truta of our curtb when they traco tho order in which they have followed one another in the course or time, it is at present with a view or ascertaining how this succession has been in duced, which wero the first which have followed and in what relation they stand to one another. And when men investigate the differences which exist among their follow men it is with a view or ascertain ing whether men originated from one primary cause or whether there is a multiple origin to humanity? You see whenever naturalists nowadays approach iheir subject It is everywhere with one view?10 ascertain ir it can be doue, in what way things originate and wliut is the primary causo of the differences which we observe among them. And the subject is just opening. We have hardly any result 10 present. On the contrary, we have extreme views clashing with one another, as much so as he vi.?w? which divide men concerning mailers ol uiotr salvation, which interest men with retereuce 10 their social organization. For we have schools in natural history, as there have been schools iu. philosophy. Wo have, as it were, sects, as we have den 'ruinations among Christians and no one has a riirht to present his v.ew of the subject as the only correct one. His obligation is to pr. sent his views aud to discurs his arguments in the hope or pressing his views, ir he is deeply convinced or their accuracy upon Ins hearer but not with tbe pretension that he has found Uie Qua! w,u. Hon of the problom. There is a # real cnauge in that re speci. A great change has corao upon men in that resect. H |a no longer possible ror any man or Tor uny set of men to assume that the truth Is with them exolu. ?i\elf. lien have learned that there i* onlv oue com mVn/,?UIM!^t'on ,or '^eir ^I'ols, however much tiicr wilt differ from one another In their religious practices lien have learned that there is only one source lor their knowledge, whicn is nature, however much thev may dlfler in their interpretation or nature's tacts. And it is with that consciousness that I win present this evening my view upon tbe subject or tie ?elutou which exists between man aud monkey urging those views which are my convictions, nut urging them with the consciousness that there uro other ,V !r by ot'iere- (Applause.) I wish, how eter to be- in my statements with a clear record, and theroloro I want to make a few statemouis concerning accusations which have been mude a?.? nst me iu scieu - ' **, *el; ? other journals it has been stated that in my public lectures I make loose statements, which are ( riot accurate in matters of (a t; that I allow mvself to be <arred aw ay by the impulse or the moment, and that m> statements lacked that precision which entities to res|HJCt and confidence. And examples or such loose wMhinThT N?w, ? will, ibst you may know within what limit my statements sr? considerate Just answer a f-w of these statements. In some ol the lectures I have delivered I have stated that vertebrate* have rour limbs and it is argued that everybody who is rauiiliar with tbe last records or our science knows that whates and that nor poises, kc. have only two limbs. This I know is tbe statement of the text books, but the text books are only compilations, second band, or our knowledge, and if these critics had looked at th? origins. Information upon this matter, ir they had consulted the work or Ram upon the anatomy or tber< animals, or the work on Urn sil bonus, by utvier, or the most exten-ive works of natural history, they would hsve known thatrudlmental oxt*ri?r limbs exist In all these animal?, and that thev only arc concealed by the skin. And I have d'ssected porpoises enough, and 1 have lately had an opportunity myself or dissecting other animals on tbe Amazon, so that I know from personal observation that these Inve stigations of the anatomists I have quoted Is correct when tbry say that, beside the fully developed pair of limhs whicn these animals hare on the side or the chest they have a second rudimentary pair concealed under the skin, which is Imperfectly developed. Therefore I reiterate my statement that It is s natural tendency in all i~rtrbraia to develop rour limbs, and that hero and there only two are developed, and in some the second 0 **'?? The others have been ascertansd to poasaas a pair of rndlniental limbs under the skin. So much for that one statement. (Applause ) The second Is that I affirmed that Qthes haw lived (andi long list or other error* is enum rated) that h?hes had existed fr?m the beginning ol creation?as early as the other animals while in reality they existed only [">? ^ tlm? of the dtluvian period. Now J50* 't with this? ir in the otdest state the remains preserved were perfect it might be easy to ? cni.tacea, a crab or a lobster fTOmTfisb ?hi k I . **1 6?1 ?' "hiains which we have, aud bean laterpreted by some as Osh and by others as crustacea, they are only rragmentary spines such ss we have in the Das of some fishes?for instance' Tha ("'""rating on the chart.) The dorsal lln baa in ?U anterior part a small bony tin nL !C,0*\r ? projects in this way. (Illustrating.') Onus other hand, the horseshoe crab baa upon the ^ mlwh?^rilk!?i?d.^^lh * mhm of ?*>"??? which are somewhat alike In appearance to these spines (lllue t rating.) Now, spines of this kind, resembling fins, are taSTE.* ^ lB Wh,Ch have been found, and the question is whether they are tbe remains of crustacea or the ra naturalists have affirmed that they are the remains of crustacea. 1 have at firmed that they are the remains of flshea. And I have ^h.my.*Tert' n 2.po? lhl,,, th'' afuetura ot the spines ?? trsateum when examined microeoopiealij as to the characters of tbe substances which forms the shield tinllT rr"*U?ea- Th* spines la Osbss have the charsc teristic structure microecoptcaliy ol bonea, which lavrr ^t?I^^I^n?^Ur".K<H, ^ other structure. Now those spines of these oldest deposits have the character istic struct tire of bone, therefore I say again that these I whlTi*^1^ "I0!* ?' a,h" that I am not wrong when I say that Sshee have existed ao,eariy an any otbor co2w,%^yU^"d I*^" BUt thl* ^ P,*rB tOT " controversy, and I will now turn to the soblect of thia wiui amx^o1? the relation which exma between monkeys and man. That question is a recent question. Ai?c ent sl^m'^ !5k,hf.t0?KP~'lDk mV> monk*,y? ' *y. -o". specliioany, than than they compared men witb other animals The works of ArtstoSJiV wh!^h webave the earliest eompartsona of this kind two thousand fysars ago, discuss the structwe ofmin m b# ^ Doi ??<> > "PeciaJ rwehlaste between monkeys and man any more than kt zxz? ^ sr? rve^hr la those days tbe only monkeys known werathree?the pyttierus, ss Aristotle calls him; tin common mbu* of NortlMni Africa, which was frequently, no doubt brought to Graoce, ss nowaday, it is frequently brought to tbe soMtbsrn parts of Kurope, tbe otber waafbe gusmoos, or lb* red monkey of >orth Alrtca. which ? qutM ooatnoa on the coast of nsrbary and which is a long-tslled monkey, of reddish color with pointMl snoot, snmswhal Mke the com am monkeys we ohinfn from ttontb America, hot different from them In many respects In tbe peculiarities of its men, of Its teeth and tbe ilka Tbea lbs third kind of moo keys known to tho ancients wan tho hahoom, of which ngirsaeaniluas srs to bs sssm la tbo aaalsal Rgyptlan monuments. Now. neither of tbmi ni?tyi hoe amythiny parUcalariy human. The baboon baa a bend not unlike that of a bulldog, and was called by tbe ancients caaocephalns, or dog. bead, on aooount of that peculiar ronst tntton of Bet after tbe an?>i to tbe Kaet Indies ^ow,1 tbe Cope of Good Hope fend boon discovered. naturaliste become noqiraJntsd with srveraJ kinds of noakeya from the test Iodise m4 from tbe west coast ojAfnca. which extood far nbosre tbono knosrn lo tbe ths ; smon* tbem none are man striking than eM ?f ??wo, JavaaadSnmatra, and tbe two a!22l2f tbe cooot of OnlMn. Tbeoe J** 'wlomtf of aaatoaaMs nad 5:.rP2i-}F time ^mpariwBiTL[IClfLlh?* *P^- And from tt^na tbw comparisons have always bad for their object to establish me d flereooc* wiitch exist betsceu one M com pared Willi the other. lteceally a third k nd of monkey ulusely allied to the preceding ha* beeo touud >?* 111,3 lagoo.isand on the more boutneru pari* of We.it Attica, and 'hat ??.???? ? 'wen described under the i. tme 01 gorilla. Iii ' ?rtalned that that animal wt?-already Known :i> ?' ????a though ve.rv Imperfectly, for an altonim r literal d oi smail, buiry n.. .1 ? i - 'J ?>' the vieet coast > ' ^ w, ' InMM ? ?? ? h MBt N -e .Old uu tauiable. I ' ">.u the ?? ?? 11 ,SS?S be doubted *.< .1 < atioal mentioned was ?tt? Wind or monkey. N m .ie qu< -.iou is wbat aro the structural relations which exist between tbes>e monkeys "llJ ,lie other kmd of monkeys, and *11 monkeys tak-n together and mankind. Before I proofed to compare Uiem more closely let uw nay ? general vords concerning Uieir distribution. All monkey* known are to be found within tlie troplci. It is only oo the border of the tropica, in the p.irw adjoin Inn the warm temperate zone. In the Old World, tl.at on the aouihem extr. inlty of Spain, on tbe roclts of G Ural tar, a few monkeys have bntu observed, aud in ibe southernmost parts of Japan. Otherwise the home of the monkeys is within the tropes, with the exception of Australia, in which none ex^t at all But moekeys are not the aame la dillerent part* of tbe world, and there la a wide difference among them. In tbe first place, as a natural ?roup, distinct among the other mam malia, monkeys are characterized Ity an anatomical lact which in very striking. They have all four hands, while oth"r animals have four l'eet, and man bus two feet and two hands; and the diifertnce whi< h characterizes a hand and a foot ia very obvious. A limb terminated with Angers which are all on one level, and which all bend in the name direction, is a foot. A limb which huaa number of lingers bonding in trie aame way, while one Anger may be opposite to the other, aud successively be brought into contact with each of the other linger*, is' a hand. The thumb, as a part of the hand, ia Uexlble la another dire> tion from tbe fin gers, and the thumb may be brought into juxtaposition successively with each of tbe Angers, while this is utterly impossible with the toes of the foot. They :bend in tho same direction?the large toe as well a* the others?and the large toe cannot be brought into position successively with the other Uxjs Now then, all animals which bave feet at the extremity of their four llmbe are quadrupeds, and all animals which havo four hands and no loet are monkeys. And all monkeys have bands at the end or their hind limbs as well us their foro limbs, while man has a pair of feet and a pair of hands. This is, perhaps, the most prominent difference which may be noticed among these animals, and the characteristic feature of the great order or inonkcvs. I must, however, say that there are some slight modifications in this resect among the monkeys, in as far as tin re are some in which the thumb is so short that it caunct be as regularly brought into juxtaposition with the other fingurs as in the hand of man, and there are even monkeys in which the thumb is merely rudimental, so that lour lingers are only developed, and the thumb Is almost entirely wanting. Tusn, again, what consti tutes* finger is the position of toenail ujkiii the termi nation. The last Joint of the fiager tn a pertcct hand, the last joint of every finger hu.i a tlai nail covering only the upper part of the joint of the linger, and not extending forward and not bending over the last joint. Now, this ie the case with ail the nails of our hand, aud is tl e case also with the nails of our foot, but not with those of the animals, though we find thcro an imper fect hands, perhaps where the thumb or one or two or three fingers may have a perfect nail, and the others may have curved nans bending over the termination of the finger. This is tbe case often among some of the monkeys. We have often such monkeys in which the thumb alone and the first tinger have a really flat nail, the other fingers having arched claws bending over the termination of the finger. Now aga.n, ol the monkeys, we have a great variety as to size. Some ol them are not larger than squirrels?not livger often tlian oor small striped squirrels?while othersapprouch in stature, often man; and all possible intermed ate dimensions exist between them. Thus monkeys aie scatt. red over Africa aud Central and Southern As a, hut in each or these different parts oi the world they present ditrerent and special characteristics. The moukeys of the Old World that is those inhabiting the tropical portions o Africa' and of Asia, are all remarkable for the great heignt of the forehead?for the great angle of the lace which they present And naturalists havo been in the habit of measuring what is called the facial angle, which is the line passing from the forehead Irom the upper juw will meet witu another line passing along the buse ol the skull. In man-in intellectual man?thai an .'Ie is known as tbe right angle; and tbe ancients under stood that so well that in their statues when they wanted to exhibit the intellectuality of man more prominently than auy other of the features of humanity, they exaggerated the incline of that line, and to their Jupiter, who was the great representation of cre ative power, they gave a very great prominence to the forehead, which overstepped the right angles so that tbe forehead is made very prominent over the lace. So well was that understood as the characteristic feature of the higher organisations of the vcrterbraie type. Now tuese monkeys of the Old World approach in that respect more to man than any M'^er of the monkeys and the young ourang outanc In that respect approaches far nearer the characteristics of young humanity th*u do the adult monkeys approach the characteristics of adult man. It is a curious fact that in their early age, when the more characteristic features are not yet strongly developed with the rigidity that marks tbe features of tbe adult, animals that are more closely related to one another resemble one another more closely when young than In the more adult state. And we find in this respect among the h.guer monkeys a greater resemblance between tho youug monkey aud tbe young children than between tho adults them elves. Another leature of the monkeys of the Old World consists in the construction of tbe nose The no*, is one of tbe prominent features of the face all through the higher type of the animals ol tbe Old World, and in man as well us In monkeys we find a most char acteristic difference between the different repiesenu. tives of tnese two great groups?a marked and striking diUerance In ill* form of tbe nose. The white man has a prominent, aquiline nose, and in the shape of the nos trils which are opened from forwards and backwards, and not sideways, so the point ol the nose is the most prominent portioo of the face. Other rnces of men nave, on the contrary, a flattened nose, and their nos trils open in sideways, so that tbe nostrils open from tbe s.de outwards. Some naturalists have observed in the monkeys of the Old World that they have narrow nostrils and that their nostrils o;<en inwards, as in white men, snd Irom forwards and backward*, and that that portion which divides the nostrils is very narrow. Then, again, it is observed that among the monkeys of the Old Worid we find a large number of them destitute of tails. Neither the ourauoutang, nor the gorilla, nor chimpan zee lias any caudal appendage. In tbe islands of the coast and the forests of Malacca there are large tribes of monkeys with exceedingly long arms, but all destitute of tails. Among tbe large number of monkeys that in habit and roam over the continent of Africa we find the baboon, a short tailed specie* It is only among tbe more slender kinds of monkeys Inhabiting the Old World that we find those monkeys that have as long tails as the monkeys of Africa generally have. Then, again, among those monkeys that we tlnd in tbe Old World we find monkeys in the New World not only generally smaller, but having a prolonged snout; but their facial angle Is longer than the lacial angle of lbs monkeys of the Old World. And wbat is a most curious fact is that their nostrils are broad, and thai portion between tbe nostrils remarkably broad, so that the uoetrils open in a manner sideways. And among these again we tlnd a large number of monkeys which bave remarkably long tails and some of them even with tails which terminate with a naked surface underneath, which taejr tan use as an additional limb; and these monkeys bave so much dexterity in tbe use of the tall that lbey can seixe tbe suaiusl objects with it with as great precision as with their hands All monkeys with such prehensile tails are peculiar to South America, aad not one species ef monkey la the Old World bss that peculiarity. Even those monkeys that have prehensile tails have tbem covered all over with hair. There ia a certain number of monkeys 1b Booth America which have somewhat long talis but there is not one on the wboie continent of America entirely destitete of a caudal appendage. 8o that you will see we bave two well marked groups of monkeys inhabiung the Old sad New worlds, their distinguishing features cohsisting of or the peculiar form of their noeee, and distinguished by their sixe. There are two other families which havo also special marks of difference. There is the large squirrel monkey, which inhabits only the tropical portions of South America, and the valley of the Atnaxon and tho northern portiuns of Brazil, and which differs from all other monkeys in having its teeth provided w'th numer ous prongs, grinding teeth, somewhat like the mole's tho other having small. Imperfect hands more like a paw than tbe hands of otber monkeys, and yet so like fingers that tbey clearly and unmistakably show that they are monkeys. Another difference that 1 nave not yet mentioned as between tho mon keys sf Ike OM World and thoas of the Now World consists in the dentition. Man has five grind ers above and below, and on tbe right and left, making twenty la all. And so, too, bsve all the mon keys of ths Old World. Bat the monkeys ef the New World have all one tooth mere on each side, above and below, tbe number of their grinders being twenty four In all. There ie also another class of monkeys hav ing only twsnly?Ovo on each side. Tbe only four groups known as ths smomm, which Inhabit Madagascar, aad are exclusively found In numbers oa that island, though there la a claas allied to the macacas found on the oppo site shore of Africa. Wbat distlngwshss these monkeys from all other monkeys Is ths form or shape of their head, which * protruded like that ef the fox. and occa sionally called on that account the fox monkey. They have a pointed snoot snd are mors like that animal than monkeys generally are. Their Bagen, loo, are ssora numsrous and are provided with daws rather with tho flat nails of other monkeys, so Uat we have a fourth grau of monkeys which are characterised by a pecu liarity of tbetr structure, eeaily recognised and un mistakable->!he masacas which Inhabit the I aland of iff*"" snd the opposite coast of Africa; ths ikeys which resemble the sQiirrel and which In habit tropical South America; ths monkeys with bread nostrils which inhabit -outh Amines seaertlly within the tropica, aad the seonkeys of Um Old World, which are found ia Africa and Asls aad within ths traplos hat not farad la Madagascar or Australia. It is a ourious thing that they live Is a tropical regies la which the pales tree g?riehes sad wbioh is tat principal abode of moo keys, aa la Afrlea, that Auotralla should denials of soaks?s while oaths adjoining Islsada monkeys not oaly of tbe ronna kind, but IM higher kind of monkeys ars round. Tlla shows '? *7 ***** mat ion. one thing, Mat all diftrecee which exist among animate caaaet be ascribed loclltaille iaflutiasea, or that, at all eeenta. that climate simply tad I lee If does not pro deco animals which ars akla to e?h other, fsr through out Australia, which exhibits all toe peculiar cllmatle productions of the tropical and temperate soaas haa neither monkeys, nor oarnlvents animals, nor rumi nants; neither deer nor elks, ssHopss nor elephants, nor rhinoceros aor luppopotasjes nor tapirs ?or any of the other lanre quadrupeds wie.h iabablt ?isislsrs e|aa the tropical regions of thetarth; nor are there la Aoatralla any of the remlnaaU; H> giraffes aa asiela. aor antelopes nor any of the hamlvsroos til bee; ao bears ao weassls, ao foiee, of dogs ??r w*iT**' tan. tigers or I tone; none ofthoee tribes bat tbe whale of the continent la ||eyM by qeedrraeds of s peculiar kind and aliogi itirrionSned to iteelf There is the marsupial kind?the kangdoo lavnlly?all remark able for the peculiarity of ha vie. Htv our opoasum, a ppuch to carry lie youajh the udr aaaas farad aa tbla ccnilnenC All these animal* of the mareupal geMis lwve under the abdomen a I'Oitch where their young, burn in an Immature condition, are trmuifetTed, and where they remain till they reach a greater progrees in development That marsupial group la a peculiar group of quadrupeds known only to Australia, and in tlieir various forms tbey ape all the other families as common in other parte of the world. Some they call moulceys, liiouich not having any of the character i&tiui of monkeys, and others may call carnivorous milt:u!s though they have n->ne of the Imbue of carniv orous auima's, and ottiera they class among the rounnauts, thoueh tbey are not ruminants properly

speaking. To treat upon ibis subject would lead me loo far from the subject of this lecture, should I enter iuto a detailed account of these animals. All 1 want to im press upon r-'U in this souueciton is the fact that in every part of tbe world ttier* are jiecnlier tribes of ani mals, and that these tribes do exhibit such close re a Uun- to ths climatic condition that we cannot with any kuid of siitulactory evicienoe a^ribe the?e peculiarities to other than climatic Icilueuces under which tbey live. Among tin km monkeys there uro Innumerable varieties or species or genera, as you my call them, tor the name is not of very groat importance .ere. I want, however, ko make clear the (act v. hat is the nature of these differences. Among those monkeys are the ourauf ouiauti, tbe gorilla, and the chimpanzee, which have hands made in the same manner, and teem the same, and in which the detail* of the structure pre sent the same relation*!, and wl.wh are therefore consid ered as one group. The name uuder which the higher monkeys are geaeraily designated are anthropophagi monkeys, and are called man moukeys. We bavetbo-<e m ukeys in wbicb the snout is very prominent and large, like a dog, the tall abort and the limbs stout, the bobv large and strongly built; the*e are tbe baboojis. Hut ai'ain there are among tliem some kind of a differ ent species, differing In size and differing In color, as well as diflferinK in the length of tbe liair over the h'-ad and neck, in the maue and so forth. W e hare anothor group of long-tailed incnkeys, of the Old World, remark able lor their slender forms and great length of their tails, and the greater prominence ol their snouts, their teeth and the like. But among them, aguin. there are a number of different species, occupying different portions of tbe Old Worid of Africa and Asia. And so it Is with the mvnkeys of the New World. In routh America we have some monkeys with prehen-iie tails, but iu which the tail is covered with bair. Then again wo have the howling uimkcys, In which the lower end of the tail is entirely destitute of hair, and which have tbe tbffoat enlarged, by which it can produce reverbora tiou and sounds, wniai they utter very loud, and which ha*. iqtr*M!uc<>d the name of how ling monkey. And so again with tbe shorter tailed monkeys of South America; and so with me squirrel 1 ke and a great number ot spe cies wbich have 1 boas peculiarities of structure which roKt in the mode ol cxecutioo of tbe details of the teeth, of the hauds, of the fare and the like, presenting condi tions wbicb rest in the color, in tne absolute size or the auimal, in '.he relative proportion of the limbs, and in their length as compared to the hoJv, &c. Now, then, what do we tind amoug men ? Similar conditions a<:an. For men have not all lb same complexion, nor do they exhibit tali tae lame characteristic features. And bore let me urge anon you this fact; for we cannot con sider the relations of manklud to monkeys unless we are aware bow widely men differ from one auotner. While they are men and while they have all the characteristics of humanity, them are yet among them differences about a* Striking as the dif ference which distinguishes some of tVose ge era of monkeys from one another?aa str.kiu. imqjes'ionahly as the differences which distinguish some ol' the species of monkeys from one another. Aud I am bourn! to say that unless we recognize these differences among men, and we recognize the identity of these differences with differences ?Ah:cb exist among animals, we are not true to our subject. Aud whatever be the origin of these differences, they are there At the same time. If it ever is proved that all men have a common origin, tben it will be at tbe same lime proved that all monkeys have a common origin; and It will b by the saruo evidence proved tbat man and monkey cannot have a different origin. There is the appalling feature of the subject? that Hie characteristic? which disiinguish different races of men are of the same nature as the characteristics which distinguish tbe ditterent kinds of monkeys. And It wi< (or that reason that early 1 maintained that the different races ol men must have an independent origin, b<* ante 1 saw the time coming when the question of the origin of man would be mixed up with the question of the origin of animals, and it might be that a community or or gin might be aillrnied tor all. Now I hold that idea of the community of origin o' man and monkeys and other quadrupeds Is a fallacy, the foundation of which I sliail try to explaiu presently. But If it is an error to ? onsider man as derived from monkeys, we must ad mit that men are not domed from a com mon at<ck, because tbe differences which exist among men are at the same t me quite as striking as the differences which exist between monkeys and be tween the lower animals. Let me point out these differ ences. Let me first say in what all men anr>e and in what all men difler from monkeys. All men agree In having tour limbs, one pair of wlrich terminates with (col aud iho other pair lermlnaics with bauds. All men are endowed with the ability of standing erect, and their constitution is such tbat tbe erect position Is not an ac quirement resulting I'roni education, and is not tbe re sult of the successive chain, but is one of the consti tuted peculiarities of the human frame. The whole of the backbone 1* so organized that roan can carry with ea>e his heavy, broad head only in a vertical position. He has not, as animals have, a ligament with which be may support the bead In a horizontal position with ease, hut the bead mutt be balanced on tho top of tbe verti cal column in order tbat it may rest and be moved with facility in every direct.on. Tben man has limheon the sides uf tbe chest so organized that he can move them in every direction and touch every part of his body wi*b them; and that pair of limbs terminates with the most perf ect hand known in nature, aud that baud U so constituted as readily to carry out the mandate of the mind. It Is brought Into the sorviee of the Intellect, and is no longer an organ ot locomotion, as Is the case in tho monkey. All these peculiarities are character it-tic of all men, and between monkey and man there is no structural transition. . There is no gradation from the highest monkey to tbe lowest race of man. All these attempts at bring ing man closer to the monkeys by the lower types or humanity overlook these fundamental conditions which make man, however low and infirm, a n an, and winoh separate him from the monkey however hlph as a mon key he may stand. (Applause ) But while we recog nize certain structural attributes as particularly human, let us not overlook tbe ?reat conditions which exist among men both in structure and attainments. In the first place in color lb" differences arc obvious, bat they are comparatively of slight importance. Next in hair there is a marked difference. Tbe flowing straight hair or the white race Is very different already from tbe stiff and wlrey bair of tbe Indian; and when we beg n to compare that hair with that of tho Austral'an or with tbat of the Malay or with that of the Fedjean Islander or sttil more strikingly with tbat of the negro, we find difference.-! wh ch are most marked. The hair of tbe white race is cyndiliical; tbe hair of the nogro is flat, It Is woolly, it la curly; and these peculiarities ara not iwcullarllies brought about by i lunate?for white men Lave existed in close proximity with negroes ever since the two races have been known to exist side by tide on earth, and tbe whit* man has not as-urned tbe woolly bair of tbe negro nor the negro assumed the straluht bair of the white race. (Laughter and applause.) Then there la a difference in the dentition, and a very marked onei All the white race bare their teeth vertical, tbe jaw short, and the manner In whteh tbe teeth fit one uppn tbe other Is perpendicular; so tbat when we close tbe mouth we bring the lower teeth against the upper teeth In such Juxtaposition that the two sets stand vertically, one above the other. Tbe races of men which hacethat kind of dentition are called straight Jawed races; while there are other races, among others all the inhabitants of tbe South Sea Islands and all tbe inhabitants of Africa aad hoeth Atlas have their front teeth inclined, so that the upper teeth and the lower teeth when brought against one another form an angle, and tbe month Is more prominent; aad all tbe races of am with protruding Jaws have also thicker and more prominent lips. They have also the flat noes, wbioh 1 have already deecribed, with broad partitions be tween the nostrils, and the nostrils opening sideways. And these differences have been known among tliem ever stnoa men have been observed by man. On the an cient monuments ol Egypt there are figures of negroes, there are figures of Egypt tan a. there are figures of Jew*, and there are figures of white aeon ae characteristic In all these particulars as we see them now; so tbat for at least aa long a time aa these monuments have been in existence tbeee features qf humanity have remained what they ware then, and have retained ihelr peculiari ties Now, tben, the qneetlon is, bow were tbeee pacu liartUee brought about? Are they Innate ? that Is, are they primordial, or are they the result of change? It these oandliioBs are the result of change, then the dll ferenoss which we observe among monkeys, why should they not be the result at change also? And If change* aa great can take place, whv ahould not changes a little greater occur? and, therefore, why ahould not all the conditions which exist among living bstnss be tbe rseult of suocee sive changes r It is upon the line of argument that the scientific doctrine baa been baaed, wbicb la known as the transmutation dortnue and which has been dtaeniaed for centuries, but which has been revived in a mora re cent form aad with more recent argument by Darwin, aad which la now actively agitated among naturalists. Now I propose to show you on wbat fallacies this view rests, aad 1 will repeat my statement la another form. Tbe question la whether we are the lineal deeoeadanta of moakeya or whether we are tbe obUdrea of a creative mind; whether wa are the result of a natural evolution, or whether ?? .??iiw. or wnewer we are tbe expression of n specific sot or creation f In en UbHeblng the difference I do not mean to charge those who entertain the Idea of the transformation with deny Ing tbe intervention of the creative power la the world. I de not charge them with denying the Interference of Ood (a nature; but I charge them with denying tbe Im mediate aad direct Intervention In tbe production of these differences. Whether they are right or wrong de pends upon the Interpretation of the facts whlen we have before us. It Is now to ths examination of these foots I would call your attention. In the first place, I would aay that man Is rated In the animal kingdom In a manner which makea It Impoeslbls to separate the classes which relate to bta existence from those which relate to the animal kingdom. When wa examine the order ot sucoeesloo of animate through aa feotogleal timea, we And, from beginning to end, a definite relation to something higher. We tad that la the last geological epoch maa has been introduced; so that in the order of suocsssisn at the living races which have at diflbrent times peopled Ike surface ot bar globe ws sse man announced from the beginning; and we can say as one of the srientlSa re sults of the comparison of sll these races, that from the beigfnnlng man wan meant to be at the head of creation, aad that upon the plan on which the animals living oa ear earth are coastructed there la no possibility or a htghsr being than maa himself; aad this generalisation caa be sustained by an examination of tbe structure of the brain alone. Without entering Into an exteoslvs ar gument I will show you that such is the structure of the nig beet systems of organs in tbe whole ssrisa of ani mals, that from the fish to man there la one gradual gra dation, and that is the structure of mm there la sash aa arrangement that shows that he la the hteheet aad best form of the series which begin with the bh. Hop peee this to be the brain of the tab (Meetrating), we have hern, as In all brains, n front swelling, Oom which urine nerves which go tbe nostrils; a middle swelling, from whlcH arii* the nerves which go to the eyes, and ? a thud n?ailta?. rmm wbiah artae the nerve wbMJn tpes ??>- ,r. .r. i to the Mr, and the# other r .we* wL u b go to the different part.4, about which I ue< d rj0t trouble you now These three swellings ere so ? oottit' ^Utd that the uppermost is the smallest, tbe middle occupies tbe middle position, and the hindmost is the largest. 1? reptile* *? hid that these three uwelliu have about the same dimensions? that tbe front swelling begins to rise ao sa U> *t*?d on a level with the ir.tddte swelling, which Itself is about aa large as the hir.,d swelling, which is raised In dimension* from the ot^er. This i* properly tbe hemisphere or the brain (illiiFtnting), this Is the occipital portion ol the bruia, and this is the cerebellum. In birds we tlnd that th* front part is so fur developed as already to "-over In a measure the middle g?ell.ng, but leaves the hind swelling uncovered. And when from tbe bird we rise to the quadruped we find that the tront swelling cover* th* middle swelling completely, though it does not cover the litnd swelling at alL And wnen we come to man we And that not only is the middle swelling but tue hind Kwell'ng also covered in such a manner, and the position *o changed, that Instead of extending on the sam* plan, or rising slightly, as Is the rase in the rep tile, or slanting, as Is the case In the bird mammalia, in man the brain 1* brought to stand at ruht angle* wl.h the spinal marrow, which extends through tbe backbone along the vertebral column. Beyond this yon see at one* that there ie no progress possible. Here we have the anterior part of the brain, which extend* over the middle and posterior region of the middle and hind parts of tbe brain in a per fectly harmonious manner, and the whole command* the entire system in a manner which to be exceeded would le*d to a retrograde movement and not to an on ward progress. Take the different forms of brain which \v* have among men. You will And the forehead a little more or less developed. Paas from ihetn to the mon key* ; you will tlnd that tbe cerebellum will be uncovered very slightly and then gradually more and more. In tact, you hav* a complete aeries, which shows tnat between men and monkeys, and monkeys and quadrupeds, and quadruped* and reptiles, aud reptiles and fl-bes, there is an uninterrupted grada tion of more or less complicated structure, but with this remarkable peculiarity, that the distance fronv one to lb" other is unequal. Now in tbe order of succes sion of animals we have something similar. (The I*ro fesaor here drew a table upon tb? black board, showing the various forms of animals which had exi ted in all geological periods prior to the present.) Most of the animals which had exited m toriner porlods exist now, both in their origi nal ivpe, though a more perfect tvpe also exist at tbe present time. Tne transmutation doctrine as sumes that animals are derived from one another, and (list there is a primitive cell formed from which all ani mals may have been evolved. Tbe doctrine is that all vertebrates are derived from one primitive vertebrate, thutall articulates are descended from one primitive articulate, tba all molluscs are derived from one primi tive mollusc, that all fad,ales are derived from one primitive radiate, aud that these four primitive types aro derived themselves from a primitive cell, tormed by the combination of those fortuitous elements which are acting wherever light, mois ture and mailer are brought into contact with <>ue another. This is a doctrine professed by uiany emi neut modern men of science, on the ground that every thing which exists is started spontaneously by the for mation of a prim live cell, under the lntluence of light acting upon matter. There has recently appeared a aio't striking production on "the action of lUlit upon mat ter as original ng liOnx beings," which fairly expresses the views of thut school. Darwin, and other Kngiis'i men of science, entertain tho same doctriue in a diirer eut light. They assume that tbe tlrsi impulse was giv n by an intellectual power, and that this impulse has resulted in .the unfolding?m tho evolution?out of tbe first germs created of all tnat has followed. Tho doctrine which I .-upport is that it is not only the fow that wore started lu the beginning by the creative act, but the many, and that it wo4 not to one time only thai creation has been limited, but that creation has gone on through all ag-.-s. and that under the dircct inlluence of creative acts all tbe (inference* which exist in nature have been brought about. (Loud applause.) These are generalizations. Now let us t>ee what the facts are; whether tuey will susiu'.n tbe German transmutation doctr ne, or whether tue English doctrine corner nearer to the truth. And if. neither be shown to be correct, then I shall have proved my statement that we aro not lineal descendants of monkeys, but that we are the uhoson productions of a Divino iutell'-ct, and 1 that we are made in his resemblance. But the*: are interpretations; lot us look at the fai ls once more aud ascertain how closely they approach to my view of tne ease. Nearly all the radiates, molluhks and the lower forms of life are found in the oldest formations. The Qrst insects we tlnd belong to the carboniferous period, and we cannot tind them before. Then among ver tebrates we buve ilshee trout tho beginning. Then we have reptiles from ttie carbouiferous period onward. We have birds from tbe guraslic period, thou h that is somewhat questionable. Wo have also all mammalia lroui that date. 1 must remove here one possible objection which may be made. A fossil has been found in Canada, which Is ulniined to bo the first animal living on earth. Whether it b? an auiinal or not has not been yet fully ascertained. There are controversies upon that point, and within the last lew months discussions have arisen In learned societies whether this was or was not the remains of a living be ing. I say let us lu such instauce- imitate tbe me hod of astronomers, when there are observation* which are very far out of th ? way of ail information obtained be fore?let us reject thoee observations nntll they are so repeated that there can he no doubt about the met So, I say, let us leavo this case oat or consideration until it is known that it was a living being, aud until ita structure is so for disclosed tnat uoihiu/ n ed be predi cated concerning its affinities. From this brief state ment you see how many classes we lmve had from the begiuning?that is, you soe how many classes were contemporaneous with one another. his is u matter of fact; iniormaiion on record, the Geological Museum in Albany, will luiuish the proof of this statement. Now can it be admitted that contemporaries are descendants of one another, and thai animals wlnck have appeared to gether at the same time are derived the ono from the other? Certaiuly not. We have at least representative* . of these dillereni classes in the earliest strata; but this 1* not all. ihe polyhs have existed from the begin ning through all age*. Th* polvbs at the carilest period are among th* lowest, while we have polyhs of a much higher grade livlog now. And so with nearly all the lower typ?s oi living beings. It seems as it all these type* had been improving, as if they nad undergone changes, and as if these change* had led successively io souiethiug btgner. So it seem*, hut it I* not *o; for while w* have polybs now that are superior to those which lived in earlier periods, we have by tbe side of them polybs as low as tne first known, as low as tbose ol the oldest time. What Imparted to thoee slmpi* form* tne desire aud gave tbom the capacity to become something higher and to go on producing something higher, and at tbe same time to remain them selves a* they were at first? If they really possessed a Eower to produce something higher than thewnelvos, uw la It that at the aaine tlmo they hate the power to remain ou tbe lower level themselves? That is th* character of th* facta as w* hav* them. Whil* we have certain lowest forms in the *aiiie*t time, and that we have gradually higher and higher, w* have tbe lowest form side by side with the highest at tbe same time, so that we should hav*, according to the transmutation doctrine, tbe polybs incapable of remaining themselves and at the same time not changing. That Is not log e, aud I think that a doctrine which has fhcu aga nat It *o glaring aa these is not a true interpretation of nature. W* hav* th* same thing among tbe mollusks. We find th* lowest of the bivalve shell* in th* oldest beds that we know. We have them now also; but w* have in suc cessive time all the diversities of higher and higher bi valve shells np to tbe clam, fresh water man*Is and all these various shells. Can It possibly b* that this shell could hav* darted oat making other shells, and at the asm* Mm* remain In ? condition in which it could not change? I do not know a physical force?I do not know a natural fact? which is capable or producing such results. Bot I know that mind can do It; 1 know that an author, when be attempt* to reoord the processes of hi* own mind, ran do It np to the highest degree or perfection of which h* is capable, and he can do it in such a manner that what h* records may be suoceeelvely the evi dence of hi* gradual progreee, and In "the end may b* the evidence of his highest culture, and at th* sam* time he mav recall, If It be only for memory's sake, th* doings of his early days and place th*m side by sid* with the productions of bis maturer years. And it is just that which w* read in nature. We have an early manifestation of creative power, we have later awl higher productions and we have by tbe side of this latter a manifest reproduction of what had been In the beginning. Tbe fact that insects Monty In the carboniferous period la another and ng Indication or tbe working of mind in this pro cess. During tbe earliest periods or the earth's history, tbe whole of lie surface was covered with water. There wee no room tor terrestrial animals. When land and vegetation began to be extensive we have the first Indication of land animals in tbe Introduction of I needs. And hers let me oail your attention to another point. Is It because nature baa undergone successive change* that animals and plsnts nave made their appear adce- end Is It physical change which has called them into existence, living be inns, or have these physical changee taken plane end been directed In such a manner as to prepare a home on which living beings can be dis tributed ? Tbe queetion Is simply this?hen the physical world. In nil Its changes, been productive or tbe organic world or has tbers been an Intellertgal power superin tending tbe whole In each n manner that the physical conditions should be broegbt about by wbloh the living beings shonld and an appropriate bone for iheir growth ? In other words, has man sprung upon eerih be cause our earth had become what It was. or hss tbe earth been prepared for man that be might develop and unfold his capacities In tbs most appropriate man nsr spaa ita surface ? Now if we look st the order of succession In vertebrates we And aa answer to this ques tion We find, first, that fishes hava existed ss long as the surface of the earth was under the conditions during which all tbeee aquatic animals could axlst. Then reptiles have been called into ex istence just at tbs time when tbe earth bad become extensive enough, or the land above the sea had become extensive enough, to form an appropriate abode ror theee large marsh reptiles or the earliest pe riod. We find afterwards the Introduction of hirda at the time when tbe atmoephere had been deprived of the gnees which bad until the Ums rendered it Impos sible for tbem to exist In |L The accumulation of ooal in tbe beds or the carboniferous period fteed tbe air of all thoee elemenis which accumulated in it In the earlier period and with which the existence of warm blooded, higher animals would be Impossible. There Is a physical fact which precedes th* introduction or those living animals which require a porer atmosphere. Now tbe question Is, again, has the rreelng of the atmosphere of that carbon been tbs cause of Ihe coming In or birds and mammalia, or have tbe piociassss of naturs been so directed by a supervising Intellect that at a certain time tbe atmosphere should he treed oT theee impure elemeota, so that higher forms of being might ba called into exist ence t And when we ess that there is suob a gradation bstwssa all, sad when we find no Intermediate forme from one to another, it ssems hardly possible that causae and influences which are ever acting In the saaae war shonld have prodnded thoee different results I wish I had Mme to enter upon an elaborate argument upon this point. I will only sum up my evidence in a few sentences. The physical causes | are tbe same now sa they were before, and chemical and physical agencies set now ss they scted In the ' beeionlns. We bars tbe evidence of It w tbe identical ? n r ? ? ? . ? ? j charatter of the rocks of the oldest and more recent i fonnaioiUL We have evidence of it in the chemical ideni*y of the materials of which tbe celestial bodies are made, ot which a distinguished man of teience has recently given us the most comphie observations. The puysical world remain* the tame; tbe laws wbicb govern it remain the sane, and from the beginning until now, they have acted fci the same way. Are. then, the different animalx which have existed at different limes and which differ in the most varied manner, tbe result ot causes which do not vary, which do not change, which act even in tho same manner? This is contrary to our argument, and H is also ooutrarv to any evidence w,*? have. We cannot ascribe diversified results to uniform causes; we cannot ascribe as cause to certain effects agencies, the ao ion of wh ich la known to us, and the limited agency 01 which is known to us. Tlio.-e who are acquainted with the effects of light and mag netism and heat upon matter, and what are tbe possible combinations between chemical agents, know porfccily wail that these various coinbinatiuua, these various 'ac tions, ar<3 different from the actions which we now wit ness in the animal kingdom There'ore I say that it 13 not logical to ascribe the living bein.-s to those cause* and transcribe tbe diversity which exists among living beings to causes which at one time exUted. I ray that uniformity of nature should produce uniformity of action. I can conceive only one possible cause for this divers ity?the intervention ol mind. We all know perfectly well, in our own case, how the human mind acta; how free it is, bow it can manifest Hvelf, and abstain from manifestation. We know perfectly well how in this manifestation we can reooguise the ?tamp of him from whom It comes. We know perfectly well thai In the different works of an artist we can re cognize bis peculiar ways, his peculiar mode of mani festing himself, the peculiar stamp or bis mind. Ho in tbe case of the poet and the painter, and the sculptor and the architect. Why should we n t have something of the same kind In nature? Our mind is truly not ? manifestation of matter; it is something in dependent of it to the ext"nt to which we know ita freedom, and the extent to which we can maintain its independence from surrounding influ ences. And to that exieut and in similar manner do 1 conceive the intervention of mind in tbe production of living b?mg8 through all time-<, and a plan laid out and carried out trom beginning to end with reference to thai end. And that there is thai reference to the end as it if in mart, ns seen m tl.e iv.a inn which man bears to the loweat form?th flah?iba there is aucb a refer ence to man ia seen in the gradation which we observe thro gh all times from tbe beginning to the end. And that this cannot be th" result of simplo influ ences?o' physical conditions?is further shown by tha fact which is coustant'v recirring of tbe transfor mations reproduced every day through the whole animal kingdom in the production of new individuals. And here I come to the closing evidence 1 have to submit. There are several hundred thousand diff rent kinds of animals living on this globe, of all types of the animal kingdom. Now, every one of them has its linn nf development, and each passes through a certain number of changes. Every sparrow b"gin* with the egg, g es through the changes which aro characteristic of sparrow life until It la oapa ble of reproducing itself in eggs, which which wlH ge through tbe sam>' change*. Every butterfly ariaea , from an egg, which pr duces a caterpillar: that caterpillar becomes a chrysalis, and that in turn becomes a butterfly, and thus changes until it is a period animal, capable of producing another egg. So it is ?i>h everv living being. There are those which are low, and those which are high; there are those which belong to tho lowest type of their class, and those which belong to the Highest; in fact, the ani mal kingdom, as it is now, la constantly undergoing greater changes every year than the whole animal kingdom has p?s>ed through Irons the I beginning uutil now, and yet we never see one of those animals swerve from the line appointed by it and change into something that ia not l<ke Itself. That is the great fact. Every living being reproduces itself under coudp ons which aro the aame now as they were in the beginning >f the world till now, and .vet they do not change. Why? Because by nature they are not changeable. That is what we mu-<t ,n^r'j au(* tb?*0 w,1,c ' " ' B0W "re not changeable ana do not pass from one into another, though they represent all the clmn^e-i which aai'iiala can puss through, is It logical to us-ume that tho^e of carder ages have become other than what we gee the animal to be now in consequence of chm ges, and that the laws of nature have changed in a su-di h manner that that which does not take place now should have taken place la earlier times? I say jnst as much a-i the cycle which everv animal passes through in undergoing its develop ment from the egg to its perfect condition progreaaea ac ording to itg appointed law impressed upon It by tbe J"51 80 lbe various fqrnns. the remalna of which we And through all ages buned in the rocka, are appointed forms, which have never changed apon taneouslv from the beg nntng, and are simply tbe ate pa through which it has pleased the Creator to carry the animal kingdom until it reached man, tbe being wh!eh te framed in Hla image, which ia endowed with a spirit akin to Him, by means of which alone he is capable of k understanding nature. Were we not made in the image ol the Creator, d d we not possess a spark of the dirine aplrit which is our godlike inheritance, bow coulK we understand nature, how could we stand in anoh a rela tion to the whole world that it should not beaaaaled j* ? " 1* because we ar?? nkfn not only to tbe physical ana the animal kingdom, but also to the Creator hlmaelf. i wo can read tbe world aad understand that it comes from God. (Ixiud applause.) Mr. (Ian. IU*rm>*T, after nsylng an eloqnent tribute to the genius of the lecturer, proposed the following reso lotioD, which was at once seconded and carried by & tremendous buret of applause:? ii<,?f!7 hi ' ith? th*nk? *f this great assembly at de r fr If h"M.l*r? be given to the Illustrious Professor Agassis f,1'."7!,,s "f "Is Instruction, for the clearness of hie for.ht" "position of theideaof UMMlvertamjror ntlM over transient >?? hanpy hours which passed oxer too rapidly, and for &nW tnduencee. of which the memories will list througTour lives. Geo. Pkonpbr H. Witmokk tlien proposed a vote of thanks to the Society for the Advancement of Science and Art, under whoae auspicies the tenures bad been delivered. The audience at once made anearty response and Immediately after dispersed. THE GOVERNORSHIP OF MARYLAND. Postponement of the lasagaratlea of Llaa* tenant Governor Cex-Uoveraar Hwaaa's Probable Declination of Hla Unite* Hlates Menalorshlp. B urmoRK, Ifd., Feb, 28. 18?7. Quite a sensation waa produced here to-day by a brief announcemont from Annapolis of a postponement of tbe inauguration of Lieutenant Governor Cox. It la now stated that Governor Swann will not resign, but will decline the t'nlled States Senatorahlp to which he was recently elected, and wjll assign tha raaaona for hia action to the Legislature in a day or two. Died. CLET?i^?in.?On Tuesday, February 38, Mam On trchk, only daughter of William EL and Charlotte H_ Cleveland. aged 7 months aod 10 daya. Notice of funeral ia to-morrow'a papers. |For Other Dta/ki 8?e kigktk Page.] WIlCKiihASKOUg. A rKB8H 8"" J A RED'8 ' EMAIL DB PA mvrwat MRS. EMMA WALLER, KLLB. TB8TVALI, MADAMS PONI8I, M1M LUCILLE WB8TBRB. "r^y polfd^?"OT i^alrb'ut^ SffTgaragBis jjjfgs K2? sars&.'a inss irS leahesu. SB Broadw.iv, aad al irst class Drnr f^lasgar^feu.PM,M **""?*?*- *ad *c- wbu* At THIS 8BA8ON OF TUB TEAR ar.T. HORMPg are more ?rle? affected with sefatcht^nlki.?^ mc- These (neglected and exposed to A* action of tha mud and alosh 1 will quickly ruin a valuable animal. DALLET'S ST*?# de^T'i JSir W ^ ^ " A BSOLUTB DIVORCES OBTAINED f* ART STATE A without pnblietty or ezpoaore good la avert ~ coniuluiiont free ? no fees charged noUl divorce is ol A PA MILT OINTMENT IS CDRINO publicity or fee la advanoe. Consuliatioas free. M. UOWB8. Attorney. 78 Baaaan 1 BA2rf?' ORECIAR ?S: single Carls, |l; Waterfall Pnffh Meant thing eheap, at PECKiIaM'S Hair ? u street, near tbe Bewery, Bew York or eon * " SSI th?''o'u!! ? T\IVOBCE8 LBOALLT OBTAINED PROM THE 1J courts of several States without publicity. Cruelty, drunkenness or desertion eaaae ludteleat. Advice free. P. I. KINO. Oounaellor at Law, tU Broadway. DB. BONE, 114 WEST RIXTBBHTH 8TRF.RT ?DIIU eases of heart, innga, throat, liver, kidneys, ocmfiala, scald head, salt rheum, ecaema, rruptioni. every kind of skin diseaeea cured. 0 TO THOMAS R. AOKEW'S, ORBBBWICH AMD U Murray streets, where yuo will find Teas, Cofffws. risb. Floor and eveiythiog else cheaper than aay store in New Turk. One pries bouse. HM BNRT A. DANIELS, M. D.. 8CBbRON, BO. S VNION sqnsre.?Absolute radical cure withnul knife, causaie or detention from bualnesa, lor piiee, strloturt. fistula, dis eases of pelvic viscera. Deformities of aye, noae, faaa aad person. Otliee hours trom Imll SCHKNCK'rf PULMONIC HVRIJP, SBAWBKD TONIC A!*D MANDRAKE P^LLS. These daaervedly celebrated an I popular medicines have effected a revolution In the healing an. and proved the fal lacy of several mailms which have for msnr years ohstrnct ed the progre?s of medieal science. The false snppealtlon that "Consumption Is Ineerable" deterred physicians from attempting to And remedies tor that diaeaaa, and pabenla afflicted wlth lt reconciled themeelvee to death without Biaktag any effhrt to escape from a doom which they sup posed to be unavoidable. It la now proved, however, thai Consumption can be enred. sad that ft haa been eared la a very grest number of oaaee (some of them apparently dea perate oaesi hy Schenck's Palaionic Syrup alone, aod, in other eaaea. hy the same aMdtrine, In connection with Sobeack's Seaweed Tonic and Mandrake rttls, one or bet? aeairdlng to the requirement. ?L the case Dr. Schenrk himself, who haa enjoyed untatftrapied good health for mora than twenty Ave reara. was ssnpoeod at one time to be at Ihe very git* of dMih. bis phvslcGtns having pronounced hla oaea hopeless and abandoned 11 In to his fate. He wu cured by the aforesaid Syrup and slnse his recovery man; thousands similarly afflicted have used Dr. Hchenek's med. Ones with the same remarkable siiccest. Full direction! f..r the nee of them accompany ??eb home. r Dr. 8CIIRNCK will be at his rooma. Wn. 31 Bond street hew Tort, every Tueaday, from 9 A. M. to a P M a rTli saaalv of medlcia* mav be obtalnod Hera at all lio'ora ^