Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 7, 1867, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 7, 1867 Page 4
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HAIRS l\ Ifflffi. The Irish Fenians Dispersed but Not Conquered. ExeiUmrnt and Alarm Prevailing in the South of Ireland and English Xaval Ports. Karl Carnarvon on the King dom of Canada. The North American Confederation to be " Greater than England and Second Only to Russia.'* BOSSIAH POLICY D THE EAST. Wilt Napoleon Intervene in Turkey J Ac. &c. 4c. The new steamship City of Antwerp, of tho Inman Hue, Captain Mirchouse, which left Liver)>ool at noon on tho 20th and Queenstown on the 21st February, ar rived at thin port early yesterday morning, havin? ex porienoed very heavy weather during the greater part of the voyage. The City of Antwerp brings interesting details of our cable despatches to her day of galling. The ex-rebel cruiser Sumter foundered noar tho Dag ger Bank. S'nce tho collapse of the rebellion in tho J ^outh the Sumter, under the uame of the Gibraltar, lias been employed as a trading steamer by a Hull (Eng.) firm and wan on n voyage from Helslngfors to Hull when she i prang a leak uuder her boilers and sack gradually in smooth water. The crew mado their escape. Peuding the formal ojieuing of the Reform quesiion In 1 arha.Tieut on the 2?ih ot February, tho opposition con tented themselves by giving notices of questions, and intended resolutions on the subject. Tho l<oudon Star oomplains of the exaggerated courtesy with which the opposition treated the government as alike undeserved and ill repaid. The London Times warns llr. Disraeli that tho limits of indulgence have been strained already. He must decide on definitive measures and unambiguous pro posal The London Herald, the Derby organ, does justice to Mr. Gladstone on hid conduct since the opening of tho session, and remarks that if tho consideration of tho j Government bill is approached in this spirit by the oppo sition, it is almost a matter of certainty that a legislative ?ettloment of the Reform question will be arrived at. The official presentation of the "Yellow Book'' to the French Chambers was postponed. This delay is said to have occurred in consequence of its being the desire of the Marquis do Moustier to add documents of a very re oent date, showing that Turkey is disposed to adopt tho conciliatory course towards Catulia which hus boon re commended by tno Great Powors. The "Yollow Book" contains a despatch addressed by tlie Marquis de Moustier, on the 11th December, to the Count de Sartlges, French Minister at the 1'apol Court. The despatch says "Noed I point oat all the security resulting to the Pon tlflcial government from th? engagement which boa been contracted by King Victor Emanuel uever to cross tho frontier* of the Papal States himself, and to protect them against all attacks irom without oven by force of arms. We are convinced that the Cabinet of Florence, whose reiterated assurances scarcely |>eruiit of doubt, will faith fully fuilll all we can expect fr?m It." After counselling the Roman government to introduce reforms, the despatch concludes as follows:? Assure his Holiness that the withdrawal of the French troops by no means implies an abandonment of the ire portaut interests which for seventeen years wo have | guarded by our presence In Home, and over which, whether far or near, we shall not cease to watch with the fullest devotion. The French Council of State is said to have agreed upon the s heme for the reorganization of the army upon the following basis:? The military contingent to consist of 100,000 men, divideJ into two classes, of which the one will serve five year# In active service and four in the resei ve, and the other Tour year* in the reserve aud Ave in the National Guard The statistics of the|French navy are thus given in the Yellow Book France has 1,540 vessels, propelled by 92,108 horse power -Iron-clad ships and frigates, 13, 12,800 liorso power; do. corvette. 1, 600: do. gunrdship, 1, 600: Iron olad coast batteries, 14, 2,476; do. tor lakes and rivers, 11, 480; fast screw stcntu liners. 12, 10,200; auxiliary ?crew do., reckoned transports, 23, 13,8W0; fast screw frigates, 1H, 10,W0; auxiliary screw do. (transports). 0, 1,180; paddle wheel do., 13, 8,140; do. corvettes, 8, 2,720; screw do., 12, 4,970; do. despatch boats, 44, 8.01S; paddle do., 62, 5,(70; wooden gunboats, 40, 2.1MJ; Iron do., can be taken to pieces and conveyed over land or en board other ships, 26. 420; screw transports, including ?table ships, 47, 11,600?total, 540, 92.106 liorse power. France hw augmonted her iieet during the past year by three iron-clod frigates and ouc corvette. In the Chamber of Deputies in Paris two demands for leave to question the government wers pres 'nted?one by M. Langamaio, on tho subject of the modifications Introduced in the decree of tho 24tli November, and the other by M. Picard. relative to the circular of M. Vandal. Those demands were to be examined by the bureaus under the new order. The death of the Archduke Stophen, of Austria, U announced. An imperial rescript, dated February 17, was read in both bouses of the Hungarian Diet. It announr that (he Emperor of Austria assents to the demands embo died lb the Diet's Address of tho 17th January last rela ilve to tho reorganisation of the army, and has ordered that the question bo iu!j.i .rni'd for parliamentary treat menu The rescript expresses the hope that the D et will the more readily lend thalr support to the "pater nal' intentions of tlio K.nimror In this respect, from a consideration of the urgent necessity that ex su for fllllng up the gap.* In the different regiments, aud entirely remodelling tho military forces of the country. As far as tho rosulls of the elections for the North German Parliament are known, eighty-one conservatives, flfty-ono liberals of different shades, eight clericals and eleven Poles have been (February 21) elected in the old provinces, and tweuty-^three liberals, seventeen ?eperat tsls and two Danes in tho now provinces of l'rustia. \ vast majority of separatists have been elected iu ?axony and of national liberals In the other North German States. An income tar or four per cent is announced in Daly. Of Lord Naa*' Irish Tenant bill the Dublin freeman says:? We hear nothing a'?>ut leases in the statement of Lord Haas, and the/ will bo *Vonspie.uoas by their a been e" la the hilt. M about the security of a lease, however it is to be accomplished, nil other remedies will be abso lute failures. Toe loan is nothing. It will not be tsken up, and we may as woll tell tiio irovcrnment so at onco. "hat the o?rii[uer: want Is security by lease?the mini mum term thirty.unv years. All other remedies will be uaavalitag. According to a private telegram from Dresden the ?saential terms of tho military convention between Prus sia and .-axony are:?Dresden shall lie evacuated on the 1st of .luly by the Prussian troops, who will continue lo ?c upy I'elpslc, Bautzen and K<~>nigsteln. The Saxon army shall lorm the Twelfth army federal corps and shall remain in the conntry. The fortifications of Dresden ?bad not be increased. IRELAND. DUN DII8L11 CWRtSfOHQINCt. Kit rein of th? /.tun fenlan InaarreelU* -An Ktrllrd nn?l Htlll l>H??irom. Condition of Aflnft-a?The K?k?l? Aided In Kerry Dint-to ?pert to the Qaeen'a 1'raclntnntlon nnd the Holdii'ra IIUmmI?The Cittfaollr Prelate* on the Onikrmk-Snd Meeiien In the Criminal t'onrt -.Stephen J. .Hentiy'a Trtnl, Are. Dtmt.i, Feb. 20, 1RC7. The Fenian rifling, which created a parfect ?torm of ?ttttemcnt for ? few day*, hit collapsoil. It eprnng up when Iomi expacWd, and hu u quickly crumbled itito ?try nothing. A few of tb? (Wlower* of O'lWinor ar* *tlll hld'ti? tn the oaves of the Killarney mountain*, hut the pre?t l?o. y have succeeded In crowing the mountaini), vetting Into the district of the Rlack Valley, and thence dispersing toward* Cahlrrlreen and Dingle. Band* of military, m WM4W <1/0* 9VU tU? bMa in we arch of Ibe remaining fugitives. Magistrates ac. company the otficers aud endeavor to attract inform*, tarn, but with little result, the poople uot being willing to give it. Notwithstanding alittv*e exertion* they have not succeeded in making a single capture. There Is little reason to doubt that the Fenians have beeu Supplied with food bv sumo of tbe inhabitants of KJilar* nt y, anil thus enabled to be concealed tn the caves and woods of the l-ako district. Those who have visit d Kil larney will remember that there could scarcely be found a locality offering great'-r factlitios for concealment. Tuomies Mouutain, now celebrated as the ?tronghold of the llret Fetitan force, rises from the border of the lower lake aud ascends almost perpendicularly to a height of 2,400 t' ct. The side which overhangs the lake is thickly covered with arbutus, holly and variegated shrubs, com pletely concealing numerous caves, which can only be reached by parties thoroughly acquainted with tbe moun tain. O'Connor, with some hundreds of bis followers, must have crossed this mountain, guided by persons conversant with its paths. It is said that some of the leaders of the movement have managed to get out of tbe country altogether by means of a small scboonor, which has been lying off the coast for some days. Three gunboats are now stationed in Kenm are river, two war frigates are cruising round tbe coast, and light boats, carrying a few guns each, keep watch between Bantry and Dingle. Uenera. Hosford has declared his intention to crush out the movement if possible. Tbo force under bis command has be?n increased by a squadron of lancers and some troop* nf tbe Fourteenth infantry, making a total of close on two thousand men, in addition to the local police force, now available to pour on any distriot where disaffection may show itself. Five hundred soldiers occupy the principal hotel in Kilianiey. They lie down dressed, knapsacks under their heads, arms piled and haversacks alung, ready to more at bugle call. Othor companies are billeted In mansions convenient to the mountains to be ready for exploring at daybreak. They nie also distributed to Ken mare, Kiliorglln, Cahircivnen, Sneem aud districts wbero the fugitives ini?ht l>o received. The great body of tfce troops are concentrated at Mallow, a town about twenty miles from Cork. It communicates by one of tb'' arterial railways of the country with Dub lin and the Curragh camp, and branch lines lead from it to the extreme soutti, also the southwestern aud south eastern districts. Within an hour hundreds of troops could be conveyed to un.v of these poiuls, aud reinforcements despatched from Dublin. Thus it may be soen that auy further attempt to stimulate a rising could be checked imme diately. a ^ort of guerilla warfare might bo kept up in the mountain districts; but, cut oir from supplies by land mid sea, that would soon spend out its energy. There it little reason to doubt that but for tliu early information and pr >tupt action of tbs government, the laie demonstration would have b<*en of a moro formida ble character. The assistance wh eh lias been afforded to tbo fugitives aud tliu uuconce.ilod feelings of disap pointment show tint expediency was more the res-train ing power than loyalty. The placards of the proclama tion of the county and the reward for O'Connor, which were {Kitted by the polico, were torn down and com pletely destroyed during the night. Yesterday a p irtv of police, accompanied by a troop ot lancers, man ned through the county and posted fresh bills. Ibe lancers were hissed us they passed through the town, and bad large stones flung at them. Now that the Urst panic of fear has pa.sssd away and the exaggerated stories calmly examined, tbe whole ailair assumes rather a mild character as regards tbe ex ploits of the Fenian party. Assaulting a fow coastguard stations and police barracks, carrying off tho arms and ammunition, levying contributions or horses and provi sions and soverely wounding an orderly, cutting the tele graph wires aud attempting to overturn trains?these incidents in themselves would not justify tbe alarm of the House of Commons and Lords wen it not that they are the symptoms of tbo dangerous disease. There have beeu various reports of suspicious meotings held in other parts of Ireland, and numerous arrests have been made, but there has not been any demonstra tion or responsive rising. Tbe heads of tbe Roman Catholic Church have united with the government in denouncing the Fenian conspiracy. On Sunday last the Rov. Dr. Moi larty, Bishop of Kerry, in his sermon thus referred to It:? .Since we met here on last Biindsy Home people In Kerrv buvo been belraved into an act ol' madnoiu which we may aafely nay Is without a parallel in (be annala of lunacy. I should hare thought that. considering the spacious atom mojafon afforded tiy our lunatic asylum, and the facility .ifforded by our board of governors, there were few dangerous lunatics yet at large in this county. Bui 1 am soiiy tj any I wait mistaken. It would seem that some dozens of that class lift the town of CabiroiVMu on Wednes day evening with the avowed intention of making war on the Quoen of Kngland and of upsotttag tbe British empire. 1 think there la not one inmate ot the asylum who would not hotd his sides for laughter if he heard It. Now. If this were ouly folly we might be satiarted to deplore It, but these people were answerable to Uod for their conduct, t or they had, i regret to my sense euotigU to know what tbey were doing was a grevlous crime. It Is just twelve months ago since I explained at considerable length in my Lenten pastoral the deep gullttueaa of rebellion against lawful authoriiy. so tliey cannot plead that they were not instructed and forewarned. They resisted the ordinance of God, and by so doing they purchased for themselves damnation ? * ? "?the execra b'e swindlers tvho care not to endanger the neclu of the men who trust them?who care uot how many are murdered by the rebel or hanged by the strong arm of the law, pro vided they can get a supply of dollars either for their pleasures or for their wants U Ood a heaviest curse?11 withering, blasting, blighting curse is on thorn. 1 preached to you last Min i.iv on the eternity of hell's torments Human resson was Inclined to nay, "It is a hard word, and who ran bear #?" But wtiea we look down into the fathom less depth of this infamy of the mads of the Fenian con spiracy, we must acknowledge that eternity is not long cnongli nor hell hot enough to punish such mlscrcanu. During the delivery of this discourse numbers of young men left the chapel. Cardinal Culleu, at the Lord Mayor's inauguration din ner Inst evening, "hoped the day would soon arrive when tbose tilings winch degrade the country and lead lier people into false position* might be swept away. False patriotism was degradation nod might be perrerted to ruin. Within tho last few days it was plain that the patriotism to which be alluded ought to bo prohibited by ?very one who loved bis oountry." * A most distressing scene took place in tho Commission Court on the occasion of sentencing tbe prisoners *bo pieaded guilty to tbe charge of treason felony. Baron Fitzgerald, In ptu^mg sentence, said;?rower, you have been at tho bead of this conspiracy in Dablin. You assumed to yourself tbe power of appointing cen tres, and was actively engagaged in the dis tribution of arms. You, Devoy, was centre f >r ilie military and engagod in seducing tbom from their allegiano'-. Tbe scntenc?, pcuai servitude for fifteen years. Sinclair, liaiuoa, Stack, Stanley and Hrown, tor ten years each. Casinuan and WalSh seven year*. The prisoners seemed to bo horror struck with tho seventy of the sentences. Pow ers' faoe assumed a deadly line; Baiaee burst into tear*. The galleries were filled with their wives and children and other relatives. Their screams and sobs were vio lent. .-ome became quite hysterical, others faiotod and lind to b? carried away Insensible, Stowell, Joyner and Williams were sentenced to twelve months Imprisonment each for poamelaB of arms without a license. Stephen J. Meaney was brought before Baron Hughes The At t .>*??> U-nersl prosecuted. John Devany aud Thomas Doyle proveil tne connection of Meaney with the Bro therhood in New York, navmg heard liim speak at Clin ton Halt and seen him oiler Fenian bonds for sale. Alter hearing all tlic evidence tendered bv the Crown, the Judge requested to kuow what act had itecn proved that brought the prisoner within the jur^xllction .if the court fhe Attorney General contended that, al lium, h no act was proved in ibis country, yet as be bad provod tbo cx'sienco of a conspiracy to depose tbe Qaeon, v ts ton Itng to tbe same done out sulo the I'mted King loni should conviot. His lordship was of a di:Vreui opinion, and refused to pass sentence. He, however. acc pied a verdict of guilty, and put buck the pr.son -r till lie should further examine into the caso. The actlou brought by Captain Murphy a.'amst Colonel F.elding and h?J<?r Bum li* !ll?val Irprtsonment has, by mutual agreement, been arranged by detendants pay ing the sum ol ?100 damages. Jnmca Ntrpli#is Near I lie Heme. Drnus, Feb. 21, 1M7. A telogram just received from Kiliarncy announcos the report that James Stephens aud souie friends have got in by Dirn-le Bay, and are secreted in the neighborhood. OUR CORK CORRESPONDENCE. Military Puriswlt of the I'eninna-Alnrmina Hmiiura of Unities and RetrrntM? Public t'oii tlilcsiT Pnrtlnll.v Restorrd-Kxtraardisary Movement of I he Poller In Dinile, Arc. Cong, Feb 21, 1MT. Accounts from the scene of the leniati outbreak r pre sent the insurgents flying in every direction from the Justice which surely awaits them If arrested. Tbe au thorities are determined to use stroug measures to extin guish tbe last embsn of rebellion, and bodies of military have been despatched to scour the country and shoot down those who are in arms. Up to tbe present no en gagement has taken place between tbe Fenians and government troops; and it is not likely that any collision will take place betweon the parties if it can b? avoided b; tbe former. - ? Tbe rumors which have been circulated up (a the present are of the most conflicting and unreliable character. It has now been ascertained with some degree of truth that the force of the Feuian band, insuad of being nine hundred, had not reached more than from one hundred lo one hundred and fifty strong. This feeble nnd abortive attempt to effect tbe independence of Ireland and overthrow tho British empire mar be well laughed at, and must Illustrate how Idle the burst of Stephens when he declared that he could bring twe hundred thousand well disciplined mon into the Held. Tbe lat Ast particulars which bare come to hand from K'iry, which bus been made the base of operations by the Feoiaus, I beg to append:? The policeman Dqftfran. w1h? bad boon shot by a petty of Fen at?, *ri? stated to be in a precarious state, and -light hopes wen- entertained of hi# recovery. The coolness and bravery dlapisyed fij* lingjr-in tit* tha sub* Ject of i orapnmentary reft r ttfe in rarllatneuft and tho Roman Catholic clergyman wbo s' ende l him sad gave inte Ifsnen to the poiv-e o' a it*1 poliee ?M'loti of the ianget that mmlnont teglfliflg the Feotani 1mm ?l4t? ewu^iudnhui yraieB. it tfl known that the nan wi>? ftred ?t the policeman belonged to * body of thirty insurgents who wore passed by sev eral on the road touting from Cahirciveeu to KelorgliB. The man described to bo at tue head of that suitll party doos Dot answer the description cf General O'Connor, who watt supi'wwl to be thu assassin; betide* liforma uiaiiou has reached government that tbe gen< tal wu leading another division in uuothcr direction or the country. U ix t>aid on good a utbontjr that St'phens is in the ra dst ot th - insurnButs, aud thai government is taking stepa to securo his capture On Mouday last a number of Dublin detectives arrived In Killarney, and rumor has it I hat they have been sent down there for the purpose of hunting up the chief. Although the information as to tin* (not c:jiii**s troin a good source, it if yet generally believed that Stephens is no more in the couuly Kerry than he is in Mountjoy prison. ^ The military are still busy in their movem-nte. and the moat ridiculous and contradictory reports are be ug received in Killarney. From Wedesday up to this day larve bodies of troops have been located at or about the l'oomies mouutaius, and uwht and dav the Initio tall is sounded in the ireeu of Killarney, and reliefs for the wearied sentlools on the hillside march out from the town. Friday evening the Sixtieth rifles leit the town to pursue the Fenians, who were reported to be retreat ing ai rowt the mouutuins to Kenmare. The movement was considered to put the finale to tbe insurrection in Kerry, and soon after rumors reached the town that the famous sharpshooteic were popping off tbe Fenians rap idly. No sooner, iiowevo*. had this report gained circu lation than the alarming intelligence bad arrived that the Rifles bad been beguiled by tneir opponent* into one of tbe deep ravines which intonec! the mountains. One account was to the effect that thry had been roughly han dled ami forced to retrea'; another that they disarmed the Riflff and g*ve no quarter. As soon as these reports had spread, considerable commotion was observed among the military in ttie town. At the bugle call they assem bled in the street, and cars being provided numbers of them drove off through the town at a rapid pace. After a lengthened and anxious suspense?the news arrived that ibe insurgents bad advanced K> meot the rein forcement sent out, that desultory firing was carried on. and that there wire wounded <m both tides, and that each f'lree of belUg-rcnt* had taken prisoners. In the mi'l i of the'oxcitement which this intelligence caused tho shrill bugle blast again sounded through the street*, vehicles were again brought into requisition, and more troops despatched to tho scene ol battle. The people watcbod, with 'bated breath, these movements, and over.v one seemed 10 have the abstracted air of persons trying to hear the rattle of musketry afar off. All those rumors proved canards No engagement whatever took placo between the volunteers aud the insuwnts. In lact, only a few?about a dozen?of the latter were seen oa the mountain. They showed themselves suddenly, and as suddenly disappeared in the rocky rocesses. The truth, judging irom their movements up to this, soems, indeed, to be that the same mystery marks tho proceed ings of tho Fenians in the camp SB there did in the senate; and, where soch mystery ori^w. the same vague and groundless reports ?ill be* circulated as have been from iho begimi'tig. If one woro to cretin the informa tion obtainable from official sources, the insurrection has been of an insignificant character, and that the extraor dinary display of military strength made by tbe govern roent was dono with the charitable view of showing tbe insurgents tho futility of their attempt Tlio great excitement which followed the news of the rising has considerably (baled, and the prevailing opinion is thai now that it is almost crushed no attempt at b renewal of It will lie made. Several arre t.-! havo been made through the country, and on the 19th lustant a number or men were arrested on board the Holyhead and Liverpool steamers. Twj arrests of passengers by the steamors arriving at Cork from Kupl'sh ports have also been made. According to latest advices over thirty meu have been arrested at Calurciveon, and yesterday a man named Fitzgerald was returned for trial to the assizes as among the alt;ickers at. Hell's Coast Guard station. Twenty Fenians, armed, passed a place called Mill town, on (be evening of the 19th, and wore supposed to bo a portion of seventy and or the command of O'Connor. The Hixty concealed uitove Lake Cara are makiug for the coast. As I write Killarney is stated to be perfectly tranquil, but the troops are still stationed there, and the same vigilunce is exorcised to prevent a Fenian mustering on tho mountain. A correspondent writing from Dingle narrates the following incident, which, if truo, betrays tbe most wantou and unjustiOablo conduct:? The Inhabitant* of thin town were thrown into the great est consternation by the marching through the different streets of a large police force, uuder the command of Hub Inspector Utlpiu. Tbe men were armed with the breech losding rltie, and marched in military array through the towu as tar as the western extremity of the strand, near the seashore. When they hud marchod lo the ouUklrts of the town, and on the public road. Mr. (Jilpin had put them through their drill tor some twenty minutes or so. On their retain, and on entering the town, Mr. Oilnin gave the order "Commence firing," and from theuce until they arrived at tbe tower end of t;reon street the party kept up a regular fusilade. On their arrival at the lower enS of the street Mr. Uilpin gave the order ? to halt;" and al ter tbe lapeeof a minute or two again gave the order to "Commence Urine." The fusilade was resumed and kept up until they arrived at Main street, nod from thence through the town down to the constabulary barracks. They tired at the houses oa the left hand side, ah might naturally be supposed, such an unusual display of un aruiod force caused great cxci.cuhmL RUSSIA. OUR ST. PETERSBURG CQRBESPQ8DENCE. Tho Allied Poller la the Kaat?Non-Interven tlon Plan of the Czar ud a Free Field for the Christians?'Constantinople Nat Wanted - A General Insurrection Agaiiint Turkey Im suinent?Will Napoleon Interfere f?Japanese Negotiation* with Prince nortsciinhoir and an Extraordinary Adventure?The (Jrerk Minister ta the l/nlted mute* and Ilia Firat Acquaintance iriik the Turks* Arc. St. FRiuaimo, Feb. 12, 1867. Tho Queen of England, In her speech from tbo throne ?t the opening of Parliament, announces that England, with her allies, France and Russia, had agreed upon a policy of non-intervention In the Turkish-Christian a (lairs in the East. As 1 wrote you aotno time since, this proposition was made by bis Majesty the Emperor of Russia, and mot with a very prompt and satisfactory ac ceptance by England, but from Fimnce nothing of a definite response could be elicited. The negotiations were car ried on by the Russian Ambassador at Pahs with energy and skitr, but for a tiuie promised to bear no (rails. France, be was assured, bad no Intention of engaging actively in the contest; she was for peace. Her Expo sition was a sufficient guarantee of hor desires and intentions to refrain from any act that should or could produce further complications in Europe, and her whole energies were to be bent In malting the World's Fair a complete success. All this was very One, but, under the present light.-, by no moans reassuring to any of the Powers interested In the Eastern question. Finally, tho negotiations being persevered in, and the whole ground being again thoroughly diMuuod, France suddenly changed ber policy and gave her adherence to the proposal or Russia. The point gamed is a very Important one. Tt guaran tees the Christians in burope a free field, which Is all their frieuds desire, and ensures no interference of a great Power in the moment of success to snatch from their hands the victory they expect to gain. No Power would seem to have a deeper Interest in the Chrisiian causi than Russia, and her proposition to remain a pa.* sivo spectator of a struggle in which the sympathies of the entire nation go out to their coreligionists, showed conclusively that sho bad no intention of reaping any direct benefit from the dliruptlon of tho Turkish empire. Say what you may, Russia docs not wsnt the Darda nelles nor Constantinople. She has quite as much terri tory as t<he ran for many generations to come populate and develop. Look at her immense possessions and then sav It wouM be wise for hor to stretch out her band aud Miss the Turkish apiUI. When, In 1329, Gen. Mouravlefl, with a Russian army, was within twenty-four ho>trs march of Constantinople, he desire.l permission to more on and capture the city; but In response to this request the Em|>eror Nicholas, after a secret couucil of the empire, in which but one member advocated that measure and elevin opposed, wro'.e General MouravlctT that he emild see nothing to b gained to Uuss.a by taking Constantinople. It would be positively detrimental to her best interests, and he prayed that none of his successors would be so unwise as to attempt an act so pernicious to the well being of the empire. Then, not a Single nation, except England, was likely to Interfere to prevent Russia from seising the Dardanelles. France was favorable, and Pruss a and Aus tria were con'cnt that it should be done. That wise and statesmanlike policy of tl?o Emperor Nicholas has not be>n swerved from by bis nol'te successor, Alexandorll., and it Is not likely to tt". Hut while Russia does not wish to have a foothold on the Dardanelles, she is equally fixed in her determination never to permit any other Power to obtain 11 To prevent this sho will taeiif'e her lest man and her last ruble. She desires that the rightful owocrs of the soil should possess It. These sho believes, an all j'isl thinking per.-ons believe, to be the Cbrlstlsns, the twelve million of Christian Inhabitants, an<! not the twd tuition of Mu.->?ulmr>n under whose yoke they have so lontf canned in short, P. issla wishes the Christian population rile the country they live in and not any other fore tm POW"'whatever. Once free from Mahoni ertan yoke there i* t?o reason to doubt their capacity to govern their country wl'll ability and skill, develop Its resources and finally plac* li in the hlgftast rank of civilised nations, fun will to Mnssla s policy to pro mote *o fur as she may, and she ? iS be likely lo Obtain peacefully all ber ends by malnuiiaieEf good nolhhor hood with the near communities with'ot the dangers and burdens that an active participation in the contest would namrally Impose 1 have, a* thousands of others hare, been alwavs of the opinion that Rn?ln s traditional OF was to obtain t oneumtinopie and the Dardanelles; am now sattsted or evidence that 1 cannot doubt that such a policy has net been entertained for the past thirty years. It ik not now thought of, I am sur . and tho only desire that is cherished M every class Is that the litiisiian pepulatloe shoul'i rail there. Beyond ihat Hnasia <ii*w not go, Khe will be satisfied with nothing else and .isk for nothing more. fiverv moil briefs ns additional cor,firmatton of the report* of an inatmsliase outlir ?k in the provinces of S"r*in, Hul.'arts. Moiiicneere, Thetaaty, Macedonia and tbe alitor Turkish po -"'ssion* in Europe. The Ottoman authorities are U'in<ev?r) meanx ib their power, thrata, promises, oor<M?n aau outers, to prevent the catas trophe, bat ail ta ? **n. lite uaas are all the pre pnratiOD* have been nearly completed and the day is appointed, and no Mussulmau power can now stop the tremendous revolution which mn? forever sweep the cone lrom the comment of Europe. There will be ilus tune no detached, disconnected, premature risiugs, but tbe whole scheme wlM lie curried out with a unity of a> uotj and a singleue?a of purpose never before at tained. 'i'bu iavontu ottoman j<ol*> of crushing in de tail v> ill not serve on this occasion. The Turks, not the revolutionists, will he whipped in detachments. Never before were the Christians so well armed, equipped and organized as to.day, and the Turk.-, will tind in llieni the same noble and wouderiul spirit, courage and fortitude that they have encountered In Crete the past year and among the Greeks in the last revolution. The contest will be a blood y and perhaps a prolonged one, but we cannot doubt the result. The opening of spring will be the signal of the gennral outbreak, and we may then anticipate a very lively time in the East, where the struggle will b? contlned, unless France should, in an evil hour, change her policy and in|fn'eue. Then, how may we set boundaries to the war? U is believed here that Napolnon will loyally observe his pledge during the coming summer, but where he may be found tbe noxt year no one pretends to know, but all have a strong suspicion?if we may judge from tbe immense preparations for war awing on all over Kurope. But lot him remain a non-interven tionist this year and the Eastern problem will work out itself and all will be well. The Japanese embassy is still here encaged in nego tiating a chaogo In the existing treaties between Russia and Japan. They do not seem to create nnxh excite ment here and are not greatly lionized. I heard Trom first hand, the other day, a funny account of their flrst interview with Prince Gortscbakoff, which has created some amusement here. They waited on his Excellency the Vice Chancellor of tho Empire in state, accompauied by their Interpreters. After tne usual forms of intro duction were completed, l'rincj Gortschakoll' said that be

was happy to see tbe embassy and hoped that they would find their stay here agreeable. Tbe Prince somebody, the bead of the embassy, re sponded that tlicy were glad to meet his Excellency, and that they cherished the hope that lie would be ready to allow all the points at issue between the Tycoon and tbe Emperor. "Ah," said Prince Gortschacofl, in his most genial and polished manner, " yon may rely upon me to arrange all matters and further your desires as quickly as possible." " But,'' responded the Jnpanese Ambassa dor. " you will certainly accede to all tbe points the Tycoon bas ordered us to make " " I certainly cannot ma!i? such a promihj in advance, but you may rely on every concession that tlie interests of Russia and Justice will allow," said the Vice Chancellor. "It is easy for you to glvo way," remarked the Ambassador, " for you have not the same fate awaiting you as we have, if wo fail. If we fail in obtaining what the Tycoon sent us for, we shall be compelled to cut open our bowels, on our return," and as be,said this, in a melancholy tone of voice, he tne-hanically placed bis band on his short sword and sighed. I bis skilful diplomatic way of putting the matter was not lost upon Prince Gortschakoll', who promptly assured tho predestined victim of huri-kari that lie should do all in Ills power to avoid such a sad termination of the em bitasv, hut, added he, " I must not cut open tbe bowels of my mother, Russia ' Tlmt you cannot expect." The conversation then turned upon other matters, and the Japauese seemed to feel greatly relieved by the very kind and friendly reception his Excellency gave them. Since then the Japanese Prince bas presented the Vice Chancellor with two swords, one designating his rank, the other, a abort affair, to be employed in the pleasing aud profitable hari-kari if he should deom it necessary. It is understood that the embassy will next proceed to tho Unit'd Stales to negotiate a new treaty. It is to he hoped that they will carry an abundant supply or short s*ords for the politicians of that turbulent country, as tbey aro greatly needed at present iu the lower House. I heard yesterday an anecdote of General Kasergis, tho new Greek Minister to the United Slates, who has always played a prominent rart in tbe atlairs of Greece since his boyhood, iu the battle as well as in the council of state. During the Greek revolution his father, a distinguished leader, commanded alit'le hand of patriots holding the Acropolis In Athens. Amoug them was tbe grandfather of the present general, bis uncle, cousins and, I believe, brothers. Inded nearly the entire family was gathered ai that last galaut stand. The gari ison consisted of less than four hundred men, and weak as it was it defended the fort against over twenty thousand Turks, under the cruel Ibrim Pacha. Finally, after a long and bloody contest, when the gar* rison was reduced to fifty or sixty men, it fell by an assault, and about forty of the remaining defenders fell into the Turkish hands, and among them the present general, then about fifteen or sixteen yearn of age. By order of the Paclia the prisoners were at onco sought out and arranged In a linn, the tallest on the right and the youthful Kasergis on the loft. Ibrim Pacha, a powerful man, then drew hi* famous Damas cus cimetar, which he knew well how to handle from long use, and qu.etly proceeded to execute tho prisoners by his own band, bo skilled and powerful was he that he was able to decapitate a man at one blow with the greatest facility. So for some timo he wielded this ter rible weapon and cut off tbe heads of the entire number of prisoners, among whom was the father of tbe present general and an uncle. On reaching tt?^ youthful pris oner be stopped Ins horrid work for a moment and eyed him keenly, then rnuMxi his cimotar and whirled It as if lie were About to cut off the head of tbe boy, who stood bravely up and made tbe sign of the eras as the keen blade Hashed in his eyes. Instead of taking eff the head the skilful Pascba changed the direction of the bloqr and cut off half of one of the boy's ears, and then told him ho would give him tils life if he would remove the skin from the skulls of the dead Greeks, and stuff them with straw. This tho boy did, and bis life was spared. Subsequently the white skulls were piled up in the form of a pyramid, and left to bleach In the sun. More than ten years after they were seen in Athens, on the spot where tho gallant defence was made, a memo rial of the barbarous cruelty of tho Turks and tbe cour ageous devotion of the patriots Tbis story may appear a little romantic, but I am assured by a gentleman who knows the Genoral well, and to wnom he narrated this account, that it is literally true. During the recent severe weather more than twenty isvostchecks were frozen to death in the city of St. Pe tersburg. Several soldiers were found frozen stiff at their posts, and oven horses died in the streets from tbe terrible seventy of the weather. In the interior of Russia tbe thermometer registered Ufty-eight degrees below zero, and great suffering ensued among travellers. Tbe cold was greater than bas been experienced for NORTH AM ERIC All COHFEDERATION I,oril Derby'* "Mont Important" Bill?Earl Carnarvon'* Hpcech oa the Colonial Situa tion and Future?A "Compromise" Federa* tloa the Moat Solid and Eadarlmg?Tho Klao> dom of Canada may become <<rearer than Englaad?Second only to Ruwala? Hurl It tin. srl and Lord itfonck oa the Crlal*, ?Sfcc. In tbo House of lx>rds on the 19th of Fcbruarr*the Earl of Carv\rvo* Mid:?Ib asking your lordships to give a sccond reading to tbU bill? on* of the m?*t. tm p-trfanl, am), I venture to think, one of the wisest measure? introduced For a great many yeara into Par liament by the Colonial .Minister of this country?I must l?v n by uskius the forbearano* and kindness ot your lordships. And, fortunately, this is a question which csn hardly be called one of political conflict, for I may appeil altnu.t as confidently to tlie sympathy of noble lords on the opposite side of the Hous? as of those with whom I am tu the habit of acting. I wish at the outset of my remarks to take this opportunity of bearing my testimony io tne great ability, /eat and vi?|. lance with which the right honorable gentleman, my predecessor in offloa, Mr. Cardwell, labored to brine this matter to a satistact.ry conclusion. Krom the evidences which I have received of the deep interest that he takes In the subject I ain satisfied, though It has fa'len to my lot to propose this measure, that no one will Bore sin cerely rejoice than hinvscif at tUo fact of Its having been reootnmentfed to Parliament. I do not think I need de tain the House with any long recapituMloti of the his tory if this subject. The question of confederation, in one shape or another, has becu Ixifore the public for forty years. The tirst attempt made at that early period fell through. In the year HfiS Sir E Head, then Gov ernor General of Canada, announced in a speech to tbo Canadian Parl'amcnij thla great principle ol confedera tion Hut difficulties intervened, and only at recently as 1884 the represenutlves from the maritime prov nee* took up a distinct line of action. ? Farther delays arose, and aluir frequent com muni' at.ons between the different governments it was only iu the autumn of last year that d legates from the several provinces came to England to negotiate with her Majesty's government as to tite fr ime of this bill. These negotiations hive now happily been comple'od, ami the bill embodies not only the resolu tion* on which the scheme was baaed, but the result* of the deliberations with the delegate*. I would there, fore ask your lordships not to regard this measure merely In the light of an agreement bctwewn parties; It must be looked upon as in the nature of a com pact. The bill commence* by reciting that it is the desire of these parties to bo Incorporated and confederated, and proceeds to invest tier Majesty with all executive powers Almost the first proposition in the bill relates to the appointment of the Governor General ; he Is to be appointed by aud re sponsible to the crown, and is, I may say, almost ibe only direct tie that connects the confederation with tho mother country. It Is an office or rr*at dignity, and vour lordships will see that the salary is to be not less than ?10,000, payable out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada. The next prevision r dates to the ap polntmont of lieutenant governors. Several of the pro vinces are now governed by administrator? at pointed by tho crown; when this confederation takes place thesa offi-era will !>e appointed by the Governor General. While holding the r office* they will be removable only for cause shown, aud, under ordinary circumstances, tlioir tenure or office will be live ycar.i I come now to the question of legislatures, lhera will be, first of all, a central and general P.irtlamentj and, secondly, a local legislature In each province. Tbo Central Parlia ment will consist of two chambers, the upper house to be styled the Senate, nnd the other, In affectionate re membrance of pas*,veg In English history, is to be called the House of Common'. One ol' the problems hardest of solution id ibn creation of colonial legislatures is the I composition of the upper house. 0 n^rally your lord , ships' House is adopted as the model, and yet, with ? every good Intention and desire on the part of the | framera, that model has proved ineffectual to secure the I object In view. The hereditary title to legislate, the i great landed property, the great personal wealth that belongs to many of its menibors, the respect In which tbo i decisions of this hou e itwlf are licld, both in the present day and bf Immemorial prr<crlpilvn usage?all these ele ments are absolutely waning to Senates that maybe rn-ated in the colonies. Hut though It may be impos sible to provida an uppor Bouse exactly reproducing the char;ii'ieristlcs of the House of T.ords, in practice It Is lound that sn tipper chamber cannot be dispensed with. Otherwise there would be only one house to ini tiate and carry legislation, subject to all the ra?h and sudden impulses of popular feeling*?to all the frequent and violent storms ot passion. Two principles should *e kept steadily In view in the composition of an up|>er Otiambor. The first la to make that chatnbor lufficirntt)/ tn rnu/ any new ami rw'Hm MTMWV," the irnnd it tu4 In mttkf it to utrrmg at In fee tmj?-n?froM# h>any pnfm'nr fntimmt. Your lordsliipe will eee how far the constitution provided in the bill compiles with these con dltieu. It U orvDoeed that tue unoer houM. ot 3*0*1 ?U P ? ?iit " member*, summoned by M nn? ?'r (ienera1' ^ wh,,m 1 PP' T Canada ihaU ?miPy,K*WWI,r-ro*r- Cuu.dk tw.aty.im.r " 77 *?" northern province#, Nova fc^ou* e, R,ru"^"'k- ??*? As the mem WiM form I* al'POilltecl for "*<>, tUo HoUso I1..H iT .L mPnt ^ Kl**t strength to the coesiitu ?*? *?ent, however, of continued diflkulik* Crowu i??? a 0,0 uPPer and lo? er hooses, the i . ^a/? power, ou the advice of the Governor " ^ *lx members to the House, two of whom Hub ?SE2n "*??* lhn* districts, bat in mm fruin frnm .mi" m*de, It will be necessary to re redi w5 lDS "p VM,nc,M until the House hru been ai.noint Xth**"!?'two memb|,r?; i"11 the crown r. av lion or additional members on tho recommenda two i...,,? V6rnor Cenerul above the nuinbor*e\euty. seveniv i"Jl? raee J11*" ,,J* ^nate number nioro than addiiinnt1 ...n""lh!ni 11 ^ thought that an over a diufrfi i m?mb*rs *?? ??t k? siitlicient to tide do noiH. j "l 'i mu*1 1)6 remembered that we aDDoinimJtit wholly upon these supplementary SSTSSli V reasonably expect a o-r X- ?"?h*rh ? vacano*. by death in mcI. have am-nnJt,, .* rot"rn mu'le to show what vacancies durinlt fhJTS Misting legislature, and I find that cies hStw o^ur^!,? Ir?m 1866 10 18&J "venteen varan v.-ar sUowin? *n average of throe In each posed wJi? im Presumed the vacancies in the pro SM2S r ?^Kr " ,east 10 t?'? "tent, since the ordinm^^h 111 ** ** ?ome",|at advanced ape. ???Ztc'?,,?e> "? th? House Will b? amply aufi! Senator T1,e lualitiratiocs of a cither bv ^ ? ???*)?* of the Queen, her<* or In thl by act of Parliament either years of LI .5.5 provinces; be must be thirty !! " r *8?' and possess freehold property valued at JTSrV '"dH*bOVa,bU debU ?nd llaffie^ ?d hi ?T appointed ^ '?h th? Province for ^hich he ? X'JMS* hU propertv or r^idenUalTuaUfl^tion 5MT-bls !2* fha" ????? ?^i?JSd i successor will be appointed by the Governor The presence of at leant fifteen members. including ih? Speaker shall form a quorum; the Speaker shall be ai> pointed from among the Senators by the Governor Gen" .Rowing the precedent of your lortshm?s House, if the Senate be divided in equal numbers on a question} the assumption shall be that the negative pre vails. tfow, I come to the constitution of the lower bouse or House of Commons. The princinle which i,?? guided ?? in constituling the upper house is to insuro ? h. rePrfsfnta,lon aud protection ol British interests the principle upon which the lower house has been consii' tnted Is representation by population. The lower house shall number ono hundred and eiahty-oue members, of whom Upper Canada shall fin ?ish eighty-two, Lower Canada sVxty.fiyf Nr0Uvr8 nr^* ?'net"en. an(l Np?r Brunswick fifteen. Then Cition t " m tbe r#a<ljustment of the repreaen nHe? ln ,.Ct>rr?spond with w^Rtever changes may take Fin V K enrl e l'?t1,ll*tlon ot the provinces. Lower Canada shall have the lixed number or sixiv.flve mem bers, and each of the other federal divisions shall have that number of members which shall bear the .ame proportion to its population as sixty-flvo bears to the population of Lower Canada. The wpi^entatton shalt ^tf^ouC tf COm,,1Heli0n ?f ^Ke-nLialtn! f", ,?;f.c?urse ttlls periodical reart.justment mav lend L^'UCTTe t0 the number "f tnemben of the Iowor house. It is proposed tUat the Houne of Com. SSSf for flve year*? wfaich, we thiuk, would answer iTw'?rm.rt w^thTJ3' rariiamunlK' and 1 lind ""*? It will ?T?i "ith the actual practice with reference to tho Parliament here. From the accession of GeorieL oSr I ariiaments have lasted on an averace for tUe nnri ,\.ir years and since the access,on ot hfr Z, hare v?,?d ?a ,aKn avera?? for three and a quarter yea^ Voir lordships will also And that the hill Provisions for amending the l^il ile.St ture of the provinces; but upon this noint i ,,nn i not trouble your lordship I sho^, 'Kf obwve of^tn^^cotm'or New* Br<unfwick'>1''we hav-e'ti?'ti'ah?r# desirable to reserve to the local' Legishiture m "amnle a measure as possible of local action anrt ^ir #mP,c mem, of munlc.pal liberty and TreXn .I , g0Ve[.?" them proporly to discharae those duUes wkMh t?,l to wlio Ik^i T m ?lber lar?e colonies, because tbose who li\e at the extremities naturaliv ohiort to hncnir S?"SUZra,te,S 'o'SSSK' which are placid under IhocontroTof the GoloniaTpMU* monts; secondly those that ^ Intrusted ^ the mL'S"' agement of tbe locU Le.-Utnre? ihSSy ?hi5e whlS," are aubjocu of concurrent legislitH? ^d fouMhir S??&,!^j?srtrSiI3 rsirg ?sarsr-a v assfsssri ftct, tbe power of raising money Tn th? J?", ' in nuaner ii placed under tW. hLi? In the aU Questions connectad with the currency col?/ banking institutions, tbe oollectlon and issue' of iut^ w? *aD|d8?h?"'a^ gweriTparT^r wno also have to deal with all criminal leeislation i have no doubt that our efforts too to ^mii.7? ,V, , ? law on tbe basis of the Engl Uh taw wm ?? cJv l s.'sssi vxh,"dJS-? sul^ecis referred to Itxuil le?islaiion^Tth.i<If f revenue by direct taxa^on. *TblJ^ proving w,II render their right to raise revenue bv indirect taxation X Z%autUt ?r "VflDg o^aS^Hl time to time to alter and from Other questions, such as airriculture may be classed under two heads. One ine Sd? .Uch wor<s as railways, telegraphs and ferries ta wh?h ??5 jsrsrsj?^ Imong ounielrefs ^o ?P^?n ences of opinion and leeli>? k.iII? _ differ parts or the colonies. TKrtr <Ufte?nc^7at>t compromise, and the Roman Catholic mlnoray in f-pper Canada, Uio Protestant minority In Lower Canada, and the Roman Catholic minority in the mar tint* provinces will ait b* p!a ed vjxm an tqval footing. The several provinces have agreed to surrendor all their rights to levy indirect taxation? thoy only reserve to themselves the right of raising local taxes. The general government, thoreior*, is to remit to them a certain proportion of the !>[i.dute of the Indirect taxes to enable them to defray the expenses of their own defenoe. The position of the public creditor will bo Kreatlv improved, becausa he will have the s curity of the United Provinces instead of a single province. The question of the colonial railways l? one which I should hardly desire to enter upon this evening, seeing that on' Tuesday next I shall have another opportunity of addressing you upon this subject, but I mav w?y that every suc cessive government since Lord flrey was Secretary for tho Colonics has more or lew been committed to some promise of direct enoourngement to these works. This question is ragarded as a very essential one bv the inhab itants of tli? maritime provinces. Another very impor tant point ts the administration of the great thorough furo3 now under tiie control of Great lir.tain. I am also full* alive to tli<* importance of nome arrangement being entered Into with reference to the Hudson Bay Com pany; but It would be oniv a waste of your lordships' tune to enter upon that subject until tbo quest on of the conf -deratioli U disponed of. As soon as tins Utter ques tion hss been determined wc may cuter Into communl oation with the projwr quarters, and bring about a a-itm Tactory settlement of that most important subject, lastly. I may state to your lordhlups what is to bo the name .ind designation or this no* .-'tate. TS t may teem lo tome to be a trifling one, but to m- it ipfirt lo be am of very vntidrrahU importanttr, Tiiere have been, as your lordships will doubt* le-s linag ne, innumerable suggestions oil ?red upon this point. The delegates of the various provinces them selves suggested that the name of the new Slate should be Canada. The matter having been submitted to her Majesty she was graciously, aud, I cannot doubt, most wisely pleased to approve that de-lgnatlon of the united provinces. In future, therefore, the names of the *ep?. rate provinces will disappear, and the wholo will be known as Canada. I must also express my high sens* ot die uisdoin of the provinces in malting the monarchi cal prin ip'r. uwler which th>y have litnl to long, and which theyiiairt to transmi'to their detcenrUv, Utefound atvm of theii confederaltm. I have only to add upon this tiolnt that the confederation as originally ootitcm plated was Intended to include die whole of the North American provinces, and although that proposal has not been carried Into effect, I trust that In tfni<> Prince Ed ward Island, Br.tish Columbia, Newfoundland and Van couver's Island will Join the ooofederation. I have now gone through in outline the general divisions of this bill, but I should not fulfil my duty were 1 not to advert to some of the objections which have been raised with regard to tho proposed confederation, and to offer to your lords!.ipc what I regard as satisfactory and con clusive answers to those objections. In the first piac*" it is objected that this Is not to be a legislative tinlon agreed to by the various provinces. In common with rnanv leading colonial gentlemen I should have been glad ir tbe union between the provinces had been clo-or than it Is now proposed to make It, but a noser union would not have been sanciioned by the provinces at I ho present time. Tho maritime provinces were un willing to merge their local Independence in the confederation?and Canada had also ancestral tradi tions of long established usage which she was unwilling to resign. It was also suggested that the peculiar form of the constitution of the confede ration sight give olTxnce to the American government: but It would he an insult to tho good feeling and good Sonne of that country to entertain surh a notion for a moment. We are al*o told that the confederation has resulted from the quarrels between I'pper and Lower Canada; but for my part I believe that the differences h'twe< n those colonics have been greatly exaggerated. Tbe noble lord, who now became almost wholly inaudible in the gallery, proceeded to my there was ai.otlior objec tion which had been made. It was (Hid that the com mercial policy of Canada was protectionist, while that of the other provincos was a liberal policy; and that the effect, therefore, <?r Canada entering Into this union would bo lo overbear the comparatively free trado policy of the otner provinces. Now, this obj ction proceeded on an imperfect km.w led.e of the facta. The truth was, Canada herself was not so wholly protectionist as many supposed. On the coutrary, she was very nearly divided In her pol icy, the balance being rather In favor of free trade than protection. Within the last twelve months the tariff of Canada had undergone a very material change. In the flrst place, tho maicnals of manufactures were admitted free; on partially manufactured article*, woollen, cotton and leather, principally affecting the exports of this country, the Customs duties had been reduoed Irom twenty and tweaiy-ii*e per cenl to fifteen per cant, and the defld, ncy had been made good by an Increase of ?xou? aad the addition of a ttamp duty. o? samet!,4,, 'n on ?u?!?r it was tha oeat below lkLU 00 WIBP been reduced sixiy per ?fUrkiwTh^r . ,Utr. lm faot, .iwiare twelve mmti.T ^ Canada had, withiu the last Of this coaotry tardt i<> ?ii?t into the Union mauiAtji til zf aamttmm <4 Canada mnljy.rZ? ??*** ? -ommerciol ***?? rerfrictfo*,. ^/i^T ofX^L iSHfam * tamed the present Kink <tutZ* United Stoles niai* u ?ould ? ? S^gra*-->:"tum province* Lt - i ?? , nnnsn North Amerxcam b* uTm^^T^n*?*""? Hul -? would beT^urr?n^o .T" ?te""' ?'though " Worthier system to atlemt* 2? ob9ole;o '"(1 time?to our own comm^ui .? *? must lru8t * upon H those Mnim?..in^ principles, and, depend There wk. anUW^ESki ^'P W0U'J fr?v?? It was said ^ M^nst this schema. munity In Nov* Scotia w?? l'p?Port,on of the com. ana could only be twS5k? . **?'? ???o?. compulsion. (>n what ? b-T absolute tain petition. whlch w-ti J^i r^ u ?? <*r The?e petitions, he *dm?tM ^"2 ,be Blne Book ability; bat he though? t?? Z!I! dr*"D UP w*"> great proceeded from t be sum a kml a widence of bavin* the petitions .TgneS tr ch^.- ?*",des' ln th? case"? Bo evidence whatever">"?>? they had names they were signed. hT?L ta wbo** that u certain proportion ofthatLJ!?? ^"'ng to assume were disinclined to the union ? bu^whl,?>! ?fV?** ScoU? other hand? New Brunswick'bad tbejr 00 th* Canada bad alao given hr Ma?r??? ,*'Vty "*w"; a^.=sattS5LsR=fs pr* s?sswss ?HrlS the measure was not remitted to rh. ? , bu to be criticized clause bv clause in LT I"1 the objection was worthier. deU1L u?t the question of confederation had been^bejof^ih^f' He now came to the question of defen^ -h/itf?: m'*kt J* ?#ld. '?* ? military point of view, naturally wo? posed the occurrence of war, and if ww brake might also be said that the Jar wouid* Tfwintj* groat neighboring republic. Be needed hardly to i^thM tuck a war would be a mat barbarout, unnatural IrZZT'f ^ XPO"ld *""? ** de fi^T Z ,wrv ntan* **""? NorerthoW, in con! sidering such a measure as the present, it was ner?*_ sary to discuss each collateral point It was very ???" monly said that the defence "r ^, would be Impossible. Every one must ?/??<? that the difficulties would, no Soubt ^ (.onsiderabie; but, on the other hand. It was to be'born* !?"J ^ii*!.0116 hi<rh military authority had suted that 'fflcnlue* were by no means Insuperable With the resources which were c vail able there was no rr..J?? weifteein0?rht0heKPnir?r a ?00(1 defencc. 8om? persona were in the habit of saying that the burden of exnendi ture was unequally adjusted as between Cvatfa an? th? mother country, fie admlttod the time w???. If it had not come, when a revision of the apportionment <rf that expenditure would be necessary, aud ho did not apprehend any difficulty whatever on the pan or f"-?Tncr?h"" boen a great deal or m.s.ndenSand^ and some misrepresenution on that subject The r?L. d,aiis had not been backward in the mauer of ex.^endU \XU? n .UCtl been done In the way of Increasing the military strength of that colony. ( amps had formed and cadets had been receiving instruction at tba hands of competent officers. In 1804 the mllit^y ex. penditurc was $300,000; in 1808 it was nearly $000 000 S2000X) E'VJ ^ rl8cn t0 "p?? ok ii L j w WM approaching ?500 000 It had been said by some persons that the idea of d? fending Canada and New Brunswick ought to be given up, that we ought to concentrate our strength on th? i^nd"Oibrfti^rVavCDtt*' aBd convort Halifax into a second Gibraltar. Now, not to adduce any other ar?t. waa ft not orident that T Brunswick were destroyed it would be impossible to defend Noya Scotiaf It apt>eared to him that the consolidation of tUobe provinces would ,Dhr2ne,Krao8MO,^makin? them ^h mTlS than they were likely to be if tbey remaned separate colonies. A stimulus would bd sivoo to indii4tri?i nUei'"16?' ?Dd l? education w'hen the consolidation took place. Just as the circle of public opinion was narrowed constitutional government was restricted in the same proportion was there the risk ofdUturwS. rt was said that a federation only afforded a lo?f and SL? fia.-aT's Er&stgP^ srs -iwSswjiKs jw&ss.'s sr?s TJTr,a !5?yJ" con,P1#l? nnlicatton. He thought that the North American provinces which it *Tn,,i. proposed to combine in federative union pos*c3sed Mi oka necessary qualiUcatlons. It wa, said a^^t tMs /ed^ result of a compromise. Writ it mat rations?two of them had passed away twn ??iii i^. mained. The two which remained were Swttceriaad nam ?' X iszt ^ r r ** r"??r of CJ?r?na!E ' nitod SUte^ one of the greatest of the great nation* ^ The federation u,hi* waf^Li TZ Jorme4 tm,u.d, he hoped, be worthy to take i'l nlare tide hi fide with the Cni'ed S ate* qf Ama tea. The time ^ come when it would rank te-ond ?n site t> Rusa rm/v ^ta %?Em?>^JZLin- t<pping * atread^ "???&* the urteen cnlcmet which eighty yean tun. at the time nf tk? irfwe??^ I,^a'P,^aTC*, became ,he United Stats*. We were now laying the foundation of a great State tter .a* .** ?f But come what migbt. we ahouid yet rejoice that we were neither lealoos o^thn aspirations of those colonies nor indifferent to their da ;UW?t?^,,^"lon5, te??r^mr"ecSnTzing r? mat growth the pillars of our own nnatno^L n? this measure we had *et the crown tothoSTSLiiMte! winch we gave them a quarter of a century ago and im settiuff that crown we should remove far ?L . a,I chancea of disunion and diffwnc?aod SS^SfwhlX could exist between the mother country and her child. Magna sub ingenti matrU se subjicit umbra. The Marquis of Nosmanby said the nobis #*fI ve?r"n?iCAha.Uat^ ft? 3i">Ject that it wa< neoeiw^to^dd very little to what lmd been said alroadv ? he ahAnM therefore, confine hi, observations tolhi mitoE! lit vantages which be believed this union was calculated to confer on tha American colonies, some persons ballevad tha this country derived no beneflt from ihS?\3o??? beiitrtrt rr56 of ,0" 10 England Md^htT; u t,hw ??l the feeling of the vast majority of persons In this country, of the member* v thejr lords J'P*'.House nor yet o/ the colonies them. .wIT, American oolomes felt themselves able to stand alone, and showed their anxiety e,U?7r t? ?? ?^Pm1elVes, 'nto kM 'ndopendont country or even lo amalgamate w th the United States, he did'n^t think U vould oe wite. to renet that deiire But as lomr m the colonies stood hy us, as long as they looktl uLU connection with this country, and the institutions whteb tliey enjoved under Iter rule, as among their greatest blessings, it was our duty to encourage that feeling and to promote u to the utmost of our power It was true that this country derived no pecuniary benefits from tbe colonies; for, with a wise and generous policy, Uiia country bod conferred on tbem free institutions, and had confided to their own bands the distribution of tbaif revenue* and tbe management of their local affaire. Besides ibis, wo bad undertaken almost the entire bur don of their defence. But tbe lime had now come when it must lie clearly understood that change in the mode* of locomotion bad si altered the position ot British North America that, oven if we had the will, wo bad no longer the means, single-Imnded, to defend it. ' The colonics, however, were now perfectly willing to co operate with us, and, at long as we retained our naval superiority at sea, those who attacked the provinces would do so at great disadvantage It was nseleee to conceal ir.im ourselves that tho military position of tka United Mates had xroatly alterod of lata. A lew years ago the Aflierl an army consisted only of some ten thou sand men; now they lad an enormous and well discip lined lorca S"bjo account, tlierelore, of what bad btn done i?i;il what was capable of being done in ouo at least of oar North American provinces might not bo unlnter-; resting. No one was more sensible than himself of ihl s-rious disadvantages o< a war with America; no ooe could deplore more than be did tbe miseries which such a war wore calculated to entail ; and nobody could look with greater interest on tbe institutions of that country or entertaiu a higher aens? of ber great ness and resources. It was to bo regretted that Nora Bcotin had not entered heartily Into this scheme of con federation, but, on tbe contrary, had sent delegates to this country to oppose it. Earl Krs-iKLt?I cannot remain altogether silent wbaa a subject of such interest as this engtgos tbe attention of y our lordships. The measure is undoubtedly a wise one: it tciU facilitate romm->xial relation! with the United Stnte>; fur when our N rth American proline,?$ are unilti together it trCI he far easier fnr them (n <xme to agreem-ntt vith the Untied Stan than it is at prntenl, without a cms mnh-ad. Their ability to defend themselves, too, will be greatly Increased by having a single authority at tbelr head to provide for any emergency which intuht other wise weigh with special force upon a single Bute. And I must say, In supporting this bill, that the creation of these provinces redounds greatly to the credit of thla country. 1 believe that in 1780. when we obtatnod tho country by capitulation from tbe French, the number of its inhabitants was not more than 70,000, yet when tlieae provinces are united they will form a confederation whose population will number no less than 4,000,000. This marvellous result, I believe, baa never yet bad a parallel, and should bo a source of honorable pride to our country. (Hear.) I.ord Mom k expressed a hope that their lordships would permit him to say a few words open the bill, con sidering the sbaro which he had had In Ite origination. (H. ar, hear.) He would at the outset refer to one thln? which appeared to him of great importance In a ootiac tional point ol view. It had been, he thought, nvwt unwarrantably assumed that the province of Nova Scotia was opposed to the union. Now, he believed that tho expression of opinion which had oome from Nova Sootla to this country had boon entirely got up by a few ener getic Individuals. The Legislature of Nova s<eotia had, like the legislature* of the other provinces adopted by large majorities the resolutions proposed to them, and had sent their delegates to this country to take part In the framing of the measure which had been laid on tho table. The demand' of those gentlemen in Nova Scotia, If they amounted to anything, meant that the question should he snbjected to the decision of the people, Instead of its being determined by the pioples representatives. ;uub a domand, to bis mind, betrayed n great Ignorance, not oulv or the principles of the Itrlt Ish constitution, but of the principles upon which all parliamentary government was founded. It ws?, per haps, uunece-.-iury to remind their lordsbips that in tbo earliest period of self government every man was attus.' tomed to give his opinion on manors at whlcfc adeci ion had to be arrived. But witn the increase ol communi ties sticb a thing became practically Impossible. Hy .md by, when the expedient of popular elections was adopted, the general brsly of the peopls had nothing to do with the management of their aflairs I*. Tond selecting mon In whoso lutein*, ence, integrity and Judgment they could place reliance to do their bMiness for them Oat they were not deal ing with representative government in tbe abstract, they were acting under the British constitution which pro. vlded no machinery fer testing the opinions of the conn try upon a meoAure. Kosponoibie ministers would scaroelr retjonuaend the orowu. tor instance. to diaoniva