Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 24, 1873, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 24, 1873 Page 3
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I m mm mm. A History of the Republican Revolution. r ? HOW ABADEUS CAME TO TIE THBOHE The Advenlur* "( a Crow, and What Came to the 'Juch-Aspiring Prim. POLITICAL SPECULATIONS IN SPAIN. (l "" 4 Amadeuix, His Queen and the t Italian DragoiieUi. "*rn imwantr ati tjtttt tt? tt xxiJu juxujuuxbx ur riuLir ax. Bow the Brave and Honorable Prineeof Savoy Rflsscd To Be a Partisan Leader. BUS REASONS FOR ABDICATION. How the Spanish Capital Received the News. The Abdication a Surprise to the Monarchists. . LEGITIMACY, CARLISM, MONARCHY ALL AT SEA Sow the Republicans Forced the Fighting, While Monarchists Wanted Time to Intrigue. VIOLENT COUNCILS IN THE PALACE. The Renuhlie I'roeliiimed?The Result of Biding a Minister's Hat- The Last Despairing Struggles of Reaction. AMADEUS TAKES FLIGHT. Europe Frowns on the New RepublicMonarchical Diplomacy Plotting and Hoping for a False Move. RUMORS ABOUT THE AMERICAN MINISTER. Bare the Americana Made the Republic 1?The Third Day the Day of Despair?A Straggle by the People Successful? Only Republicans bx Power. LIGHT AND LAND AT LAST. Madrid, Feb. 26,1873. To those who, when this year began, looked upon Spain with the eye of friendliness, the nation seemed to be at peace, and the young King Ainadeus bad at last found an established throne l There were occasional troubles in the North, in the Basque provinces, among the adherents of Don Carlos; but, like the Indian troubles in the United States, they were an eruption on the skin of the body politic, and indicated no hidden, dangerous disease. There have been two reasons for tbese internal commotions in Spain. Bandits whose desire was robbery called themselves "Carllsts," and WAftAPalfl g\f tliia mm nv.irnnnvallurl o vmv urb n craved promotion were always seeking for Carlists to "suppress." It was known that whenever the government made a resolute effort the party would disappear. It would disappear tor a generation at least, only to return; and 0 the government simply kept it in check as the flonse of Hanover had kept the Jacobites in check, trusting to time and friendship and national prosperity to wear the party away and leave it in peems and romances as a memory. Spain was at peace. There was the clond in the West Indies, tout wiser counsels were pressing emancipation in Porto Rico as the first step toward peace. A liberal Ministry was in power, and it had maintained peace for over eight months?something unknown to the new dynasty. At the head of the Ministry was one of the advanced statesmen in Spain? dehor Zorrilla. Behind the Ministry was a Congress and senate, in which its adherents had a large majority. The prayers of the Chlirch had been Jieard and a prince had been born to the sovereign, and it seemed, after so many days of gloom and anxietv and dark, stormy weather, Spain had found prosperous seas, and her young pilot every prospect of a long and glorious career. BOW DID THK MONARCHY FALL ? How did It come to pass, therefore, that in a night this monarchy fell to the ground, and the King became a fugitive from Spanish soil ? Those who have studied Spain closely need not ask this question. Those who saw it from alar felt that nothing was more Improbable than the downmil of the dynasty. But, in truth, nothing was more inevitable. The merciless telegraph has told you from day to day the cold details of the revolution. Be it now the duty of your correspondent to go over the same ground and show the readers of the Hbrald how the dynasty came to fall, how Spain came to accept a republic and how this republic has come into being?her fair, white banner MB spotless as the snowy summits ol the far-shining Ctaadarramas, and thus far unstained by a single crime, unspotted by a drop of human blood. trim and serrano. When the monarchy of Queen Isabella fell In what was called the Revolution of is?8, Spain passed Into the hands of serrane and Prim. Serrano was made the Regent and executive head of the government, while Prim was the Prime Minister, or executive arm. Serrano was one of the famous men of Spain. He had risen to fame by eaay methods. A soldier of fair experience, a politician of limited capacity, of address and tact and 'Winning ways, with graces of person and no overmastering political opinions, it was not difficult for felm to rise in a court like that of Isabella. Whether true or false, Spain believes that this court was one of easy virtue, And that Her Catholic Majesty had her own wny of observing definite and necessary commandments. Spain nebeves that many men found especial fhvor with the Queen, and that none was more favored than Serrano. Certain it is lie became the confidant of Isabella at a time when her young . mind needed counsel. And so he arose! But even love does not make monarchs grateful, and he fell and was banished to the Canary Islands. This banishment was the beginning of the end of Isabella. A man like Serrano was needed to the con^ piracy t hen brooding. At the head of it was the foremost soldier and statesman of Spain?a man of valor, experience and daring?who had risen to , fame from the ranks hy the stony paths of doty, AO* *ftt lh* tapestried corridors ol a UuafiD'aJjfid* NEW YC chamber. This was Joan Prim. Prim wan the brain and nerve; Serrano was a name. Between them they destroyed the monarchy. Serrano sat In the palace as Regent, Prim in the War Office as master. prim and ere mtbituu with a crown. If Spain had any voice at all in this revolntion it was lor a republic. The facility with which the Queen had been expelled showed that the monarchy had no root?that the great revolutionary movement which swept over Europe In tbc last century bad destroyed loyalty in the breasts of the must leyal people in Enrope. What Prim saw was precisely what M. Thiers sees in France?a throne and three pretenders for a throne. There was Don Carlos, the male successor of the old dynasty; Isabella, the female successor, and the Duke dc Mont pcnsier, son of Louis Philippe and a member of the family of royal pawnbrokers, whose business seems to be to take in pledge all the crowns and crown jewels of Europe. Prim saw that these three were Impossible to Spain. But be would not found the Republic. He was a Marquis and a Captain General. He would be a Duke. Serrano was a Duke and a Captain (ieneral, and craved to be a Prince. Around them were generals, to the number of 600 in all, noblemen and aspirants without number, who craved promotion, money, rank, the honors that could only come with a monarchy. Above them was the Church, which wanted Don Carlos, but did not want a republic. On the other side was Spainpoor, discredited, bankrupt} her fields untitled, her mines undeveloped; her boundless advantages of soil, sea and climate ungarnered; misery at the peasant home and extravagance in the palaces of the great; tne nation paralyzed?all but that sentiment of public virtue ami hope lor the future which one trusts cannat be dead iu the descend-. ants of the men who civilized America and warred upon Napoleon in the zenith of his iume. Spain wanted a republic; but a republic meant economy, fewer generals, industry and no promotion. It meant uncertain things, perhaps, which no one could foresee. So, as no available dynasty could be found, as Orleans and Bourbon were alike impossible, as Spain 1 would never consent to Prim playing the Napoleon and making himself Emperor, the crown was carried from conrt to court and offered to any foreign prince who could be found willing to sit on a Spanish throne and not tremble at the ghost or Maximilian. First came an offer from a prince of lioheuzollevn, and with it the French and German war. This prince declined the crown, under the pressure of France. Then it was offered to the son of Victor Emmanuel, Amadeus of Savoy, Dnke of Aosta, who accepted with great reluctance. Having found a king lor Spain, Prim rejoiced in the doing of a great work, and saw before him a transccndant career. If lie could not be king like Napoleon he would be the maker and master of kings. The day before his monarch came that astonish niK ?mu npiiiiiiiiiK ittic lumtiuuiteu uunun up uuc humblest and tears down the Highest brought tt to pass that the mighty and aspiring Prim should die at the hand of an assassin. While Amadeus was making a trinmphal progress to the palaco ol I Charles V., the body or the warrior who had given him a crown was being carried to sleep in the vaults of St. Atocha. AHADBUS. As kings go in these caprlcions times Amadeus was worthy or h crown. No better monarch ruled in Europe?no better prince had sat on the throne of Spain since Charles V. Let this be said to bis honor, for he is worthy of it. Tall, rather ungainly, perhaps, in his motions, with a thin, dapper figure, keen, searching eyes, a resolnte month and jaw, a nose like his rather's, which had more of a fighting than any other quality, a skilled horseman, rather silent in his manners, more anxioua to listen t'han to speak, entering heartily into all Spanish customs and amusements, among the first to go to the rescue of the Kscurial when In names, sitting patiently at the bnll fights, with his soul revolting at the sight; personally of undoubted and admitted valor, going everywhere in Madrid, strolling alone in the morning, and no weapon but a cane, riding alone in public places in the afternoon and no weapon but his riding whip, possessed of a vast fortune by his marriage, lavish in entertainment and princely in charity, bis queer* with every grace of body and mind and universally respected, of almost austere personal habits, rising at daybreak for business and never drinking wine, his personal character morally unscathed in a community where scandal fills the air like a miasma, kind to men of all parties and having favorites in none?unquestionably a prince of honor, courage and capacity? what more could a loyal people want! As I have said, considering how kings go in these times, there was no better monarch in Europe than Amadeus. And, what is more, I have not heard a Spaniard who questions the tact. TUB QUEEN AMD DRAGONETTl. Of course, Madrid had its gossip about the j I King and the Queen and the Court. There was the unuer-current or rpmor from those who claimed to j | know. "It was all the Queen's fault," said one Spaniard, whose life brought him near the Court. { "How the Queen's r" I asked. "Well," he said, "you see she was very clever, could talk German, French, Spanish, English, and so on. But the King, i he wae not very clever. Brave man and stubborn, [ but not clever. t)id not like to stndv, was fond of horses and so on. The Queen had the King in control. In addition there was Uragonettl. He is an a vauau iuai ijuia, uuu vauig uci c cms iiio Aiug B Private Secretary. But he wan really a kind of guardian over the King, kept his accounts, looked after the rents, and, with the Queen, formed an Inside Cabinet. Neither the Queen nor the Marquis liked Madrid. They did not li^ce the Spanish character. Dragonetti was always thinking about Maximilian?the Queen about Marie Antoinette, white hairs, the guillotine and so on. Then the Queen was religious, and, as far as the Church could rgaeh her, her fears- were excited. The dream of the Roman Power is to have Don CaTlos back on this throne. Before Don Carlos coula come { Aiuadeus must leave. And she was in a nervous, j morbid condition of body, baby not yet born, and nerves undone, and so the King had no peace. He was constantly implored to resign. He was a prince and rich, and could sit at peace on the steps of the Italian tnrone. Why have an uneasy life on I the throne of Spain ? No appeal could be made to | the fear of Amadous, for ne had no fear. So appeals ' were made to his pride, and not in vain as things happened. But for the Queen and Dragonetti I j am sure the King would have continued on the throne." WHAT THE FOLLOWERS OF IBABELI.A DID. "We did not conspire against the Ring," said a follower of Don Alphanso; "we bad no motive for i it. We simply let him alone. We did not bring : him here, nor vote the crown to him, nor send htm , away. We sat in the minority and said nothing. We never crossed his palace doorway. But the men | who destroyed him are the men who brought him ; here. They are all adventurers, whose game were J power and money. So long as this King gave them : nowcr and gold thev served him. When he took others Into his Cabinet they abandoned htm. (.oak at that pair or knave*, Serrano and Sagaata. They bronght the King here. They aided Prim In the work. The? were bound to stand by him. The King sustained them a* long as he could?nnt 11 Spain rose as one man and protested against the scandal. They became angry. Serrano wanted to be made Prince or Alcolea. He was already g duke, but that would not do. Sagasta wanted to have an easy way In and out or the Treasury. Amadens took a new Cabinet, with that moody monk Zorrllla at the head?a liberal Cabinet. Well, we said nothing. We waited our time. But instead or quarrelling with the country, which had repudiated them, what did this brace or scoundrels do ? They quarrelled with the King because he would not unite with them In a coup <r?tnt, and tbey have never ceased to conspire against him since. | We have nothing against Amadeus. As Dnke of Aosta we honor him. But he Is not King, and never could be King. As for Spain, her hopes are centred upon the Prince Don Alphonso. He is a Spaniard, and only a Spanish prince can reign over a Spanish people. Maximilian showed that in Mexico. Amadcus shows It again in Madrid." THE MEMORY OF PHILIP II. ThiH clinging, affectionate feeling, so characteristic of the Spaniards in the olden times, when they were the most loyal and religions of nations, is not dead. It happened some evenings since that your correspondent was one of a group at an even"v "*rtTi ln mmn rut ? '*"*Qt ? ?RK HERALD, MONDAY, 1 and noble family. Among other customs it la U Spanish etiquette to admire any especial article of ? dress or ornamentation that may strike your fi fancy. This lady wore an antique cameo set tn tl pearls. "What a line cameo," said another of the b group. "Yes," she said; "that is an antique, w 1 value it above money. It Is a cameo of ft the sixteenth century, and Is the head a of Philip II." "Philip ILI" said my friend, q Involuntarily, as his mind no doubt recalled that 0 dark, sombre, Imperial tyrant, with his Inquisition 8 and burning of Protestants and Jews, and the tl Kscurial; his cruelty, superstition and bigotry, n "Yen," said the Countess; "I wear it in memory of a that dear and sacred King. He was a King ot t Hpain when Spain was splendid and proud and t mistress of the world. I know what passes tuyour S mind. You are an American, and a republican, of 8 course; and in Amorica, 1 bear, there are republi- 8 cans who are gentlemen. Rut here?Heaven help p us l And of course you have your unjust views of t Philip II. But we of Spain, who know what he did I and what be tried to do and what a true King he c was, annointed of God and worthy to be of the 8 Lord's anointed ; we who know what Spain was in a those nays ana see wnat Mac is now, men ho migniy i and new ho forlorn and unhappy, we can apprc- fc elate Philip ri. Yen, I honor his sacred memory. I " pray for bis homI'm peace, and I pray that God may ? send as another king with hia spirit. Then will ? Spain be Spain!" "Probably you pray for Don 4 Carlos?" said mj friend, smiling. "A^d gtj whom 1 else should a Spanish' lady pray?" was the" re- < spouse. < A BOLT OUT OF I11B BLUE. I As the carnival drew near Madrid wns stagnant, f The CorteH were quietly stumbling through a bill t about the colonies. The people were getting ready t for the festivitieH or the merry time. The opposition Journals had reverted to that topic, which here always comes when news is dead?abuse of the American Minister. All the town was laughing over a caricature, which was sold every where,representing the Minister with his crutcn and one leg, flying in haste from a couple or lionB who were hotly on his trail. The legend said that the Minister had been making an offer for Cuba, and the lions were driving him away. There waR a little disturbance in the Basque country, but that was too old a story even to write aboat. There was a good deal of opera. Fine days tempted people to the Prado. The cajis were crowded every evening, and it seemed as if the carnival would come and go with unnsual glee, Madrid doing her full share towards it. The wo-. men were in a flutter about Her Majesty's newborn baby, and the priests had had a solemn time christening it. Madrid was speculating over the ] baptismal names, and was happy to learn every < morning that mother and child were well. Foreign ; Ministers were packing their trunks for a run to i Paris. All of a sudden, like the lava that over- > whelmed Pompeii, there came upon Madrid the announcement, "the KIN(! WILL ABDICATE!" No one could trace the rumor, but it was in every mouth, one had heard it at the opera, another at a caJV, a third on the sidewalk. There had been rumors of this nature at intervals since the King came to the throne. Now, it was a plot; again, a mutiny in the palace; later, a command from Ring Victor Emmanuel. There had been times when abdication was more probable?when it would have been an Intelligible and not a sirnriaimr not Hut nriir tinu/V Ma/lrid waa iinnanallw quiet. The troubles in Spain were only symptoms of an old trouble, and, If anything, Amadous was having clearer weather than usual. To be sure, there was the artillery question, in which the King had a grievance with his Ministry, but even that was said to be settled. But the rumor could not be cried down. No one could trace it to a trusty source, but it was In the air. The Duke of Aosta was weary of the crown, and meant to give it back to the Cortes next morning. Madrid look the news very calmly. There was an extra natter in the cajUs, an added sense ot good humor in the faces of the people. But I have seen the capital more excited over the exploits of a famous bull, which would not be killed until it had tossed and gored one or two bf the picadors in the bull ring. THE REASONS KOK THE ABDICATION. But the King had resolved to abdicate. This was certain. Why the resolution f This question has been asked a thousand times, and has received a thousand different answers. Can any one tell but the King ? At last let your correspondent take the innumerable solutions that have been given him and write what seems to be the best answer to the j question. WHY THE KINO PARTED WITH SERRANO. When the King came to Spain he was invited by a Cortes which really did not want him. When young Amadeus came to Madrid he rode into a sullen city. On the day of his accession to the crown, aB he passed from the Palace of the Deputies to the Palace of the Kings, men held their breath for fear of assassination. It is remembered | that he insisted upon riding alone through the Puerta del Sol, and would net allow the Captains-General to surround him as bad been proposed. Madrid was surprised and pleased at the courage, precisely as it would have shouted over the prowess of a iavorlte bull-lighter. So Amadeus found his palace. It was cold. His wife, the queen, was ill on her way. This was a bad omen, as the death of Prim had also been a bad omen. As few craved him lew came to him. The grandees remained aloof. The old legitimists neglected the palace as in France they neglected Napoleon III. But Napoleon had a party, while Amadeus was without one, and if the dukes or the yld reigns did not visit the Tuiieries, dukes of a new reign, and one even more ' splendid, took their place. Prim was dead and no one remained who could make a dynasty. Serrano ; and Topcte and some of the conspirators against Isabella surrounded him. They were men of ! violent counsels. They prepared to upe the j I King, to make him ail Instrument of atnbl- ; , | tion. But they found In him resolution j I ami integrity. He tried one alter the othbr of the conservatives, beginning with Serrano i and running down to Sagasta. But they could not found a permanent Ministry. They had the Cortes, : but the couutry was not behind them. Finally, j alter several Ministries had fallen, Serrano proposed to the King a daring measure. He pointed out to His Majesty that firmness was necessary to stamp out the spirit of revolution. He would suspend the { constitution, dissolve the Cortes and make a i*mp : dVfaf, as Napoleon did. This measure was agreed ; upon by the Ministry; everything was ready to ' overthrow the work of the (evolution and make ' Amadeus an absolute King; but when mentioned 1 to the King he declined. Serrano urged that this ' alone would save the crown. "J have sworn," said Amadeus, "to be true to the constitution. If I cannot save my crown without being false to that oath I will abdicate." Serrauo and nis friends were overwhelmed. They left bis presence and resigned. Mberal Spain rejoiced at the coarage and honor of j the King. j AMADEUS APPEALS TO T1HC CODNTBT AS A LIBERAL MONARCH. Then the King took a hold, wise step. He had 1 heretofore been advised by Serrano and the conservatives. They had the Cortes, and he was bound to believe they were the representatives of the country. He sent for P. Ruiz Zorrllla, the leader of the radical party, or the moderate and liberal monarchical party. Zorrilla was in retirement and obeyed the summons reluctantly. He is ' man or ascetic, almost monkish temper, like Philip j LI., aid, whenever troahle came, it was Ills whim to And a sullen retreat among the olives and vines ofhls country seat. But he was a liberal, and, when he came to power, he dissolved the Cortes. About this time was the cowardly assault on the King and Queen. A sudden burst of sunshine came upon Amadcas, Inspired by the resentment against assassination. All Madrid (locked around his carriage aud hailed liirn as one whose lire had been mercifully and happily spared. For a day Amudeus felt he was a King beloved ofhls people. The result was that the country answersd the appeal o f Zorrilla and the new Cortes was overwhelmingly radical. Even Sagasta, who bad been Prime Minister and leader of the conservative party, could not obtain an election. T^e new Ministry began Its work of relorm. There was a large republican minority who supported It. One abuse after another was stricken down. Emancipation in Porto Rico was carried along and pnt on Its passage, and It really seemed as If the young monarch 1AKUH 24, 1873?TRIPLE ito power the conservatives avoided Dim. errano and the King had been warm personal lends. The wife of Serrano had the first place in te palace. The King endeavored to conciliate im. He pointed ontthat because be had mlnietern rho were of different politics that was no reason >r their personal dissension; that he was a King bove parties, bound to honor men of all opinions; ulte willing to have Serrano or any one else in bis labinet when the country so indicated. Bat no! errand and his friends did not want a King on the brone?only an instrument or a partisan. Berrano ever visited the palace. Although Bead of the rmy, he left town to avoid a He w Year's call. When he infant Prince was born, and it was necessary o hold Mm in baptism, the duty devolved on crrano'H wile, who was principal Iqdy or the Court, the declined this simple, delicate, necessary office, he was not well, she answered, althongh she took luins to appear on the Praao and in the opera. All he grandees and reactionaries applauded, hut the Ling was sorely wounded. He called on the Duchss of Prim, the widow of the great Prim, who fladly stood at the baptismal lont. Then came the .rtlllery question. The Cabinet proposed to aploljat a general to command whose conduct had teen narsh at one time. The artillery officers of the rhole army of Spain resigned. The King agreed nth the officers, but the cabinet insisted

ipon promoting the non-commissioucd officers o take their place. Although the King Xfi3? in - fow measure hie Cabinet, by uirT indirect nmn< >lvre, induced the Jortes to ennet it. This manoeuvre or intrigue the ling saw as an act of dislngenuousncss to himself Yommouwho were Ills trusted advisers. When he decree was brought before him at Council he limply signed it and adjQurueil the Council. As he Ministers were leaving the room he asked '.orrilla to attend turn In his private closet, /.orrtlla ibeyed, and the King said simply and dryly that he ncant to abdicate the crown of Spain. At the lame time he handed his Prime Minister a draft 01 the letter in which he announced his resolution to the Spanish Congress, '/.orrllla, overwhelmed and unhappy, summoned the Cabinet, disclosed the King's intention, and It was agreed to ask Ills Majesty to give them forty-eight hears lor reflection. It was also solemnly agreed that the matter should be a sacred secret; and, as bappons when secrets are sacredly bequeathed to eight or ten Spaniards, it was all over Madrid in an honr. It was further noted that upon that evening the King did not ride on the Prado. "THK LAST STRAWS." As to which Incident or event formed the lost particular straw that broke the camel's hack this correspondent cannot say. Cortes, the crown of Spain had under no circumstances been an easy one for poor Amadcus. lie had been contemplating abdication. He threatened Serrano with it last June, us I have told yon. He had been so patient all the time. "By heavens." said one who knew to this writer, "if I had been the King I would have dismissed Serrano from the army and sent twenty others who took his money and conspired against him out of tie country. But no; be was a King, and no King should act from revenge or in anger, and so the poor man wan rshbed and betrayed Dy the very men he covered with honor and wealth." nviumuiiinuuiiiK but* iviUK nan a urnve, |raruuient man, Dot apt to do anything from fear?above all things fling away a diadem?It is believed, however, that when he fonnd his own Prime Ministcr and the President of his Council intriguing in the Cortes to thwart his purpose and break the spirit and discipline of his army, ami when he saw the first lady of his Court decline to hold his Infant child in baptism, because her husband did not agree with the Cabinet In politics, he took the supreme resolution. In a country where the Prime Minister was not a gentleman and a Duchess was not a lady he would not sit on the throne. ABDICATION A SURPRISE TO THE MONARCHISTS. The abdication of the King was precisely what none of the parties opposed to him desired but the republican party. The Carlists wished Don Carlos; the followers of Isabella wished the Prince Alfonso; Serrano would have been content with the King had he suspended the oo ?,iitot>o?i end given him supreme power. The opposition factions wished to drive the King out by a successful conspiracy. The conspiracy would then take the crown, crush the republicans with a strong hand, "establish order" as the Third Napoleon did and rule Hpaln. The abdication found them all unprepared. .Serrano was in the South, Don Carlos was saying bis prayers over the frontier, Sugasta was droning about the cafis. No one knew what to do but the republicans. As they had only one object, and that simple, direct and decisive, they were always prepared. They meant no intrigue, and accordingly did not require time to intrigue. If the King's abdication eould be postponed lorty-eight hours there would be time to rally the reactionary forces. The republicans, to use a phrase iamlUar in our war, resolved to "force the lighting." THE REPUBLICANS "FORCE THE FIGHTING." The Cortes assembled. The palace was surrounded by thousands of people. Troops were placed at different positions to preserve order. Ihe galleries were crammed. The diplomatic corps were nearly all present. Every republican was in bis seat. Plgueras, with his mild, resolute, kind face, just tinged by age, and an eye clear and shining; Castelar, the first orator of Europe, nervous. anxious, and his young face rull of eagerness and Inspiration; and their followers all compact, ready and disciplined. The other benches were filled with anxious men. The ministerial Pencil was vacant. What the Ministry wanted was time?time to thluk and plot and unite their forces. Xorrllla landed that by remaining away he could gain time. Nothing was known officially ol the King's abdication. It was only a rumor. Until announced It could not be considered: so '/.orrilla thought. He would suspend the sittings one or two days, and, in the meantime, arrange his plans. This was the very thing to be avoided, and as soon as the Cortes opened the republicans, under the lead or Plgueras, opened the campaign. He arose, regretted the absence of the Ministry and askad that they be summoned to the Cortes, as he had a question to ask concerning the safety of Spain and the peace of Madrid. The President answered that he had sent for the Ministers, but they bad not come. He would now summon them for the last time. In a moment they entered, the Prime Minister at their head. Rising, he said he understood a question had lieen propounded in his absence, and he now asked the speaker to repeat it. The republican leader did not need this challenge. He asked the Prime Minister whether It was true that the King proposed to abdicate the jrown of Spain, and, If so, what measures had been taken to preserve the peace. The Prime Minister evaded the question in an elaborate speech; said His Majesty is true, thrown )ut such an Intimation, but they were in hopes he :ould tie induced to reconsider it, and he trusted, therefore, the Cortes would adjourn a day or two to enable His Majesty to reflect. This was the first point of the battle. Klgueras, with admirable tact, inswered that to consider abdication was abdlca Hon; that there was really no sovereign power that could he respected, and that it became the L'ertes, as the sovereign power in spaln, to see to it that no harm came to the liberties ot the people. He proposed, therefore, that the Cortes should dedare Its sittings permanent, that the members night watch over the welfare of Spain. -rill! RKPt'BI.ICANH CARRY TUB riRST POSITION, All this time the crowd around the palace be nine greater and greuter and more and more i?isy. Deputies time after time went to thu winlows and addressed them, urging good cheer?that ill was well with Spain. Marios, the Minister of *tate, then arose and made an eloquent speech, lie was not anxious to precipitate events. No harm | :ould come from an adjournment. The Ministry would look after the oountry. Figuera* came back , with iron power to his proposition. There was no ting, ana there could he no peace without a Cortes n unuBinn ta mat/ill aita* ?hn neiaiu Th*M I 'uutnlur irosu, and, with that wonderful eloquence which la he marvel of Spain, rollowcd In ahrllllant, temperI to, calmly logical speech, supporting the proportion of hla leader, calling upon Spaniards to renember the days when they took up arms against an nvader and expelled him after their kings had led, and appealing to them, now that another ting had torn the orown from hla brow and hrown It Into the streets, to take It up and aa SHEET. even to threaten It was to make it impossible pot a a sovereign to reign with respect or authority. 11 Again the Prime Minister arose. He saw the title ? receding from Mm. He was losing his temper. He tl would have no permanent session. He wonid not s< have the Cortes sitting as a guardian over hlru. n He was a gentleman and a man or honor. He had a lost his wife and four hoys. To call them again to li life he would not soil his houor. As for hlmseii he T meant to retire to tin "obscure corner." But he t was stilt Minister, and it was disrespectful to him to think of a permanent session. After he sat down there was noted a warm discussion on the ' ministerial bench. Martos and Zorrllln were seen in high words. It was known at once that there was a difference?Martos leaning towards the republl- ( cans. The Prime Minister resolved to adjourn the \ Cortes and save some kind of a throne. Martos 1 arose to retire, when one ot the Deputies took his J1 ll?l lUMi mil U llliIRT lire BCUb, V/itlCi BUI IUUUUvU him and Implored him to remain. Another ills- i 1 cussion arose hetweeu tue two Ministers, in which ' v all joined, and for a minute or two the Cortes sat j Id silence looking at seven or eight irentlemen ges- ^ actuating eagerly on the ministerial bench. In a moment the Prime Minister, his face pale and * angry, was seen to throw up his harms In a gesture 1 of deprecation and despair, turn suddenly away 11 and tatc his hat, which no one had hidden, and ! stalk angrily away. This pantomime was as well 1 understood as if the Ministers had spoken from the ' tribune. Zorriiia was beaten in hIS own Cabinet. The firmness of Kigueras and the eloquence or Cas- j teiar had won, Martos arose, and gravely, almost i sadly, announced that the government accepted the J propositions of the republican leader and consented to a permanent sitting. TQo session was nominal simply. Tbe President and secretaries i ; were in their places all night. There was no do- 2 bate, no business. The night went down upon an anxious capital, with the republicans thus tar victorious. THE KErnBl.lOANS REST ON TUKIK ARMS. The night came on?one of those anxious nights ^ which old men remember ami tell to shcir children. It was a night big with the fate of .spain. What would to-inorrow bring? All parties were at sea? , all but one. Don Carlos?where was he? Why did he linger at liayoune, when his presence here might open the gates or this ancient and loyal city? And why was Don AlpUonao lu Vienna? Whore were the chiefs of the monarchical party ? A throne reeling, a crown tumbling Into the gutters, and no one to rescue it; no sword to Oy from Its scabbard and save loyal, faithrul .Spain. Men moodily paced the Alcala and gathered in groups on the Puerto del Hoi, and wondered whether to-morrow its stones would be reddened with Hpunlsh blood. The republicane wore eager and watching. They drifted all night from the American Legation to the Cortes. Somehow the presence or tlie American (tag was an inspiration, uud when a new and ugly rumor or doubt came to them, they hurried to the American Minister for counsel. All night long messengers paused to and from the legation, and when they came forth they were cheered up. Ditllcultv after ditUculty was submitted to the Minister for Ills uolution. What was a republic ? How did it work V Was there rdally social order? What would be the effect on industry, on the army, on the Church? above all things on Cuba? You cannot imagine the thousand questions that came into lite that night, ror these men had only dreamed of republic, had only seen it in fancy, roseate, soul-cheering, us a dream cherished in exile or brighteniug prison walls; and now it was coming?surely coming?with the blessed sunshine, which in a few hours would creep over weary, aaxious Madrid. "Let all be peaceful, orderly; no disturbance, no violation,oi law, no excitement." This was our Minister's advice. As for America, it would give the Republic tne hand of Instant friendship. And if no mistakes were made Europe must come swiftly after. And so the Cortes sat in nominal session all night and the republican leaders rested on their arms. The victory was theirs, and tomorrow they would win It. VIOLENT COUNCILS IN THE PALACE. There were those around the King, and others who believed in royalty as a profitable trade, who ) bwarmed to the palace that night and urged Amadeus to change his purpose. As I have said, Serrano was away, but bis friends gathered at the house of Sogasta. Who knows, they thought, but that the Klag might repent his abdication humor, banish Zornlla from his councils and sead for Serrano and Sagasta to form a conservative ministry. Any how they would be found like the wise virgins watting with their lamps burning. One of the party who had j kept well with the King called at the palace and i said to Ills Majesty that he had no need or abdication. There were brave and wise men who before i had served him. He did not take their advice then; let him call them and take it new. They were all watting at the house of Setkor Sagasta. and In the morning Serrano would come also. But the King said "no." In the list place he had been treated like a partisan and an adventurer by these j gentlemen. They had Insisted upon regarding him as a politician, and not a King. He had done all he could to conciliate Serrano?ror instance, had | written him, aid he was treated in return I with Indignity. Again, it wus proposed to suspend j the constitution. That he could not and would not do. He would not wear the crown unless he could wear it like a gentleman. There was another party of military men whom the King had honored. They did not care to see this fountain of honor dry up, as there was no certainty as to i whether another would open?and if it did whether ! Its waters wonld be bitter or sweet. They went to the King. They had been loyal to him and were I loyal now. Why should he throw the crown into | the streets f The army was with him in every i way. Only let him say the word, and at the head of the army, now encamped in the Madrid barracks, they would sally forth and suppress the lnsurrec| tionary spirit and put the throne on a solid loundaI tion. To this the King answered that he knew well ! enough that to an enterprising military corni mander, with the loyal troops of Spain behind him, anything was passible; that he need not say that against the enemies of Spain he would march at the head of his army. But he I would never command Spanish troops in a war ; upon Spanish people. He would not wear a crown j that could only be held by a coup <VCtat. Upon that j he was resolved. He would not even consider i the contingency. He could not reign in Spain ex- I cept as the king of a faction holding swuy over a . faction. He expected this in the beginning, but he had hoped that time would wear it away and bring I the people nearer to him as he proved himself worthy of their loyalty and love. But every adj vanee bad been repelled. The breach had grown wider from day to day. No force coald narrow it. | He might bold Spain by the sword to-day, but uo : throne could rest upon the sword in this age. No! ! his mind was made up. He had done his duty as a i king. He had failed, and he would return the ; ; crown to the men who placed It en his brows and j : go back to the court of his father. I The night passed, however, and no danger came i to the Republic. The monarchists could not unite, j I In truth, monarch; was no longer a sentiment or ' i political principle wlth*thesc men. It was not a ' king they wanted, but a partisan; and in the de slrea for one prince or another ail the malevolence 1 or former reigns came to life, and the more they i discussed the situation the ftirther they were from ! a union. The republicans were alert. They arranged their plan. The point gained in yesterday's struggle gave them command of the field, unless they should make a mistake or the government should sacceed In a nntp d'ttat. Rut of this there was only a limited danger. The temper or the King was well known. Ue had shown It in many ways. From him there was no fear. He would not break the law ror his own crown, certainly he would not connive at Its Inrractlon to give a crewn to Don Carlos or Don AlDhonso. Nor was there much danger from the Cabinet. They had beaten the Prime Minister on his own ground. It was known In the King's Cabinet there were three or lour Ministers wno would not consent to extreme measvaa llArtna t.hf> llint?t#?r for Knrotam Affairs, the bent orator In the Congress next to Caatelar, a snpple-mlnded man, not Insensible to' hia own advantages. He was almost a republican and woald support the republic. Tne public sentlJVUU tLJutw iv aiinWM. mt muf., 3 Mat (bond expression in the presence of ve or ten thousand citizens, who stood raiting?calm, resolute, only a growl now and lien?waiting for the hour. The republicans themelves were men of tact and genius. Although a ilnority in the Cortes they had always put upon It severe pressure. The best parliamentarian and iwyer was Plgueras? the best orator was Castelar. o these two men was entrusted the command of he campaign. ABDICATION ACCEPTS!). Immediately upon the opening of the Cortes the Secretary read the formal abdication of the King, fliis grave, eloquent, manly document was heard with a shence almost painful. It was the lormal ?eal upou the act that had been in all men's minds, tt once a resolution was adopted without dissent icceptiug the abdication, and a committee was ippotnted to write the address of the Cortes in eply. This task was assigned to Castelar. An adourniuout was had to give him time for the vork, and upon reassembling he read the address rom the tribune. Never was monarch addressed n terms of such grateful and gracious rhetoric. Jover was ruler honored as sincerely and with ueh complimentary phrase. And when, llnaily, 'asteiar concluded by saying to the King that dthough Spain could no longer offer him a crowu, t could offer him the Higher dignity of citizenship 11 a free and independent republic as a man vnom that republic would never cease to honor, he Cortes broke into a roar of rapturous cheering. L committee was appointed to carry this to the ting, and the struggle recommenced. Pi y Margall it once arose and offered a proposition declaring tic Republic. Here came an interlnde which shows io\r tin;so Spanish legislators, so wise In lnanj ways, arc children lu others. EOKRILXA MAKES A DESPERATE EFFORT TO SAVB THE CROWN. As soon an the King's abdication was read Zorriilu, and his colleagues left the Ministers' bench ind sat among tne Depntics. There was, therelore, no Ministry and no government. The Senate had come from Its Chamber and now sat with the representatives, us one bodv, ,"the sovereign Cortes ol Spain." Zorrilla, who seemed to be Inspired by the spirit of mischief or revenge, or some evil impulse which in one day undid ail the fair achievements ol a celebrated and busy life, arose and asked the Chamber where was the government, and whul would tie done In the cubc of disturbance, and who would open a despatch announcing the capture of a town by the OarliBtsf Considering that this Minister and ills King had abandoned the government, and that the Cortes was about to supply their places, the Hpeech exasperated the members. This was what Zorrilla meant. It was his last despairing chance. If ho could provoke a tumult?if the Chambers could be prevailed upon to do an act ol indiscretion or violence, there would still lie hope for the reaction. The republicans, wuo were not disposed to lose their temper, kept quiet, although they cnalcd under the challenge. Hut the President of the body was something of a goose, and lie had made up his mind that upon him devolved the cares of the State?that as the Congress was sovereign and he Its President, he was therefore the sovereign head ol Spain. So instead oi listening to Zorrilla and passing into business, tlila foolish, vain Klvero began a discussion with liiin? said he was the head ol the State, and being a man who was always calm, and knew what to do In most excited momeuts, It was proper he should be chief. Then came an uproar even more distressing than the other. The President took another foolish step. Finding the Cortes not disposed to listen tj nig hew-Uorl pretensions hesuddenly turned to the Ministers und ordered the!? to take the ministerial beuch and there watch over Spain. This was even more exasperating, and the Chamber broke iuio renewed murmurs. Zorrilla declined. lie was Minister of the King, and would not serve now that the King had gone. Martoe said he had not left a monarchy to pasB under a despotism. The temper of the Chamber grew higher. The President, winged and quivering with the dart of Murtos, left the chair and the President of the Senate took It. Again Zorrilla pressed his point, and in the most offensive manner, taking cure to expressly irritate me ineuus 01 Kerrauo and Isabella, who had been quiet heretofore. "VIVA I.A KKrUHLIUA!" If you have seen public assemblies at a fever heatall passions bubbling, seething, running over?a coot master of debate like Zorrilla deliberately feeding it ; in the chair an abs urd, vain old man; the galleries crummed with eager, hoping men and women, their laces pule with the tension upoto their nerves; outside the mighty democracy of Spaiu, Its wur coming now and then upon the ear, like the roar of a distant angry sea?impatient for tho^ Republic?and the benches tilled with the first men of an electric, sensitive, passionate race, easily moved to tears and froui tears to blood, you can fancy the scene when this incident broke upon the Cortes like a threatening cloud, boding disaster to the Republic. Men of resolute soul and cool MaxoD blood, who wished well to Spain, and sat watching the birth of this uew commonwealth, told me their limbs grew cold and the heart siek as they saw this incident and teared what might come. A word, a hasty speech, the slightest imprudence from a man with the eloquence of Castelar to the crowd, and there would have been a scene rivalling the bloodiest day or the French Revolution, and spreading its sweep to the distant mountains and seacoasts or Spain. This was what Zorrilla wanted. He stood in the Chamber as cool and daring as Mepbietophelos. He could not rule Spain, and he would ruin the new Republic. lie meant to leave pnblic life, and. like Samson, he would pull down the temple in which he was no longer high priest, liut the republicans held theic forces in hand. Martos arose. He was sorry, he said, if he had wounded auy one in his remarks. As for the Ministry assuming a place on the bench, that was a technicality. The Ministry, all buc Zorrilla, would act through their under secretaries, and so doing he and his friends had only to say they would vote the Republic. This was the breaking of the cloud. Zorrllla's purpose was foiled. Martos hud lead bis party away from him. The Marquis of Sardoval, a warm friend of the* King and a monarchist, followed Martos, and said, in behalf of himselt and other noblemen with whom he acted, they would vete for the Republic. This they did, not becuuse they had changed their con vicuou* in iavur hi u iiiuiiarciij, nui uccausc uiep believed a republic was the ouly form of government that could nave Spain. This carried the day. The Republic was sure. The debate continued for some hours, to allow deputies to favor or support It. In this debate the repuolicans took no part. The vote came at last, by yean and nays. Far the Republic there were votes; against it, 32, and the President, In a voice of emotion, and amid cheers, which filled the Chamber and was caught up on the street, and were flashed by . telegraph to every province of r>pain, and under the deep sea to the distant Island of Cuba, declarca that the Sovereign Cortes proclaimed the Republic. Members rushed from one bencn to another and embraced In the Spanish fashion. Marios arose and cried, "Viva Spain/ Viva tht nation/ Viva l/v Spanish Coital" and Figueraa. Ids face pale and swept with all the emotions than must have come to a man who sate Ids twenty-five years' war for repnbli. canlsm crowned with such a victory; arose and asked permission to cry In the talness ol his soul, "1'ftxi la RspttfMcat" And the Chambet arose as one man and said, " Viva la Republka /'* and tears streamed down races not given to tha weeping mood, and bearded men sobbed and kissed each other like children. This was about the hour of nine In the evening. There was need for refreshment and felicities and rest before nam ln? the ctik-fx of the new commonwealth. Ho a recess was taken until midnight. The conserve tive* and monarchists we at home and did not re. turn. They were not m ore than thirty In number, and as they had no heart In the movement, would not mar it with their preaence. It wax resolved to retain In the Cabinet (our of the Ministers ot Amadeus, and to make Martos President ot the Chambers. Thq Prealdency of the Kepublie wonld be given to Kigueras, the leader and head of the party. PI y Margall, the keenest and most logical mind, would be given the very Ira. portant oillce or Secretary or the Interior, whila the brilliant and accomplished Castelar was to b? Minister or Foreign Affairs. At midnight the Cyrjdf Mi YVWV .it IH twv &<W| N

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