Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 2, 1873, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 2, 1873 Page 2
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VIENNA. The Imperial Ecuse of Austria and the Exposition. HISTORY OF THE IIAPSBUKGS. Rise, Growth, Position and Ap p?aranc? ot Vicuna. THE BLUE DANUBE. ? Magnificent Site of the Palace of the People's Fair. THE PRATER PARK. Description of the Main Building and Annexes. Pavilions, Kiosks, Minarets, Founts and Gardens. FAIRS OF THE OLDEN TIMES. Ntfni Novgorod, Katchta, Hurd war, Leipsic, Frankfort. MODERN WORLD FAIRS. The First International Exhibi tion at London. SUBSEQUENT COSMIC DISPLAYS. Paris, London, Dublin and New York. TEE ARCHDUKE PROTECTOR. Imperial and Royal Austro Hungarian Commissioners. THE FOREIGN COMMISSIONS. I Names of the International I ,* ? Commission of Jurors. WHAT WILL BE SEEN AT VIENNA, Grouping and Classification of the Objects. WHAT AMERICA SENDS. ; Alphabetical List of Exhibitors fr?m the United States. THE MEDALS OF HONOR. For Fine Art, for Progress for Merit, for Tiste, for Workmen. ART AND INDUSTRY IN EVERY FORM. Technical Review of What the Great Fair Contains. ? lVSTBIi no TBI: HOISE OF HAPSBUR?. ? ? Austria, properly and strictly ho railed, is an snclrnt province and archduchy of Germany, with a surface ui only l&,ooo square miles and a popula tion 01 less than three million. It is, therefore, SDout hair the six." of the State ol Maiue. It Is divided into Upper and l.ower Austria and the Duchy 01 Salzburg, and lies on both sides of the Danube. between tlie Bavarian boundary and Presbnrg. The inhabitants are Merman and mostly Catholic. These arc the principal German states that now remain to the Austrian Kmpire, of whisti pre at empire they were the original nucleus. In the ninth and tenth centuries the duchy of Austria was the frontier or the ancient German Empire against the barbarians. In tcifc the German Emperor Henry the Fowler, perceiving that it was of great Importance to nettle some person in Austria who might oppose these incursions, in vested Leopold, surnamed the Illustrious, with that country. Otho I. erected Austria into a tnar qulsate in lavor of his brother-in-law Leopold, ?rnose descendant Ilenrv II. was, created Duke ol Austria by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. His posterity becoming extinct in 1240, the Plates of the country, in order t<i aeicnd themselves irom the incursions ?! the Bavarians and Hungarians, resolved to put themselves under the protection ot Henry, Marquis of Misnta; but Othogar II., King 9f Uotieinia, beiug likewise invited by a party in the duchy, took possession ol it, aliening not only the Invitation of the States, but also the ngnt of tils wife, heiress of Fred. ric. the ia*t <tnke. The Emperor Hodolph I., pretending a right to this lucky. relused to give Othogar the investiture of It: and afterwards killing him in a battle, pio uied the right of It to his own family. From this Rudolph the present Honse of Austria is descended, which for several centuries past has rendered it leli so lamous and so powerful, having giv>wi four teen emperors to Qerruany, and six kings to Spain. In 1477 Austria was erected Into an archduchy bv the Kmperor Frederic the Pacific for his son, Maximilian, with these privilegesThat these lhall be judged to have obtained the investiture of the states, if they do not receive it alter having de manded it tlitee times; that it they receive It from the Emperor, or the imperial Ambassador*, they are to be on horseback, clad In a royal mantle, having in their hand a stair of command, and upon their head a ducal crown oi two points, and sur mouutcd with a cross like that of the imperial crown. The Archduke Is born priv v councilor to the Emperor, and his States cannot i?e pu to the ban of the Enioire. All atteninu against Ids person are punished an crimen of le&e-maje?*v, in ,he H?me manner an theme against the King ol the Romans or electors. No one can challenge him to single combat. It in in his choice to assist at the assemblies, or to be absent; and he haa the privilege of beiug exempt from contributions and public taxes, excepting twelve soldiers which he is obliged to maintain against the Turks for one month. He has rank immediately after the elec tors; and exorcise# justice in the Mates without appeal, by virtue of a privilege granted by Charles V. His subjects cannot even be summoned out 01 Ins proviuce upon aecount of law suits, to give witness, or to receive the investiture of tiers. Any of tlie lands or the empire may be alienated in liiH :.ivoi\ even those that are feudal; and be Hum a right to create counts, barons, gentlemen, poets and notaries. In the succession to his .states the right of birth takes place; and, railing malCR the females succeed according to the llueal right, and, If no heir be round, they may dispose of their lands as they please. Tlie House or Austria acquired the imperial throne of Germany in 1440, when Frederic III. was elected Emperor, although, as we have seen, it was during iiis reign as Emperor that Rudolph of Uapsburg, founder of tnc dynasty, hrst secured tho ducuy to his family. The imperial throne was held by this house lrom its sccessiou in 1440 for 300 years. Maximilian, successor to Frederic III., enrioned tho House by a lamoiis marriage that gave it possession of Burgundy and 'he seventeen piovincoti oi the Netherlands, two inheritance of Ills bride, the heiresaoi Charles, Duke of Burgundy; andOhniles V., grandson and heir oi this Maxi milian, marrying the heiress of Ferdinand and Isabella of Airagou and Castile, added to the dominions of the bouse of Hpain and the Spanish possessions m America. Thus by two marriages the house acquired richer and vaster possessions than It ever secured by all other means together. During this great age or its splendor the House of Austria was the controlling power of Europe, ft sustained Christendom against the Turks; sustained Rome and her Church in the religious wars that devasted Germany; sustained monarchy and absolutism against the rising spirit or the people, and tugged through many wars lor supremacy of dominion witn France, giving battle in every country and in every court and on every sea. AUSTRIAN PROLINE In 1745 it lost the imperial crown, and its dismem berment began by the ravages of energetic neigh bors preying upon the mass of hall' vital dominion It had seized but never digested. Prussian Friu was the most energetic of these neighbors, and in the fruit ol his depredations latd the first founda tion of the subsequent Prussian power. Franco was not less rapacions, and transferred hpain from the House of Austria to the House of Bour bon, and also tore away those provinces of Lor raine and Alsace, over the loss of which she has recently made so much noise, having the bitter chalice in turn commended to her own lips by her Teutonic neighbor. But the power of Austria was uot fairly broken in Europe until the Emperor Na poleon, with the legions of France, and with hall the power ol Germany marshalled under the French eagles, tumbled down all the thrones and trampled the crowns under tils lect. Prussia's part In the wars ajrainst Napoleon brought her prominently Jorward as a great Power, and gave her the prestige aud position that enabled her to dispute with Austria dominion over the Herman people. In the rivalry l>etween these Powers lies the principal interest of tho history of Germany from the end of the Napoleonic waps until the year 186?, when Austria, as a German Power, was utterly crushed by the decisive battle or Sa dowa. TUB NEW EMPIKB ON TUB DANCBE. The present Austrian Empire Iihh au area of 2^8,000 square miles and a populatiou of 35,000,000. It is the most heterogeneous agglomeration or peo ples that ever submitted to one rule since the days of ancient Rome. Its paper currency Is printed with the same Inscription in three languages on each I>111, and Is then not intelligible to the mass of people in many states. Yet it is, altogether, as to its territorial extent, a compact empire; and, in reference to its position, has beeu well called the Empire of the Danube. It Is drained almost ex clusively by that magnificent river and its tribu taries. Within the Austrian dominions the Danube has % rourso of 340 miles, and receives the waters of fourteen large rivers. Nearly all the Austrian States are mountainous, and the consequent eleva tion and diversity of surface gives a climate of great variety. The menu temperature of the year at Vienna is fllty-onc degrees. In its products, both for valun and variety, it Is a highly favored country. The produce of its mines alone for the year 1851 is stated at $du,OQO,ooo. It has salt. coal, quicksilver, and ail the metals ex cept platlua. Rock salt occurs in Immense beds, and salt is made also by evaporation from springs. The annual yield from both sources is upward! of three million hundred weight. Grain of every kind Is raised in Hungary. The potato flourishes everywhere, and Is the principal tood of large sec tions of the people. Fruit is abundant and fine, and in the production of wine Austria is second only to Fraucc. TUB GOVERNMENT. Austria Is a monarchy, hereditary in the house of Hapsburg-borralue, the Heir to the Austnun throne in this family being also King of Bohemia and Hun gary, but, should thlB reigning family die out, Iio liemia and Hungary will each have the right to choose their sovereign anew. Thus It is in the person of the ruler that the unity of the Empire lies. The states are grouped around their sovereign in perpetuation of the political accidents that originally drew them together as subject to one crown. Since the war with Prussia, in lKtia, a liberal con stitution has been conceded to Hungary similar to that for which her people arose in 1848; she thus has a separate internal government, and this cir cumstance gives the monarchy an essentially fed eral character in its political organization, while the exceedingly dissimilar peoples of the many state* give it otherwise an essentially composite character. Every Austrian Is subjoct to military service for three years in the line, seven years in tire reserve and two years in the landwchr. Th>' army on a peace footing is 246,000, nml on war footing 822,000. The public debt is $ 1,00",000,000. THE EMPEROR OK AUSTRIA. Francis Joseph, the reigning sovereign, was born in isao, and is, consequently, forty-three years of oge. He Is the son of the Archduke Francis, and ascended the throne in 1848, upon the abdication of the childless Ferdinand, his father's brother. His accession to the throne was secured in the interest of the conservative or absolutist party, which was dissatisfied certain concessions that Ferdi nand had promised to the liberals, and which party determined to defeat and prevent the fulfilment of these promises by changing the sovereign. His reign b"gan. therefore, in au attempted restoration of that despotism which the liberal spirit of tbe age had weakened sojuewhat in the time of pre ceding rulers. He dissolved the National Guard, repressed energetically the freedom of the press, abolished the constitution given by his uncle, and in 1856 made a concordat with Rome involving grants of extraordinary privileges to Roman prol ates. It was tbe theory of the absolute party, con fronted by the general revolutionary outburst of 1848, that that outburst (with all similar troubles) wax doe to the indulgence or absolutism. They thought they had been too kind, too gentle, too considerate witn tbe people, and that the growth of liberty was one of the results of that amlablo weakness on their part, and that all this agitation tor rights was only an abuse of that per mitted freedom, so they assume that the best cure wHk to ink ? away even the liberties they had given a id put down the political brakes generally. The eonseqrtn <of this policy was such a growth of dissiinvo i, running to revolt, as threatened to slimier the Empire to Its centre. Out of that disaf fection ?rew the Italian war ol I860 and the cession of l.ombardT. it was the same disaffection, and the disorganization consequent upon It, coinciding witli the use of the needle gun, that easy down the Empire on the decisive defeat of Sadowa. Since that sudden awakening Austrian councils have lie come penet rable to the spirit of modern times, and tuoh great inca ores in the cult vation of modern iiidti'tr.N and the light of modern I'lvillzalion as i this Vienna inhibition give better augury for the future of an Kmpire that needed only good govern ment for the happiness of its people. Bi:CMNT RMI'KKOfUi OP AUSTRIA. Ferdinand L, uncle and predecessor of the present Emperor, abdicated December 'i, 1848, and now lies at Prague, where, it was recently reported he was lylnir so dangerously 111 that his recovery seemed impossible. He was born in 179S, and was the eldest son of Pranoia I. He was distinguished for hts amiable dispo sition and goodness or heart; but these excellent attributes were not sustained by a force of charac ter suinclent to make them of practical benefit to his subjects in a country where it would have re quired a very strong will Indeed for oven the Sov ereign to have overcome the political traditions and to have made head against the abso lutist tendencies of all the institutions and laws that oppressed the Austrian people. Urged on the one hand by resolute uphold ers of the old absolutism, like Metter nlch, and alarmed on the other by popular aglta tions, the reasonableness of which his candid mind seemed to recognize, he had an uneasy reign ol thirteen years. FRANCIS I. OF AUSTRIA (and .Second ol Germauy), father of the preceding, was born at Florence in 1768, and came to the throne in 1792, Just in time to enter into the alliance of the sovereigns against the French Kovolution. Bonaparte's Italian compalgn brought him,however, to the terms of the Treaty of Oampo Pormio in 1797. His reign wan the reverse side or the history of Na poleon?the record of the disasters equivalent to that conqueror's victories. He made the peace of Luneviile after Marengo; the peace of Prosburg after Austerlltz, and the peace of Schonbrunn after the occupation of Vienna. His daughter, Maria liOulsa, was married to Napoleon in 1810, and he was in alliance with the great soldier in the disas trous retreat from Russia; but he was again with the aliios at Lelpsic. He labored earnestly to secure the good of the country by internal improvements In the administration; but his horror of revolu tionary Ideas (he was the nephew of Marie An toinette) made him an extreme absolutist. He died in 1835. FAIRS AND THEIR HISTORY. Fairs, In tneir origin, were a contrivance or prim itive trade, the device or ages when communication between tlie peoples ofdifferent countries, or people in distant parts or the same country,was not known as a fact or ordinary lire; when travel was not only dangerous bv the perils or the way and difficult be cause of the rude contrivances in use, but utterly impossible to the mass ofthe people because or the necessarily great expenditure or money (or a Jour ney. In those days no vast fieetb or merchantmen tilled every sea, bearing the products or a national industry from one country to another, and no heavily freighted trains of railroad cars distributed into every city and village, as now, the merchan dise and commodities or great manufacturing towns or districts; but where commodities were made there they were sold, because it was easier for the buyer to come and make his purchases, each carrying home what Ills wants re quired. than for the maker or seller to transport to distant points the product of a year's industry. As travelling was so difficult, however, the journey for purchases could not be made often, and thus periods were fixed ror it, generally twice a year; and the industries or a whole city or district ac commodated themselves to this necessity, and la bored through six months in making the articles that were to be sold In a few weeks at the time or the great Spring or Autnmn concourse or buyers. Thus the great rairs of all nations have been SIMl'LY SEMI-ANNUAL MARKETS, the result of the conditions of lire in rormer times, and the smaller rairs liave been a lesser or local application of the same system?the queer cvstoms and peculiar privileges, such as suspension or ar rest except lor otTences committed at the fair, Ac., being simply contrived to tmcourage men to come, In the ehoice of seasons ror the rairs nature was clearly consulted, for in Winter people were kept at home by bad weather, and in Summer they could not leave their laber In the fields. Borne re lation has been noticed between the time chosen for rairs and that for great religious festivals in most countries?a relationship due, perhaps* to a common cause, for the priesthood in all religions has generally contended that their festivals should be celebrated at seasons when the people have most leisure. And the people in these cases have generally not followed the priests in the choice or a place ror the fair, bnt the priests have followed the people and made their festivals where they fount} the concourse. Prom this view ?r the origin and true character of lairs, it necessarily follows that they were first known in Oriental countries?the first seats of the ordinary civilization of industry and trade; and it follows with equal force that they still flourish there in almost their original splendor, communica tion being scarccly better in many Eastern coun tries at the present day than it was a thousand years ago. indeed, with a few remarkable excep tions, fairs in the ordinary sense have disappeared, so lar as tbey had any splendor, from civilized coun tries. and linger only tn the remoter lands, out of reach of the influence of the modern spirit. Thus the only really great, regularly recurring fair still known in any European country is in Russia, and even on the confine? of the Asiatic portion of thnt vast Empire?the Fair of St. Peter and St. Paul, at NlJIni Novgorod. Till RUSSIAN PAIR AT KIAfTTTA. Doubtless the greatest fair in Asia at the present day is tlint or KiacUta, in Southern Siberia. This fair has, moreover, a truly International character, it is not. a mere point at which the inhabitants or two or three neighboring towns or valleys come together at. curtain seasons to supply the ordinary wants or common life, but a neutral Btation where tne products of two great nations are bartered and where tho people or many races mingle lor mutually advantaceous transactions. It is near the Chinese frontier, and thither the great cara vans bring the precious ilrst crop of tea some> times from a distance or 3,000 miles. This tea is bought by the Russian merchants, who exchange ror it, rurs and the various manu ractured articles or Europe, many from Russian manuractones, and more, perhaps, from the workshops or Uirminghiim. It is thus that this tea onljr readies the world outside through Russia, in which country, however, most of It is consumed. The great distance from which the caravan tea is brougnt by that slow carriage is the important element tn its price?the main reason why it is so dear. Perhaps when we get a railroad through China eveu newspaper writers will be able to in dulge In the snblime beverage. A GREAT PAIR IN INDIA. Another Asiatic ran of great Importance is held j in Western India, at Hurdwar, on the River : Ganges. Here there is also a great religious fes* , tival. This fair Is held in March and April every ' year, while every twelfth ycir the concourse as j sumes au extraordinary character. Each year the j gathering is little short or three hundred thousand, and at the last of the twelfth yearly occasions there were 2,000,000 visitors. NIJINI NOVGOROD. At Nijlni Novgorod, In Eastern Russia, is held an annual fair that is the most Important event 1 or the year to all the Central and Eastern Pro vinces or Rnssla and to many nations of Asia thpt trade with tie Empire. The value or the goods ex changed in the year lsen was eighty-five million dollars. It is opened on the 27th of July and lasts 1 one month. Europeans, Bokharians, Khlvans. I Khiglso, Tartars, Americans, Peralaos and Chinese visit It. HERMAN FAIRS. The most Important lairs of Central Europe are those of Lcipslc and Frankfort. The Leipsic Pair proper is semi-annual, and is held at Easter and Michaelmas; but there is also a Bookseller's Fair?a sort or trade sali; and settling day?tn I January, which is oiten clusicd as a third fair. The Leipsic fairs are for twelve days each, and j were once of great Importance, but modern lire I has in this respect much changed their character. ! They figure greatly in tno history and romanee of Germany In the Middle Ages. The Prank fort Fair ; is also semi-annual; that in the Spring beginning the Sinday before Palm Sunday, and In the Fall vn the Sunday before the Nth of September. Old ' books are a great commodity here. This fair Is I held fourteen days. I'AIRH in irsarnM bdhoph. Through Prance, Italy and Kugtand many fairs' are held that have lost altogether their ancient re lation to the commerce of the country, and are continued ratlier as ouriona re I lea of ancient cus toms and oocaslons for morrymaking. To this the only exceptions are the horse and cattle fairs, which, though they are not so important commer cially as they once were, since more convenient means are found for mere traffic even in these, yet they still combine a certain importance in that respect with their greater value as shows of the results of good breeding, and for the good influ ence t hey thus exercise upon the products ol the country. MODERN INTERNATIONAL KXIIIBITIONS. In considering the modefn great exhibitions and worlu's lairs at the end of this glimpse at the his tory of fairs we observe, first, that they are not truly fairs in the ordinary sense of that woru, as always hltbert* used. Goods are not gathered here for sale principally, bnt for show, as indications of the progress made In widely separated nations; neither do merchants come principally to buy, but rather to view, to study and compare, that they may lay out their money more wisely' in future ventures. They are exhibitions of samples, and as such have a direct and incalculable importance on manufacturing and trading; but they are pre-eml uently educational In their character. They teach ea?h people what thing it can make better and cheaper than any other people, and what product of its industry some other people can produce in greater excellence. They tltus direct labor by a practical comparison, the usefulness of w hlch it Is impossible to overrate. But their greatest im portance is that they are the successive sessions of the "Parliament of Man, the Fed eration of the World." They are congresses in which the representatives of all the nations of the world come together and consider the state ol In dustry, commerce, invention, household comfort, domestic art and the One arts?things directly re lating to the life of every man, and thus far more influential with regard to his condition than the political machinery of States; and what is done and said at these congresses is ol far more consequence to human happiness than what is done at all the

law-making congresses of the world. The Exposition at Vienna is the fourth of these great congresses. The first was held at London in 1851; the second at London In 1?02, and the third at Paris in 1867. THK LONDON EXHIBITIONS?1861?1862. The first of the "(Jreat Kxlilbitions" was held In liyde Park, London, in the year 1851. It was opened May 1 and closed October 15, and was visited by upwards of six millions ol persons. The building for this exhibition covered an area of nineteen acres, its supreme length being 1,851 feet, or nearly three-eighths ot a mile. It was the tlrst or the now regularly recognized Crystal Palaces, and was erected from plans made by Joseph Paxtoni gardener to the Duke of Devon shire. Mr. l'axton had made for several persons in Knpland very beautiful conservatories, com posed principally of iron and glass, and when an edifice was wanted for the proposed World's Fair it naturally occurred to him that one of these conservatories made on a gigantic scale would give a structure ol magnificent effect and having great advantagu In regard to light. His plans re commended themselves to the Commissioners, and the building was the first if not the greatest success of the undertaking. Paxton was knighted. At this fair there were 15,000 exhibitors. The classi fication of things exhibited was made by Dr. Lyon Playfalr, and was an elaborate analysis of indus trial and productive art. There were four great sections devoted to raw materials, machinery, manufactures and fine arts. These were divided Into subsections, or which there were lour of the first, six of the second and uineteen ol the third? in all twenty-nine classes?and the classes were divined on an average into abont eight portions each. For Instance, section a was manufactures. One class of this was manufactures In animal and vegetable substances; the letter A of this class was manufactures of India rubber and No. 1 of this was waterproof articles as distinguished from elastic articles. Perhaps one of tho most permanent ad vantages of these exhibitions is derived from the necessity encountered of thus CLASSIFYING THIS PRODUCTS of the world's industry?of making, as it were, all these apparently incongruous facts into a science, that their relations to one another may be definite ly and readily comprehended. In the general edu cational activity too little is, perhaps, thought of what hus been achieved in the mere making or the Catalogues to these great exhibitions. In the final BnalyAis Of the Hyde Park catalogue there were 2,000 headings, and the jurors passed upon a mil" lion articles. WHO TOOK THE PBIZB3. In machinery, in manufactures, m metals and in glass and porcelain manufactures British exhibitors gained more prizes than all others together. In textile rubrics, In fine arts and in miscellaneous manufactures the foreign exhibitors took the honors in the proportion of three-flfths to two flfths against the British; while in the section of raw materials for food and manufactures foreign exhibitors gained nearly four times as many prizes as the British. There were 166 medals, and more than half (eighty-eight) were given in one or the rour main divisions?that for machinery, which might by the prejudiced public outside be attribut ed to the iact that John Bull is'a manufacturer. AN AMERICAN TRIUMPH. Not the least interesting point in the history or this famous fair was a brilliant American success that has made as much - noise in the Anglo-Ameri can world as perhaps all the other successes of the fair together. This was the startling triumph of the glorious little yacht America. Prom the ne cessity of the case the America was not put in the Crystal Palace, but she was sent to that exhibition and the race she won was one of the incidents of that great concourse of people from all nations. She started last in a large fleet of yachts and came in eight miles ahead of everything, showing England that one of the great manufacturing in dustries in which she was superior only by the neglect of others was the building of ships. THK LONDON EXHIBITION OP 1862. In 1862 the second great exhibition was opened in London. It was inferior in splendor to that, of 1851, and In every sense less interesting, one most significant legacy, however, it seems to have left to the world is the International Society of Workingmen. It Is said that the origin of this so ciety was in the visit of Frcnch workingmon to London in 1862. Through this circumstance the exhibition of that year seems likely to exercise a greater Influence than all the others upon civilisa tion in Europe?whether lor better or worse the future must show. THE FRENCH EXPOSITION. The Paris Exhibition was opened on April 1, 1867, oy the Emperor Napoleon, in person. It was the most ambitions of all the efforts to outdo the world in its splendor and extent as a show. It was on the Champ de Mars, the great military parade. The area covered by the building was thirty-seven acres. The fan of the building was a series of concentric circle*, enclosing a central garden. The outer circle was devoted to ma chinery. Although the most commodious and cer tainly for the true pur post's or display, as giving the most space tor the ground covered, this was the best or exhibition buildings, yet It was without that ex ternal architectural splendor that might naturally have been looked for in an edifice contrived for such a purpose in s city like Paris, and its circular, squat, character seemed to justify the Emperor's sarcasm when he said to the architect, "Yen have made mo a gigantic gasometer." It was, how ever, truly universal?a Mosaic history of the activity of the age. In the food department there was a practical exemplification by restaurants kept according to nationality, In which were served up tho dishes peculiar to each country. There were 42,(mw exhibitors and ll,ooo rewards were distributed. An important part was the outdoor exhibition, In which were shown actual examples of the styles of domestic and palatial architecture or many coun tries. and tents or nomad tribes or the Busslan Empire and of Bedouin Arabs. Beasts of burden were also shown of all nations, and there were fine illustrations of the great works of military engi neering. This exhibition was visited by all the sovereigns or Europe, and was regarded as thecul aunation of aoectaclei or this kind. It was even thought to bare shown that they might be carried too far, Indeed, and Call, and become unmanageable through the difficulty or thoroughly organizing col lections ol sucb magnitude. OTHBB EXHIBITIONS. We hare claused the Vienna Exhibition a* what It doubtless Is?the fourth of the great displays of this nature; but this sketch of the exhibitions would not be complete without reference to sev eral of much less magnitude than these four that have been held since the first exhibition during the first French Republic. The first exhibitions were held In Paris in 1798; one, of art objects principally, In the liaison d'Or say, and another, el Industrial products, In another part of the city. Both are regarded as having been of great value In the advancement of the scientific study of national Industry. Another was held in 1802, under the Consulate of Napoleon, and the hold ing of triennial exhibitions became from that time an established usage in France, though the sequence was not strictly regular, as they were sometimes relinquished through political disturb ances. This French system wan first imitated In Ireland by the Royal Dublin Soolety, in the year 1829. Several citlcs In England followed the example. All these were exhibitions of the same class as the "lairs of the American Institute," so familiar for many years past to the people of this city. The great London Exhibition of 1851 was first proposed by Prince Albert, in 1848, and was simply an extension of the then iaiuiliar plan of industrial fairs, applying to the world wliat had formerly been restricted to local, or at most national, Industry. The London Exposition of 1861 was followed by one In Cork in 1852; one In Dublin In 1853; one in New York lu the same year, and one In Paris in 1855. All these, save the one at Cork, were Inter national. It is no doubt generally remembered that the one In New York was heid in a crystal pai ace constructed tor It on the then vacant place be tween the west side of the Forty-second street res ervoir and the Sixth avenue. It was destroyed by fire, with nearly all Its contents. VIENNA AND THE PBATEB. Vienna; or, "The Vindobona of the Romans," as many classical dwellers of the semi-oriental city delight to call her, is, perhaps, more generally Parisian in charactcr than any other place on the Continent of Europe. While the suburbs have been laid out in the most gorgenus style, covered with delightful villas aid gardens, representative of the highest architectural, floral and horticultural arts, to meet the demands and tastes of the middle and flourishing classes, all the available portions of the old town have been subjected to the renovating in fluences of the modern architect and contractor for the benefit or the rich and affluent. The old town, whose history naturull.v carries the student back several centuries, Is less than a mile Id clr cutnlercnce. Here can been seen streets and buildings whose Irregularity, puzzling and Intri cate. lead directly to the supposition that, like old New York, the present brilliant capital or the Hapsburgs was built upon "oowpatlis." Fire and sieges have lelt Indelible evidences or their rav ages from time to time; l}ut the visitor can yet see rrom the Baalel the o d rortincations now converted into a dellghtrul promenade, several groups of closely-built dwellings that have with stood the elements, the political wars and the Hand of the besieger for centuries, ana are to-day interesting specimens of buildings, glorious for their comfort, accommodation and antiquity. A walk through Herru Gasse reminds the visitor or the days wnen Kara Mustapha, with 200,000 Turks, battered away at the grand old Avails and lortlflca ilons. Ilere the aristocracy Tomerly held sway, and the numerous a'icys and lanes, with build ings almost meeting above the first floor window, betoken the manner in which they lived, huddled together for society and protection. Now bankers, stockjobbers, brokers, merchants doing business with tho whole world, congregate In this locality, while lawyers, affluent and briefless, occupy promi nent and obscurc posltlous. the Urst as counsellor# of Importance, the last lo lounge, smoke ciga rettes, talk "stocks" and tell legendary stories and create history for Auerbach or the numerous [ penny-a-liners wlio contribute to the literature of the cottage and the kitchen. Here also, within the limits or the glacis, dwell many of the most 1 wealthy and aristocratic families of Europe. Churches, cathedrals, art galleries and musical societies are also abuudaut. As before stated, modern Innovations have somewhat altered the exterior aspect or many of ! the dwellings of the nobility; but within the old | oaken staircases and superb sculpture, the pride of 618 Austrian#, still remain intact, and are shown to ttW Retect aild formally introduced stranger with great pride by the chlet ol til? household. The modern city is now from twelve to lllteen miles in circumierence and has a population j nearly a million. On the east of the city Is the "blue rolling Dan ube," now be In 3 widened and deepened and diked, aud an entirely new cut-off channel is being excavated nine miles long and l,uoo feet wide, along which, on the city side, extends a inagniU cent quay, to be lined with business. Thus Vienna is to be made a great port, and readied by large steamers rrom the sea. WMt and southwest or the Ring the stranger can find his way Into the most delightful of suburban districts, lie can take the omnibus at University place and go via Alser-Gasse to Hernials, or go through Alt Serchenfcld Haupt Strasse to New Serchenfeld and to Ottakrln, or take a pleasant trip In more southeasterly direction through Matz lelndt High street. Through all these, districts the modern aud beautiful are everywhere apparent. The whole city of Vienna?the present circum ference of which would be ai?out twenty miles, without counting in the numerous suburbs, called Vorcrte?Is subdivided into nine circuits, or dis tricts (Bezlrke). Each one of these droits is governed by a Hoard of Trustees, called Be/.lrk sansschuss, and Bezlrksborstand, or President of the Circuit. This President and Board possess, to a very great, extent, executive powers In all matters pertaining to their respective circuits, in dependent or the city government, although, In most cases, they are considered as the deputed executive officers or the Commune. Kach circuit has within its own limits a Oemalndehans (Town House). These are generally substantial and finely built structures, containing In them the offices or the several members or the Board or Trustees oi t lie Bezlrksborstand, Justice or the Peace lor that par ticular circuit; also the rooms for the city police, flremen, and engines set apart for that circuit; an all business, whether la connection with the streets, water or gas pipes, of that particular c r cnlt, or with Individuals living under Its jurisdic tion, has to pass through some branch of tbm l o* n House, no matter whence It may come. The general city government of Vienna is repre sented by a Board of Aldermen called Gemelnder ath and a Mayor (Bnrgemelster). who Is elected, , not by the people direct, but by the Board of Alder men. This Board has power, under the statutes of the State, to enact ordinances, pass orders in re sard to assessments and taxes and regulate the affairs of the Commune. The Mayor is the presid ing offlccr of the Board, and. as with us. possesses tne veto power on ordinance?, but. not on resolu tions. The Pratw Park. There are many public breathing places around the city, but the most popnlar and largest of these is the Prater Tark. This park covers an area of 575 acres, and Is, In truth, from its lovely walks, its mnlestlc trees, pretty landscapes and fsuntalns and statnary, one of the finest In the world. It the constant resort of the resident, floating and cosmopolitan population. In the fine days of early Spring it is a treat to the foreigner t? visit this spot. From all directions?from the < hnin Bridge to Prater Stern, np Jager /ell and numerous ?r ' r arteries, *la St. Stephen's Bridge, to Prater All e come brilliant processions ol old, gorgeous equ pages adorned with insignia and mottoes u ,U)' houses; coachmen and footmen clothed In liveries I of gray, black, scarlet and gold, wit P"*' wigs and knee-breeches, occupy th*lr | positions outside in Iront and rear ef ^ vehicles. Within may frequently be seen the r^. and immediate retainer, of the archdukes, archduchesses, I Empire?while the two hundred, old families of title and influence generally send torth from the Heart of tbe city a grand array 01 beauty and talent aneh as few cltfes In the world can produce. But in the walka and driven ot the Prater itseir Is centred the chief Interest to the foreigner. The whole uni verse, as it were, passes be'ore him. Here mar bo seen the representatives of the far East, walking singly or In small parties; the f'arsee, with metre Ulte hat and sombre shit of black; the Persian merchant, with much stutellness of mien, crowned by his turban and loosely clothed in his flowing robe and bagged trowsers; the proud Turk, with his inevitable cigar ami hideous looking costume, gorgeous in jewels and silks; the vivacious Italian, the calculating Kussian and the witty Parisian, while the bland, consequential Cockney, the far seeing American and the lii^h breu German proper make up a picture ana a confusion of tonsnea scarcely ever to be met with elsewhere. It in a grand oosmopolitan paradiig giound; a panorama that conveys at a glance it flood idea of the people and customs of the most important nations or the earth. The Exhibition Building. Tbe Bmperor, impressed with the immense pop* larlty of the Prater, gave his consent that the ex hibition buildings should be erected there, believ ing probably that no better place could be lonad where tne material, wealth and prosperity oi the world could be exhibited. Tho main nave or great central palace of industry is nearly three thousand feet long, eighty-two icet wide, ruus almost di rectly east and west aud consists oi the dome and two wings. Each wing is Intersected by eight transepts' at light aueles, tnus making sixteen transepts 72 feet long, 4u feet wide by 32 feet high, which are again divided, giving thirty-two separate half transopts. Between each of these trausepta and hair transepts is a space which is termed a "covered court," which, in most instances, goes with tlie trausept proper and is utilizod by the ex hibitors ol that nationality next to it. The dome is in the centre of the building, aud is certainly a monstrous structure. The span measures 334 feet and 276 leet in height, the main root being what is termed the lrustriftn of a cone, and is sap ported by thirty-two immense iron columns, of fee box pattern, eighty-two feet hlirh. At the top, on the compression ring, rest the pillars that support the main lantern, the roof, wuicli again Is a frua trum, the sides being about parallel to the oone beneath. At the top of this second lrustrum is also a compression ring, apon which the supports for the little lantern stand. This lantern has a cupola-Closed roof, the apex bearing an imitation crown of the Empire, weighing several hundred weight. Scott Russell, the London engineer and archi tect, in cis plans for this mammoth structure, esti mated the iron girders, Ac., used in constructing the dome would weigh between two and three thousaud tons, but the Herman engineers and founders have added about two thousand tons to this estimate. The slant ol the cone is twenty three degrees throe minutes. The dome is fifty eight metres larger in diameter than that of St. Peter's, at Home. The stitleuiug girders irom the rim to the conc being visible from the outside the effect is anything but pleasant from the grounds below. The Inside of the roof is frescoed and decorated, the outside having simply a coating ot palut. In point of size and importance the machinery hall stands next. It is made up of a mam nave apd two smaller naves, miming parallel the entire length, but baviur no transepts. '1 his buildingUi 2,tk>0 feet long by 160 feet wide, aud Is Intended t* be permanent, as is also the dome of the main building, both have been solidly and carefully built, as they will serve as a railroad depot after tho close of the great show in October. The main driving shaft, of inches in diameter, sup plied by the Austrian authorities, rests on a high iron frame, lrom which the connections by pulleya are made for driving the machinery, tho brackets being of the American ball-and-socket joint pat tern. The remaining outbuildings are numbored on the map published to-day. THE EXHIBITION AT VIENNA IN 1873. The Emperor or Austria sanctioned an earl/ mi the Winter of 1871 flie project or holding an inter national Exhibition at Vienna in 187.1, and ap pointed an imperial commission to tarry out this project. The members of the commission held their la augural meeting soon after their appointment and issued their programme. His Imperial Higness the President, in his opening speech, congratulated the Commission upon t'lo auspicious event wliicii they were met to bring about. Two decadcs of years had elapsed, lie said, since Prince Albert, to whom. plTlllaatlon is so much indebted, first sug gested those peaceable contests of nations in arts and industry which are designated b.v the appella tion "international exhibitions,'' and which ma/ not be inappropriately compared to the Olympiads of the ancients. He rejoiced in the recollection that Austria had taken an honorable part ta the Exhibitions or London and or Paris, and thai ber productions gaiued lor her the exclamation oC their august Emperor, "I am proud of my Aus tria." lie pointed out the advantages to be de rived from this great social gathering, the stimu lus it would give to the various industries of the monarchy, and the elevating character It would have in connecting the nations of the world, and making the centre of Enrope the battle field of a rivalry in the peace productions of the earth. Imperial and Royal Aaitro>Hu|ariaa Com ml**ton. The following are the members of tbe Commis sion appointed by the Emperor:? PKOTKCTOR. His Imperial Highness the Archduke Charles Lewis. IMFF.RIAl. COMMISSION. president. His Imperial Highness tbe Archduke R?gnler. rtce Presidents. His Grace the First Grand steward of the Court of His Majesty, Prince de Hotaenlohe-SchiUtags nirst. His Excellency the Minister or the Imperial House and oi Foreign Affairs, Julius Count Andrassy. His Excellency the Imperial and Royal Ambas sador in London. Ferdinand Count de Beust. His Serene Prince John de Liechten stein. His Grace Prince John Adolphus de Sshwar zenberg. His Excellency Count. Alfred Potocki. His Grace Prince Atioiph von Auersperg. Member!* of the Commission. His Excellency the Great Chamberlain of His Majesty, Francis Count Fotliot de Crennevllle. Ills Excellency the Grand Marshal of tbe coart of His Majesty, Count .John de Larlscb-Moennlch. His Excellency the Graua Equerry of His Majesty, Count Charles de Grimne. His Excellency the Minister of Finances of ttte Empire, the Baron of Hulzgethan. His Excellency the Minister of War of tbe Empire, Baron Kuhn de Kuhneufeld. His Excellency the president of the Council of Ministers ror tbe kingdoms and States represented in Parliament, Prince Auersperg. His Excellency the Home Secretary, Baron J. Lea ser von Hollheimcr. His Excellency the Minister or Public InstratMon, Dr. von strelmayr. His Excellenoy the Minister or Justice, Dr. J. Giftscr* His Excellency the ( Is-Lett human Minister or Fi nances'the Baron de Prelis-Cagnodo. His Excellency the Minister of Commerce, Dr. Banhaus. llis Excellency tlie Manager of the Ministry for Agriculture, the Chevalier J. de Chlumecky. His Excellency the Minister without portfolio, Dr. D"n?rChief Of the Ministry for National Defence, Colonel J. Horst. The Chlei ol the Naval section of the War Depart ment. His Excellency the President of the Upper House of Parliament, chevalier von Uopfen. Tbe Presidont ol tie Lower House or Parlia ment. His Excellency the President of the Imperial and Royal High couit of Justice, Chevalier A. de Sciimerling. The Marshal of the Province of Lower Austria. The Governor of Lower Austria, Conrad Buronot Eybesfcld. His Excellency the Commanding General la Vienna, Baron J. Muroiclc ui Madonna del Monte. The President of the crown Council or Law. The Burgomaster and Presidont of tbe Common Council ol Vienna. Dr. C. Felder. The Chler Commissioner of Police in Vienna, M. Lemonnicr, Aulic Counsellor. . The President or the Imperial and Royal Academy or Pine Arts of Vienna. , The President ol the imperial and Royal Academy of Science of Vienna. . . The Director of the Imperial and Horal Plots*# Uallecr at the UalvoUvro*

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