Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 2, 1873, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 2, 1873 Page 3
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One of the Greatest Surveys of Modern Times. Tbe Viceroy of Egypt's Proposed Rail road to the Equatorial Regions. Elaborate Report of the Great English Engineer, Hr. John Fowler; From the Second Cataract of the Nile, Along the Bank, Across the River, Traversing Deserts and Terminating at Shendy. Ships and Steamers To Be Hauled Two Miles Overland. A Road 889 Kilometres Long, with 66 Engines and 1,100 Cars. THE BRIDGE ACROSS THE NTLE. An Enterprise Costing Twenty Million Dollars To Be Com pleted in Three Years. The Earthworks, Permanent Way, Viaduct, Arches, Telegraph Lines, Stations, Boil ing Stock and Engineering. A Journey of Sixty Days Re duced to Fifteen. NOVEL FEATURES OF THE ENTERPRISE. The Vast "Wealth that Will Ac crue to Egypt. THE FUTURE EMPIRE OF KING COTTON. An Exhaustive View of the Re sources of the Soudan. Traits of the Native Pop ulation. A NEW ROUTE TO INDIA. Hi* lltnuNsss thi VirKBOY? Viwn???.' What is there In Korthcrn Africa tolusllty the building of these 175 mile* of railway ? All the products of fndln can ho irrnwn tlierv and worked there. The cultnrabl* land m million* up.m millions ot acres: tfev noil is virgin, and oncu it ruil vuy passes through It and the Interior commerce must spring up; peoples now remote and unfriendly to each other will In- bound in amity iiml mutual inti rest h.v tiro rail; a general contact aad dispersion will ensue : money and matermi prosperity will arrive, and then (said Hi* Highness, wttli a alow ot pleasure and a burst of elo quence)? then behold niv corner of Africa' A railway will conrecl tlie Nile with the Red Sea. The name In fluences which have, brought prosperity to the doors of ihe humblest fellah In Lower Egypt to-day will Invade the Hondan w.th the locomotive, and the races you have wen in savagery and poverty will. 1 trust, in ten years become a tkritty, united community ? ? ? ? I shall build the road ruule que cuute. I only await the su rveyn, and then the operation# shall begin.?Interview of n HkraLO Correntuntlant with the Vie*run of Etjypt, August 1873. "I am gratified," said he, "that you have come anion? ?s. The world has forgotten Africa, anil the name of the Soudan is not known beyond Egypt, and even there its fertility is disbelieved. You have seen tor yourself what there Is, and you can write to your great journal what our future must lie. Do you see that splendid soil (point ing to the plain stretching hack to the Interior) r We have more than IWu.lKW.IWO ot acres ol such soil. I shall begin at once to cultivate. I have no machines (cotton Kins), hut when tney are sent I am positive, with the sup port of Lower Egypt that 1 can produce a revenue In a jew rears amounting to ?S.MKW.iHlO, und the Soudan, de veloped to its lullcst extent, thoroughly irrigated, with a trood administration. Is capahlc oi producing 40,twu,ilu) bales of cotton ot the American size."?tntervitw nf a H KKALD enrrtvprmrlent irith the Gorernor General r*f the tiuuilan, at the tiretylh ilri/ree of i.orfh latitude, March 19,' 1S7_>. hum men et leu dff'Lires out icur jHliut de Jierrpectii'e. lit/ Hi a eju 'il /ant r'rir ite fjrt* [>nur en bien jw/er, el (V atUretdout on ne jiu/e jamais li bien <jue '/nuu l un ent iIviijitt.?Kociik voccAi'Ln. The Viceroy of Egypt hits fulfilled his promise? tlie long projected railway to the Soudan is about to be undertaken. Tills magnificent enterprise, preceded by telegraphic lines which now reach almost to the heart of tne African Continent, is a project which has few parallels in history. It is but another example ol the lofty purposes of the illustrious Ismail I'aclia, who has linked the Ked Sea to the Mediterranean by the Sues Canal; who has lined the shores of the Mle with vast sugar plan tations and refineries; who has made a garden spot of 3,000,000 of acres of desert soil in the Delta provinces; who has rendered Alexandria a second Venice In tke dynasty or Kastorn cities, and who lias changed the squalid and iilthy character of Cairo to the dignity and elegance of a European capital. It requires litlie introduction to this vast scheme in order to impress upon the reader that, succeed ing Sir Samuel Baker's expedition to the Eqnator, It Is the first practical attempt to develop the isolated but productive regions of the Atrican tropics. In our day there is no use of discussing; the opening nnd civilization of new and barbarous countries without laying down the (lesoierata? telegraphs and railroads. Caravan progress has long been the bane of the East, but the present Viceroy has Dcen the (irst to {tut his foot down and eay, ??1 MUST IIAVE, 1 Wtl.I, ItAVE RAItnOATW.'' Physical obstacles alone have lonir prevented him from laying the rail to the accepted sources or the Kile, and these obstacles have been of a nature and an extent that lew can appreciate who arc not familiar with the Valley of the Nile from the ?ea to Khartoum, the capital of the Soudan. The general character ot Africa's snrface reuders any HCheme of engineering not only very expensive tout also dlttlcult to accomplish. IMPEDIMENTS. Speaking at large, the continuous flow ol water In the river Is Impeded by rocks and cataracts, ? aud the Immediate country surrounding these oli ntxuctlons will not always permit the construction or ship canals; the deserts are vast and mountain ous; the arable land Is higher thau the level of the Nile; fuel Is scarce for steam engines and river navigation ; skilled labor can only be obtained by Importation; there are no native Instruments or engineers; and every effort, made with the popula tion is one addressed to people who care as little for progress as they do for missionaries. Hence every attempt made by the far-seeing Viceroy to push his dominion fartucr into Central Africa has l?een accompanied by all the evil results which these numerous drawbacks necessarily engender. If his purpose had been a railroad to the city of Mexico or to the raclflc, as from New York, to him it would be as easy a problem as for ourselves. But his subjects differ from Americans, In that tney are hampered by a religion opposed to a general commingling of the peoples, and teaching * leisure and an Indolence sadly at variance with our Ideas of Industry and thrift. With us an idea has ruled, and that Idea?pro jgw, Willi Egypt a IBM UM ruled. aqU mat man tile Viceroy. Take away the whole generation now existing and prevailing In America, and material program would march on unfettered; but let the Viceroy die ana the high order of improvement that he has Inaugurated would relapse. It la to him, therefore, tnat those Interested In the fate of that continent must look for a revival of the an cient glory and prestige of Egypt. IN ALL Bid KNTBRPRISRS the Viceroy has constantly sought the co-operation of European skill. No traveller of note who has ever visited his domain has been permitted to de part without having been invited to give his views as to the best means to modernize and elevate Egypt. Mechanics, engineers, soldiers, writers and statesmen have laid before His High ness their impressions and examinations, and where he has found them in the least degree practicable they have been reduced to writing and preserved in the archives of the Ministry. It has be> n his constant habit to demand accurate infor mation; to listen to new ideas and once, in posses sion of these, to place them in the hands of thor ough and competent engineers for surveys and re ports. In this way he has availed himself of the finest talents and the ripe Judgment of the respon sible and experienced travellers who go to Egypt for serious purposes. The tourist who lands at Alexandria, prepared to do the journey up the Nile, is not the average individual found running around the capitals of Europe. The trip is too expeusive and surrounded by too many impediments. Hence, when it is decided to go to Egypt, a purpose other than that of ordinary sight-seeing is generally in view. Thus for years the Viceroy has been receiving and dlgestlug the Ideas of the best miuds of the world, so that he has become thor oughly informed npon the abundant resources and the necessary improvements required to develop them. After bringing 3,000,000 of acres of cotton and sugar lands to the highest degree of cultivation In the Delta provinces, where he and Said Pacha have constructed more thftH eight hundred miles of rail way; alter intersecting this beautiful territory with navigable und irrigating canals; in line, after having provided the entire population with the meaus ol a generous subsistence, he now turns to tlic Soudan, more than a thousand miles in latitude from his capital, and resolves to connect that iso lated population, variously estimated at irom 7,000,000 to 25,000,000 (lr the White Nile be included), with Cairo by means of the rail. It is in itsell a matter of seme surprise that tlie Viceroy has been enabled to govern that Central African territory as well as he has governed it since lie ascended the Viceregal throne. From the capital ol Lower Egypt to the capital of the Soudan it is a journey of two months. The Soudan, in addition, has been a penal colony, and the retreat of the worst class or irresponsible Levantines, guilty of all classes of crime. His gov ernors and officials have robbed him of his rlnht eous revenues; the Arab tribes have been the victims of oppression and corruption, and all the provinces have suffered from misrule of the most baneful character. As General Grant wisely re marked In lils last Inaugural address, the aston ishing facilities for intercommunication and travel have rendered government comparatively easy throughout the world. It is because the Viceroy wishes to control the Soudan irom Cairo and place the inhabitants under Ills immediate protection that he is determined to build tlita railway, cOute <jui cCute. MR. JOHN FOWI.KR, TI1K CONSULTING ENOIvEER. Mr. John Fowler, who was invited by His High ness to prepare complete surveys of a railway to the Soudan, Is one of the most eminent members of his profession. It is generally conceded that he is in no sense an enthusiast, but bases ail his reports aud recommendations on accurate sclentlflc knowledge alone. To be called by the Viceroy of Egypt to undertake the solution of problems which might well render the most eminent authority diffident is in itseir a high honor. Mr. Fowler has not hastily uiven an opinion, but, after visiting the Nile coun tries himself aud alter employing an able eorps of assistants, he has collected all the information submitted to him and has prepared an exhaustive report, which has undoubtedly met the Viceroy's fullest approval. It should bo borne in mind that man.v engineers Imve sought means oi rendering the Nile navigable by blasting the cataracts and by ship canals, but that no ono has yet prosecuted the severe Inquiry which Mr. Fowler has so happily complete*!. It is Mr. Fowler'B report which has suggested the pres ent article. GENERAL FEATIUKS OP MR. JOHN FOWI.RR'S REPORT. After a brief introduction, describing the circum stances under which he undertook the survey, Mr. Fowler proceeds to recommend? yirnt?X railway from Wady llaefa to Shendy, 889 kilometres long. 4 SeconH?K ship insline at the First Cataract. Third?A bridge across the Nile. Fourth?The avoidance or all construction In volving tunnels and rerrles. fifth?The construction or the entire railway In three years. Sixth?The estimate of the cost is $20,000,000. Accompanying the report is the map showing the construction already completed, including that which is necessary to make the communication complete between Cairo and Khartoum. The rail way is already In operation ror twenty miles above Koda, making a continuous line or more than five hundred kilometres rrom the Mediterranean due soutnward. Between Roda and the First Cataract it Is proposed, for the time being, to continue to move all products, merchandise and passengers, by the Nile to the First Cataract, which is about nine hundred miles distant Irom the Mediterranean when following all the tortuous windings of the river. At the First Cataract vessels are to be hauled overland, up a ship Incline, a distance or three miles, and again launcned 111 the placid waters above the rapids. Thence tliey will pursue their voyage to the Second Cataract, at Wady Haifa, when further navigation Is impossible because of the obstructions In the river. Then the Soudan Hallway begins, and, following the great bend or the Nile, It crosses tlie proposed bridge at Kohfc, and, keeping along the river bank, diverges at Dab'be into the Bahluda Desert, which It traverses, terminating opposite Shendy. NATURAL ATTRACTIONS ALONG THE ROUTE OK THE PROPOSED RAILWAY. It is hardly necessary to give a detailed descrip tion 01 tin- wondeifrfl attractions before reaching the First Cataract. They are almost exliaiiatless. Temples or the grandest proportions; obelisks bearing Inscriptions recounting the history ot ancient Egypt; tombs and mausoleums containing the rennttns ol kings and warriors of the remotest periods; sugar plantations, and tlie still Interesting and vivacious iJaliwa/.ce, who make so much scandal for travellers' books, arc among the bright pictures of the gloomy river banks. The trip over the cataract, when your "Onhabeah" Is hauled through dangerous rocks and made to navigate perilous rapids, is a scene no one forgets who has paid the necessary tariff or }6o and submitted to the native yells for ?'barkxhich." From t.ne First Cataract, through Nubia to Wady Haifa, is the HMt section of the Nile travel ever performed by the tourist. He who goes beyond must pierce the hot lands of the Nubian Desert and prepare lor a long camel Journey to Berber, distant 426 miles. From Wady lulta or the Second Cataract, then, the railway will commence and push southward along the bank of the river. We will accompany Mr. Fowler Hi the route he has surveyed, supposing we have bought our ticket to Knartoom, and will take a brief business trip to the Equatorial regions. Starting from Wady Halla, | we reach, in a lew minutes the foot of the Second Cataract, and after winding among tl?e rocks along the river bank we arrive in hair an hour at the station near Sarrus. Leaving this point behind us we enter the Mohrat Desert, and for another half hour pursue a tortuous and undulating course between rugged mountains rising precipitately on all sides, and across wild gorges, through which tronlcal flood waters occa sionally rush with violence; then emerging from the desert, we arrive at the station near Amblgole. Following the river bank, a number of large, iso lated rocks, like pyramids, rise ahead of us, and we make a second run across the desert, where we have occasional glimpses of the Nile; and alter pass ing the station at Akaslia we go up for a third time the rocky ridges of the desert. Hero the mountains are loftier than hitherto, one on the o?po4ite bank of the bill being remarkable for iu THE LOWER NILE. Map Showing the Projected Line of Railroad and Other Improvements. Scale of Miles SALEM lumivtU JBouluc Beni#ooef Minichl Kudu Th" Brothti taiostsclr V rnOPCSED SHIP 'HCUN?<f*8SOUAN K,(irOskO oMECCA Sccond cataract, ( Hcinuth JJr, HALFA Aboi>Il?mmcJ Banncl SUAKIN Dabbt^fc^Ambult ol ram<lal SHENDY ' SLAND El Iladjlr AS80WAH KHARTOU Kui-ula^ MTAi O E v'AbooKharrazC l| Cob be ?B. s 1 N T A! "X^GONDAR N OBEIO iMkc Dcnibea' i TAKALI Lou^iimle E. from Greenwich. rounded sides and projecting sandstone cap. Once more on the river's bank, we keep near the villages and patches of cultivated land, and speeding by the station at Ammora, we cross t he Nile bridge at Kohfe, some four hours after ttie time of our start from Wady Ilalfa. Leaving Kohfc anil the Nile, we pass for an hour across undulating ravines and sandy plains of the aesert, again reach ing the Nile near the caravan station at Fakir Men der. Passing near the river's bank through culti vated districts we reach the capital of the province, Dangolo. Our route now lies along the bank of the Nile, across sandy plains studded with mimosa clumps, to Handak, and thence onward to Dabbe. We have arrived at the termini of the caravan routes from Kordorau and Darlur. Another hour's ride across an alluvial district, thickly covered with Haifa grass and shrubs, and we pass Ambukol. Leaving the Valley of the Nile and crossing the Great Hahludn Desert, we drive forward during live hours to our final destination, Shendy. We meet nobody, and we want nothing, not even a drink for the panting locomotive. We pass all varieties of desert vegetation running along the southern bank of a long valley. After traversing plains which, during the rainy season, resemble lakes, we may encounter lofty columns of line sand, which arc always harmless. Thus we arrive at Shendy, the southern terminus of the railway, and a Soudan cltv, now famous for the cruelties of Sick Nlnner. What more deligiitful ride could we wish than this, through wild and desolate regions, sometimes passing the ruins of Itoman civilization, sometimes encountering the warlike Bedouin on his swiit hijeen 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LINE. Mr. Fowler has spent much time in elaborating the details of the enterprise, and in the gauge and general character of the work he speaks with accu racy. The exact width of the narrow gauge which has been adopted in India (or luture railway ex tensions is three feet three and one-quarter inches. Ou the vast level plains and valleys where the nar row gauge extensions will be chteily made, the gradients will be extremely good, and therefore light engines and rails may be employed. On the

Soudan Hallway, where xradients 01 one In fifty must be adopted to economize the cost of construc tion, great advantage is found in the few inches of additional width of gaage between three feet one aud three-quarter Inches and three feet six Inches. The Norwegian railways, which have been worked for Home years with great economy and success, have a gauge ol three feet six inches. It is proposed however, to use a heavier rail than has been adopted either in Norway or India, so as to procure greater strength and enable mere powerful engines to be employed. The dimensions and weights are as follows:?Gauge, 3 feet 8 inches: Iron rails weighing fifty pounds per yard, with Iron sleepers and fastening of proper proportion; max imum Inclination of gradients, one iu flity; maxi mum radius of curves, r?oo feet. It is proposed to have no rock cuttings and the excavations will be inconsiderable. Mr. Fowler believes that the entire construction can be done by the Kgyptlans. The line , is divided into four parts, thus:? A' fhmrtrr*. Part 1?Wadv Units to Kofi.' 25f Part 2?Rlv?*r croMinx ? Farts?Koh<' to Ambukol 34tf Part 4?Ambtiivl to dlisiuly jsi Total Ihe railway involves no difficult engineering work of any nature. It Is always kept near to the Nile, passing through villages and cultivable terri tory, In order to make It available for way travel and transportation By this means It is hoped the desert Bedouins may be induced to hive on the banks of the Nile and build up handsome and popu lous cities. In all cases the engineers have avoided mountains and depressions. TIIE NOVEL SHIP INCLINE AT THE FIRST CATARACT. The great engineering feature of the Soudan Railway Is the plan by which Mr. Fowler proposes to move the shipping around the hirst Cataract without a ship canal or channel. It will be In teresting to know what onr Amorlcan river en gineer* have (9 say evueeraio/t luu ooral expedient. Mr. >Jwler describes his plan as follows:?I propose to use the me chanical power of the descending water of the cataract to draw the boats along a ship incline overland, between the top and the bot tom of the cataract. To accomplish this upon the right bank of the river there will be constructed a ship railway about three kilometres south of Assou an, and terminating at the top of the cataract In the harbor of Shellal, north of the Islands of Higgln and Phllcc. The boats to be transferred from one end of the cataract to the other will be floated upon a suitable carriage or cradle, constructed to run upon the ruilway, and will be hauled overboard by powerful hydraulic engines of about four hun dred horse power, placed near the centre of the railway. These euglnes will be safe ami manage able, not liable to derangement, and of a class already largely erapleyed by myself and others with success for drawing loaded wagons at a low rate of speed upon railways. The water to work the engines will be jumped up at a high pressure by a pair or large stream wiieels, carried upon pontoons and driven by one of the smaller rapids at the lower end of the cataract. A convenient alto will be found near Shayl for the erection of workshops, wharves and other conveniences. The total length to be traversed by the l>oats overlnnd will be 3,6*7 yards, or about two miles, and the speed will vary from four to eight miles an hour, according to the weight ol the boat. Tue machinery will be suffi ciently powerful to haul steamers as well as loaded boats over the incline. The cost of the ship Incline, machinery, workshops, wharves and all expenses required to complete the work ready for traftlc will be fl,ooo,ooo, and I am of the opitiien that the entire work maybe completed in one and a half years from the time of Its commencement. The effi ciency and convenience of this proposed ship in cline for the object contemplated are indisputable, and Its cost In comparison with its advantages small. It should, If possible, precede the Soudan Hallway, so as to (rive Increased facilities for gen eral intercommunication and fer the transport of men and material. Mr. Fowler's plan Is cerrainlv a bold one. and it is worthy of study as applicable to our own Ameri can rivers. A Mil DC E ACROSS TOT NILE. Dnring the survey it was observed by the engi neers that a! Koliii an irregular ridge of rocks extends a considerable distance across the Nile, with a deep water channel near the centre, afford ing considerable facilities for the erection of a bridge. A chart of the river was therefore pre pared. and these with ether particulars were sent to Mr. Fowler, then at Assouan, and decided that there was the proper point to cross the Xile to the left bank. *nbseqaent surveys have also been nude in order to determine If a steam ferry would not be more practicable, but the original plan was found to be the best and least expensive. The erection of a bridge has, therefore, been decided upon, and in those deserted regions, where an engineer has done no work lor 2,000 years, it will, Indeed, be a curious spectacle to find the mighty river spanned by a work planned by the moat eminent of Eng land's engineers. Ambukol, where the river's bank is unchangeable, aitd where the ancients have left remains of a pier of masonry, Is the point of di vergence across the HoMuda Desert. An excel lent harbor exists at this point. In all the terri tory contiguous to the Bohluda Desert there are rains left by the ancient Ethiopian Empire. Too remote for travelling arclueologlsts and too unwholesome for scholars like Mr. <Jeorge Smith, rich qualities of historical lere lio burled In shal low grlves throughout tills territory soon to be included within tho zone of civilization. kstihat* or TIIK COST. The estimates for the construction of this railway have been very aarefully elaborated* They Include outlays for the purchase of material In England, Its carriage to Alexandria and unloading thert, freight from Alexandria to Cairo by sail and carriage by river to Wady Haifa; for the Nile bridge at Koh<S for viaducts, arches ana culverts, /or a new tfie graph Hue, far stations and workshops, including water stations in tlie desert and for rolling utook, comprising sixty-six engines and 1,100 carriages. Every incidental expense is included, not except ing the item of engineering and superintendence, which comprises draughting and preparations ol all necessary designs. The general summary of the estimate U iu the following flgares:? Per .Vitf. Knrthwork $l,a)),720 S-U I'erinunclit way l3,C-'.5<>0 Nile l>ri<lK?' 1,IK:,7'hi 1,1130 Viaducts and bridges ... tilfi.uyi 1,115 Ti-ircraplm 2J3,fl#l 4<>ft Station-. *<? 897.??> l,ti2? KulliiiK >1ock 1,860.825 2,?U ? Enititu-erini.', Ac 77#..1.4U6 Total expente *- i,120,990 $3ti,i74 In ttic "cutting to oank" there is but 29,0<?o cubic metres of hard sandstone, schist and basalts, and 23,ooo cubic metres of trap granite rock, of por pliyiitlc or motaniorphic types, and quartz; and in "cutting to spoil," '?1,000 cubic metres of Uani sandstone schist and basalts, and is,000 cubic metres of trap granite rojk, of porpliyrltic and metamorphle types, and quartz. RESOt'KCKS OK Til K lODDiN. Mr. Fowler naturally shrinks from attempting to give, in accurate tlgares, the resources oi the sou dan. As h?s assorts himself, they are practically without limit. The ciiier traffic which may be ex pected northward, however, nttsr the establish ment of tue railway will be in grain, sugar, cotton, gum, senna, dates, eoony, skins, aromatic woods, potash, gold, Ivory, ostrich fanthers, aulinals, nints and negro laborers; and the traffic to the Equata rlal regions will be in cotton goods, machinery, cutlery, tools, tobacco, furniture, coffee, rice, earth enware, beads and lire arms. Figures prepared under the eye of the Governor General at Khartoum, and in our possession, give the actual resources now available in the Soudan. Th'ey are as under:? Two productive states, each larger than France. Two hundred millions of acres of cotton, a afar anil grain lands. A seml-eivillz :d population of fl.OOO.wvi souls, A semi-ctvlltzed population variedly estimated at from twelve to thirty million souls. A climate unequalled during eight months or the year. Blasting the cataracts already b gun. A telegraph line to Cairo In worlcfcig order. One million live hundred thousand camels. six millions of beeves aud sheep witinut num ber. Ten steamers. Four hundred barks. A navy yard at Arbah Island, twelfth degree North latitude. six thousand soldiers. Infantry; 2,500cavalry. All the trades and Industries represented by for eign mechanics. The port of Sunkln and camol routes delivering by tho Nile and Red Sea. Two million acres already under cultivation by durrah, corn and melons, Ac. COMMERCE BETWEEN THE SOl'DAM AND LOWElt com, Mr. Fowler says:?"Aasualng the working ex penses of th" Soudan Hallway to be sixty per cent of the gross receipts (which is seven per cont higher than the average working expenses of all the Indian railways) It can scarcely be doubted that the iraiflo from tfco local aud through sources enumerated will yield a satisfactory return upon the small cost of the proposed railway. Under any circumstances a large increase to the national wealth ol Kgypt must necessarily follow such au opealng up of Its undeveloped resources, one of the uatlonal benefits which will be conrcrred by this great work will be tie facility of transport ing, under proper regulations, the surplus labor from Equatorial Africa to the cultivated districts of Egypt. * * ? In conclusion, I think It my duty to state how well the orders of His Highness tho Khedive were carried out, In tho assistance which was always afforded to my surveyors by e^ery official between Cairo and Khartoum. * ? Not a single quarrel or unpleasantness or accident occurred throughout the whole period or conduct ing this great survey. At preaeat trade U) tt$ soriaa labor? under nnj embarrassments. The province of whteh Khartooin is the capital has been made to pay the expenses of sir Samuel Baker's expedition. Hence there la not now over $2,000,000 In com in the en. tire region, while the proprietorial value i? esti mated at $50,oou.ooo. Hut labor Is abundant, and the annual yield of ivory and gum aontlnues un? diminished. CONCLFSIOM. Egypt '8 the strongest power In Africa. In fact. It Ih the only one possessed of geographical posi tion, vast extent of Interior territory and naviga ble streams, together with treops and officers suitable to the sultry climate and vast deserts. With Egypt, therefore, must begin the civilization or that continent. Though we may deplore the fact that It Is iMalioinmedan conquest acquiring new peoples and rich countries, we must remember that It is not the Saracenic innuence which desolated Southern Europe centuries ag", and by which all mankind might have been repeating to-day the single phrase, "There is but one Hod and Mohammed is Ills prophet," had there been no such man aa Charles Uartel. Moslemism has progressed with the age. The locomotive has soltened the jealous, vindictive nature of the Arab, and where Bruce found himself a solitary wanderer in Lower Egypt nearly a century ag?, without welcome or co-opera tion, we And Europeans In authority and influ ence. I.uok at the map of Africa. No other Power has penetrated more than skin-deep Into the Contl neut. All settlements?French, Portuguese, Dutch, English and Spanish?are purely coast colonies. Hut with Egypt it Is different. Mohammed* All, near the beginning of our century, had led an army almost to the Equator, and had the mouey he spent in making war la Syria, under Ibrahim 1'aclia, been devoted to tbe development of the Soudan, there might have been a very small ilcld Indeed for African exploration now. Hut It Is not alone in the fact that the Viceroy may fairly claim nearly one half of Africa, but that bis domains are drained by the matchless Nile and governed by such Invariable meteorological laws that Egypt may fairly be said to be the only country in the world where you can sarely foretell the morrow. In whatever direction, therefore, the Viceroy is the natural master of Africa, and the religion of which he is a temporal and a liberal head In Egypt Is best adapted to tho negro, who never believes In ouo wife or In a for mulated system of theology manufactured by men learned In the universities and skilled in Hlbltcal polemics. His railroads, with a single exception, are the only ones in Africa; his Jurisdiction now exteuds to the Equator, and the bound* aries of his empire luclude a territory 2,000 miles from North to South and 800 miles from East t.o West, which sis tains nearly thirty millions of people, civilized and savage. What an liuluence It will give to Africa when the locomotive pushes through this neglected and lorniikon continent! What nay not be the sit uation of the 70,000,000 of people who Inhabit one-tlftli of the territorial surface of the earth when the journalist sits down in the year 1,000 to recount the principal events of the expiring cen tury! Will not people begin to wonder that, while a man may travel around the world In nluety days, there are still millions and Millions of people in the heart of great continents whose very namea are unknown ? Let us acknowledge that this rail road of the Viceroy Is the llrst practical attempt to solve the mysterious problems which daunted the Cicsara and Ptolemys, and have ever since perplexed the curiosity of the scientific world. Tracing It to a natural end, we may live to see locomotives rushing along the line of the Equator, a busy commerce on the Albert and Victoria Nyanzas, and the rail pushed southward to the Cape of Qood Hope. We may behold the lazy negroes become thrifty agri culturalists. We may flod them abjuring heathen ism and embracing a responsible rcllglou. We may note the progress of medicine among them; that the naked have become clothed; that the roofless have become housed, and that Anally a disorderly continent has become of the the worthy habitations of man. The only continent which is an island, ami the only one where the*maln population is homogeneous because o! biood and temperament, standing across the highways to the East, with systems ol railways and great, Internal improve ments, there is no reason why Africa should not become one of the Uehls of sustenance for the i,tJf j.ooo.oooorpeople who dwell In the world. It may si uiii like adulation to assert that all this can be accomplished within the lifetime of the present Viceroy. Vet nothing Is easier. Every sea that washes an African shore Is white with steam ers and sail; Eirypt is within a week of nearly every capital 111 Europe; her resources are bosndless, ami the Khedive laughs at outlay, and even encourages extravagance. The report ol Mr. Fowler comes to us, therefore, at a moment when we arc glad to give generous space to his undertaking?oiie In which so many interests ol humanity and progress are conspicuous. It has always been the policy of this journal not only t* suggest, but to encourage every grand enterprise which promised well to our race. Hut lh the majority of instances when the FIkrald has been the advocate of projects now a successful part of the vast machinery ol this busy world, they have been purely American. Now wo go 7,000 miles from home, and oner to the Viceroy ol Egypt tho benefit of these columns, which have so oiten sus t.alned undertakings of the importance of which the world was entirely Ignorant. There is a flaring ami yet a wisdom cnuected with the Soudan Kail way which belongs to America. The labor and ex pense w!il h ii will In vol v? will be great, but the results growing out or I' operation will be greater still. Let us hope, therefore, that the present decado will not ciose before the tourist, driven from Paris by the winiry blasts or December, can, twenty days afterwards, enjoy a tropical \\inter on the borders of the sweet water lakes of central Africa. LITERARY CHIT-CHAT. The /'nil MM Gazrti,- points to Palmoraton* Brougham, Sir David Hrewster, Walter Savage Lan dur and Thiers as examphs of men who have got the most pleaissre out or life, and were still young as four-score years. It adds that "there are no better gifts, and none which lend kc >ner enjoyment to youtS, th'iu pugnacity, self-coniidence and vigorous animal spirits;" all of which were posscseu hy these octogenarians. Tiiomas ii. Dyer, who has written up Potnpell fur English historical students, will soon publish a new work on "Anci tit Athena, Its History, To pography and Remains.-' Tub Watering Pi.aci enthusiasm !s m.inirest in the almost simultaneous publication or two sep arate works 011 the "Isles or shoals." Mrs. Cell A Jhaxter's dainty volume gives ns the poetry or the litile islands, while Mr. .1. s. Jenness will publish a history of tnem, Illustrated with pictures and maps. Miss Emii.y FAiriiiTi.f. wiitglvcher "Impressions of America and Americans," through the house ol Wdama, Victor A Co., during the early Fall. NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. From D. Appleton & Co."The Mineral springs at the United States ami Canada, with Analyses and Notes on the Prominent Spas of Europe and a List or Seaside Resorts." By George E. Walton, M. D. From Lee, Shepard A Dillingham, New York "The Year." Hy D. C. Colesworthy. From P. O'Shea:?"Cardinal Wiseman's Works Essays." Two volumes. From T. H. Peterson A Hrothera, Philadelphia:? "Lorrimer LUtlegood, Esq." Hy Frauk E. Smeflley. From I)odd A Mead"yuestlona of the Day." By the Kev. John Hall, 1). D. Prom Sheldon A Co."Tho Anabasis of Xeno phon, with Notes, a Map of the Expedition and a Complete Vocabulary." Hy Asaliel C. Kendrlck, LL. D. A BOSTON BANK MESSENGER'S LITTLE RAKE, BosTO!*, Juno 1, 1873. The rne*?enfrcr of tho Revere National Hank, named Allen, disappeared last Thursdajr witn checks and draft* amounting to about fso.ooo, on winch he raised $?,ooo cash. What he did with the remainder Is unknown. It Is possible he ma? nave converted the paper Into money otherwise than at batiks. Just before leavm# the bank on Ihursday raorauift lie was informed ins ucrvicea wouiu not toe required tUoif alter June I*

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