Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 6, 1876, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 6, 1876 Page 4
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BELKNAP. The Question of Jurisdiction Before the Court of Impeachment. ARGUMENT OF MR. CARPENTER. Does the Power of the Court Extend to a Private Citizen ? KliPUT OF m MANAGER KNOTT. The Constitution and Its Refer ence to Such Cases. Washington, May 5, 1870. Trie Senate to-dty resumed the consideration of tho initios ol lmpeacbmout against W. W. IklUnup, lata Secret try of War. The respondent, with bis counsol, Messrs. Carpenter, lilack and liluir, und the managers on the purt of the House o! Urprettcnlutives beiug present, proclamation was m.ide by the Sergeanuat Arms, alter which tho minutes of yesterday's session wire read. AROUXKNT Or >IK. CAKI'KNTKIt. Mr. Carpenter, ol counsel fur tho respoudont, aflor referring to the argument of Manager Lord ol yester day and to tho pleadings in the c.iso Irotn w hich he quolod, said ho would endeavor to prove two proposi tion:? J-',rat?That article! of impeachment cannot bo en tertained against any private citizen in uuy case what ever, and Sfcimd?Where ariicles ol impeachment aro exhibited they must set forth every lact essential to coi:stiluto a crime impeachable; or, In other words, tlio cruuo und evury allegation ol (act necessary to give this Court Jurisdiction to hear and determine the impeachment. Ho would cuulluo his argument to le^ul questions, would be as brief as possible uud as "dry as a stick." There wore two tlilugs possiblu In reference to the pro visions in the constitution relating to impeachment. Ono was that the power of impuachmout was givon at 1 irge aud not qiialilied, restricted or deliued; the other theory thai the power of impeachment was conlinrd to olliccrs of the I'nltod States, and that tho Impeachment ran not against tho criiuo, but against the person wiio happened to commit the crime. Tho importance of judging accurately on this subject could uut be exaggerated. II tho former theory was main taiucd then every inhabitant of the United States, citi zen or alien, male or Icuiule, might be impeached at the bar ol the Senate for whatever the Senate for tho time being might i>eo lit to hold us u high crime and misdemeanor. Surely a Jurisdiction which would briug forth millions of pcopio to tho bur of this court was not to bo exercised without tho clearest warrant o( tho constitution Certain principles were always to be borne in miud in ill accusations on constitutional questions. Chief aulong these was that the government ol the United Slates, In uil its branches and departments, was ono of limited, though not of inlurlor power. If any power Claimed was not a granted pu *er, either by express words or necessary implication, it was not u power of this government. Now, under tho constitution, lUI'KACllML.NT WAS to ofllcora of tho Inderal government. I'uder Iho claim 01 the managers, President Jackson, il be wero still living, cuuld be impcacned by tlio tciinto for removing tho deposits ol tbe United States Hunk, and brought to tUc bar of the Senate. Would tbut be an impeachment of the President t The purpose in the con>titution was sot that curtain conduct should be subject to impeach mailt, but that certain persons wero, and those persons were described and designated by the do script ion of their oillce its liable to impeachment. '.i bald tho President should bo Impeached and ro Onved. In the ease of Jai ksun would that be uu itn p a liment ol the President ? It would bo at: Impeach nu nt ol a private citizen (or conduct at a former period of bis lite iu a public olIIcc. .Mr. Carpenter then showed tb it. .is lie conceived, the Iramers of the consti tution intended, as had li.'cu done iu Knglahd, to con tino Impeachment to certain enormous crimes aud lor the puuiKliiueut ol certain cxceptioual criminals so gri at in power and so steeped In wickedneea that tticy eon id not bo tiaudled by an ordinary tribunal of law. Iu the present cuse, however, the matters charged in Iho articles came clearly under a statute, and wore not crimes so (; thut they had crown and swollen be yond tho power ol a court of law. Mr. Carpenter pro ceeded to read .it length from the debates lu the Con vention which trained the constitution to show that in tlie opinion of a largo portion ol that body impeach tin nt was unnecessary, since lu a land such as this wbere ofllcers only held short terms, tho people could easily remove them by an adverse voto at the polls. Tho whole debate, he said, clearly by Impli cation had reference only to tlio removal by impeach inent ol act nilleors of tlio government. Kor exam ple, It was nt one time proposed that the Impeachiiietit should bo tried by tho Supreme Court, but it was ?greed that the I'residout, being in ollice, und exercla. tng the power of the Kxecutivo and having appointed the judges who wou'd in that euro try liim It wan tulor t> leave it to tlio Semite. It was to be notod, a'so, that the words "high crimes sad misdemeanors'* was ? su> Btitute lor the word "malndin iii-trailon," which Mr. Madison thought ?aa too ambiguous; ai.d Mr. Mud.sua Mid tl tlie word "mala .iniuiMraiiou" were lell it would make tho President the mero ser vant of Congrear, slaae they ?ould Impeach him fur unytli.nii they ohova. Thta showed the matters coatrinplated as tit auO)eeta ol impeai t.mout were to ? ome up to the standard of a deOalte ernue. He tuhn.lliel after an examination of the whole Ittaira it was clear beyond all controversy that the awa who I rained the constitution and submitted it to lb# people lor adoption never bad the slightest idea that any one hut a public officer waa exerto be no poached. The whole discussion showed that impeach mem was lutended as A ?'l Kit VfOX POWKH to lie exercised whllo the jiower was In existence. An individual who should enter iiko a c<>us|nracy against ' the ^ot eminent would bo boyond the power ol the j courts of law. The grand jury might bo dispersed by | k company ol rofUlura, ana. therefore, It was luces ? nary 10 lod^e this power ol impeachment in the Sen me, i wim hud power enough from the people to hold uuy ; oue iu check und imis sm me and prouct tho people ; Iroiu maladministration. Mr. McDo>ali?, oi Indiana, a-kid if the term oi office ' ?i the in ouaod should u rinmatu or expire ponding tho trial, would that opomut to diacoutiuuo or abate the c*ue r Mr. CAhi'KTtTKR said tint if lie was ri.lit In his argil went the only purpose ol an liupeat limcut was to re eiure a mail lion ollice. When the man was out of iifllee the suit would uc.i t, 'I h it wus tho only otyei i tor which the power oi impeachment was given. Sup { pose tho man committed sun ido while the trial ws-1 progresMug, would not that stop it 1 Soli he corn- 1 milled otticial suicide by rc?iguing the ollice, the pro.-e- | cution ha i ginue*i its cml. The disqualifying clause, as * penally, was put in to make impeachmcul elTectual a in i to prevent the President, alter an officer has been removed by Impeachment Irom restoring him to power. 11 kit on Ul bu uoivd that the whole di-cu?slon in the I'oiivciitioii was only In regard to the Kxccutive, and Ihe check upon him would not lie effectual It the morning atier a removal by impcitehinout had taken place the President returned the oilender to power. Judge Story said that the dis j qualititaima was not a neeeaaary itart of the Judgment. Wus tins court to go on iiiicl srtitem ? a dud alter ho : ivas officiully or physically deed* Wiiai a laree to re aiove a in >u iroiu office when he was not In office or titer lie had died aud j assod bey on 1 the Jurisdiction i ?I this < ourt. So far ax ihe eOvct u|*>u the su l was tom-erned he saw no dillereuce between a man's official or his nsuiinl deth. The saltabated because there w is no lurthi r motive to prosecute it There was not ? tingle writer wbe did not maintain that impeachment was intended lor punishment, not simply as a protec tion to tlie people agaiust high and dangerous powerivil offenders. Alter tins Senate gut through with mm the Man was handed over to tho tiran I Jury la meet the apiiropriate puaishnunt lor his crime, whatever It we, Mr. Uumtu.NO, oi New York, asked If tho gentleman made no distinction on the point of jurisdiction to try tu ttnpeachmcnl between lite case of tm ignation before srtich-- were fOund aud resignation alter articiea had bevu found! Mr. CtaeexrEa *ai<l there be a distinction lie tweeu tho cases, hut ho maintained that In both esses the proceedings loll to the ground. Oi course be might Be able to establi h one proposition and >et tail to es tablish the other. It did not follow, liee iuite a man was clem and clear nut of office i?y r. tnoval or by the < expiration ol bin term aud cuuld not he iia|?.iched lor that MaatNt that, thoreiure, a lesignation oi the oilitu (Iter articles of impeachmeui h>id ix'en lound would ead the pto-eeiitmii. They Wero dlllerent |ue-iu>ii?. He maiiitaioed the alTlrmative in l oth, ai it he thought If therealgnatnm to<ik place eveu In the midst of the trial the suit alxiiod, because the object sought to be .icritnipll-bed by the suit was aceomplished. The ? edoct which the resignation had was uot dependent apoii the motive who h dietnled it Ou motion of Mr. Komihos the Senate took a recess lor tweaiv mteutes. After reocs* Mr. CAKfiNTRB resumed his argumont aad further elaborated the po.nte in hia previoua re- j piles to Mention McDonuld and Cockling. Ha than quoted front tbu t'tileraliU and Judge Strong io (how mat lite jurisdiction i>f the Senate applied lo the oilico una uoi to lite person. He next referred to tliu lut peachmeal TlilAI. OK KX I'RKSIOEM JOHNSON, pr-tuclng 1ms remark* bv saying that this Court more limit auy oilier was bound by 11m previous decisions, lu ibat ca^-e the couusel lor the House ot Kcpnseuta lives claimed, its wan claimed by the coiinsol lor the delenoc now, thai impeachment was not intended as a Incui* of putiisblug a criminal, but ol removing trout oilico .m uudl or corrupt oltlciaL Such, also, was the uniform argument iu the opinions of such Senators as had tiled thent. lu support ot this statement Mr. Car pettier quoted from the opiuions ol Senators llowo, i.arrett Uavis, Sumner sml Kdmund?, and, continuing ln? argument, said ho uoarehod 111 vain tor a single instance in any Slate ol the Union where impeach ment bad lieou commenced against a man not in ollice. Mr. Carpenter quoted Ironi nuuieroua authorities lo show that fractions of a day could be noticed, and Mid he certainly hud not .supposed lliat It would bo nought to couvici the deiruduni or iliui the Senate would be asked to hold Jurisdiction on a legal llcliou. According lo the manager's present claim, II a man was sentenced by a court martial to l>e sttoi at two o'clock in lite day and the 1'rcaidcnl pardoued In in at leu o'clock in the morning he must still bo shot because the law rocog ni/.O'l no tractions of a day. Mr Carpenter uln. read authorities to show thai the motive ot an act was nol material if the act was Itself one which iho man making it had a right to luake. In conclusion, he said he had endeavored to show that, from the text of the constitu tion, from the debates ot me Convention which fhimed it, iroin the writings ol all those tuen most familiar with the times in which it was adopted. Irotn the com hicnutors accepted as authority in ovcry court of law, and from the nature and reason of the thing, the proceeding of impeachment was conllued to those holding otllco at the tluio when tbo impeachment was commenced. Ho believed a settlement of this qu.-stion was vastly important lo llio tranquillity of this great land. II we would avo.ii tho scencs and convulsions which shook tuo South American ataies we sliouiu lei this proceeding stop where Iho con.itilulion loll it. If II were held that a victorious party riding itito power on tho hot and fiercely rolling waves ol popular discouleni could not only cirry the administration out of power, but couhl also impeach them alter they were out, how long would It be before these trials, insioad of being, as thev should, tho rare romeay provided by the constitution lor euornious erimea, such as Be other court could handle and deal with, wero degraded lutu a mere partisan machinery, and the blood of u party bo ciaUo lo trieliln on the block as soon as popular disconteul ha I a them Irottt oilico r The responsibility laid upon the senate by mo decision of this question could uot Ito exaggerated. That decistou could uot be avoided, uud it would slaud as loug as the government ttseIC Altut MKXTOP XAXAUKK KNOTT. Mr. Manager Knott followed iu bohalf of the man ng< rs. lie said tlio real question before the Court was whether they exercised tho luuctious devolved upon them as the highest court known lo our government by virtue of a constitutional power, or merely at tho will aud pleasure of the accused. llo admitted that tbo lilouul case cut no flgure us an authority in this case, for it wus uot iu many respects parallel in lis conditions, the only case, in his Judgment, from which a legitimate analogy to tbu cose undur discussion could bu drawn, was the case of Judgo Barnard, In Now York, and thut, ho cluimed, supported tho position taken by the managers, tor the Court had there held that Bar Mid could bo iricd lor acts douo lu a former term ol olhee. Be contended that the meaning of tbo constitution was not to bo Judged Iroui what somo of the frauiers of it might have said ill the Convention, but by whut they did. l'hcro was not u solitary syl lable in any of tho provision* of tliu constitution which limited tho power of tbo Bouse ot Representatives to picfur, or ol the Senate lo try, articles ot impeachment as lo the linio duriug which the party accused shall rciuaiu in oilico, or to any other lime whatever. 'Iho tuauugcrs might concede, if they saw proper, that a person could oe Impeached tor no ollunco unless it was commuted while in ollice*, or tboy might oven admit that tlto oilouce mu-i bo under color of the otllco or iu some manner counected with the tin-charge ol otilciul duty. The very nto tucul the impeachable otleiice was commuted the guilty party, loo, became liuhlc lo Impetichmonl. There was not a word tn any ol tho provisions of tho constitution relieving liitn Iroui that liability upon tbo termination of lux ollice, whether by resignation or otherwise. The side had attempted to prove that you could uot disqualify unless you could remove. It was iruo that win u ou uiipeuclimeul uu oileuder iu ollice was convicted the Senate was bound to remove hi in, but uothiug iu tho constitution took away from the Senate tho power to disqualify, although the power to remove tuignt have bceu lakeu awav by the resigna tion ol me party. II tho oulv or tho most important object of an impeachment was simply tho removal ol an olllclnl criminal lioui office the argument of the other side would have some weight, but tnis tho man agers denied. At th e point if r. Knott s.iId that he disliked ex tremely asking a luvor ut tho hands of tho Seuule, but ho was sulloriug such physical pain that he must ask tor uiijouruiueut. Ou motion of Mr. Eoxuxns, of Vermont, the Sonalo, sitting ns a court lor tho trial of articles ol impeach ment, adjourned until to-morrow. POLITICAL x"OTES, Tho Worcostor quotes Jud,;o Hoar as saying re ceuily that bo would Jump out of a three story window to uiuke Urmtow President, or out of a two story win dow to mako Blame President. A Blaiue club has boon formed in Springflold, Mass., by colored men. It has a membership of seventy. Portland (Mi-.) Prtu:?'*If tho republican psrty only livei up to its lustory, and avails Itself of the glorious opportunities, It willcoinutaud tbo whole Independent vote." The Troy Times fays that Ttldeu's friends ara now claiming that although he may not got the St. Louis nomination hiui*ulf bo will still be ablo to sell tbo delegation from New York, body and brccobos, to tlie highest bidder, owing to tho instruction thai it shall vote as a unit. That, they urguo, will make him Sec retary or Siatn or SecroUry of tbo Troasury or Minis ter to England, iu thooveut of tbo olection ol the can didate with whom he bargains. Tbo Austin (Texas) Statesman thinks that Bayard's character will be of more avail than the machinery of political Intriguers. Louisville Vourur-Journal1"Bristow Js the only caudidatu lor the Presidency whose chiincoe wero ever Injured by a suspicion of his honesty." Tbo Athens ((Jo.) Watchman says:?"Lot the South unite on Bayard and the matter is sottled. It Is to the South that tbo democratic party must lojk for Its main strength and tho Southern delegations to St. Louis should *00 to it that a man acoeptablo to their constituencies be nominated." H] caking of tho approaching conventions, the Boston Aitwrtisrr soys:?"The republican party cannot afford to uoimnsto any obscurity and devote the chief work of the canvass to telling the country who he is. It cannot afford to take any 'make-shift' and pnt him in nomi nation as a 'compromise candidate.' Our candidato this year must be eminently fit for tho nomination and the office; and we don't bcliove tbo Conventlou will be turned away from men of this character, and give tho nomiuntion to sumo respectable mcdiocrlty, whose nomination would mean 'disappointment, apathy and deteat.'" The democrats might even nominate Mr. English, of Connecticut, and bo sure of getting tor him tho "regu lar party vote." Bat the Cincinnati Convention could not nominate a msn of that sort without bringing de struction upon the republican party. Tho Worcester (Mass.) Spy pays Its respects to Tildcn at follows:?"It Is Impossible for anybody to bean hon est and earnest supporter of political reform who puts forward Samuel J. Tilden as a representative reform leader. Mr. Tildon's political record kIiows that he is tint now and never has been anything moro than an unscrupulous politician and self seeker. His 'canal reform,' which has been talk, pretence and nothing cUn, was started to serve a political purpose. None of the canal robbers have been mado to disgorge their plunder; none of them havo been poalshed; he has not meant to have them punished; he bas meant only to have his porsonal followers talk of him as a "re former.' " Boston fftratd:?"Publisher McKce, of St. Louis, who was convicted u a member of the Whiskey Ring, and sentenced to pay a flno of $10,000 and go to Jail for two years, was a good specimen cf the political organist. He always supported the party. If there wa? any vice he detested and violently denounced it was bolt ing or scratching tho regular ticket. He wss a jour nalist becanse he wai a politician. His notion of run ning a party organ was to get 'Inside,' know the se crets that were worth knowing and share In the spoils. With him politics was a game, and his paper waa use ftil because it lnrrca*od his share of the 'swsg.' " INDEPENDENT LABOR TAHTY. Tho independent labor party held a meeting last evening in Masonic Hall, Thirteenth street, between Third and fourth avenue* It was not exactly an enthusiast to meettng?l>ut It was a very excitable one, tlie excitability, happily lor all concerned, beln* under great control Mr. William A. A. Carsey is the president ol this union, and he was acrused at a previous Meeting of having eullecivd moneys for the bencOt I <<f the association and of baring appropriated then to Ins owu U*e. The committee appointed lo in vestigate the case reported last night, and in their re port they stated til it Mr. Carsey h id collet-ted irom Mr (iHleou J. Tucker. Mr. I'vler Cooper ami otheis money to tho amount of |1M, which be hud not ac counted for. A long tight and n strong tight then ensued between | Mr. Carsey's friends and those opposing him. and It ' filially resulted in a new committee l*ing appointed to ! iuvcsiigate the matter. Mr. Carsey was supported by more itisn half the ! members present, and expressed himself willing at any I Ma* to account lor aay money received by huu. THE EXHIBITION. , Great Britain's Elaborate Display at the Centennial. WHY SHE SHOWS SUCH INTEREST IN THE EXHIBITION, The Relative Excellence of American and British Goods. A Walk Through the British Section. Philadelphia, May 6,187& It bogio* to be evident that do foreign nation in show ing *o great a patrlotio interest in tb? Centennial Kxhl bition as Ureal Britain. Certainly none will make more determined elforta to have a thoroughly representative exhibit. Her Commissioners seem to feel that manufacturers have peculiar reasous for oxbausting their rosourcea in the display at Philadelphia. Eng land seems to see tbat she is In danger of losing the control or markets where she has long relgued alone. At nil orcnts Amor lean manufacturers will dispute her supremacy, and the Philadelphia Exhibition will be tbe buttle ground of the friendly strife, in which will be settiod tho important commercial question whether or not America can successfully compete with Ureal Britain in many branches or manufacture. XXULAXD IS SUIWASSI.HO UKKSKLF Id tho character of tho goods she is seudlng for display. Her exhibit, tnough nut so large, will be liner than she has ever bolore made at any World's Fair. It bus been collected and examined with the utmost care, and for thoroughness and excellence will bo a magnificent In dustrial triumph. Mr. Archer and his colleagues ol the British Commission do not in the least boust of their work. On the contrary, they are diplomatically re served ; but In their dogged English way they hnve quietly achlevod a collection which cannot but win tho admiration of tho world. About seven-eighths of tho entire British and colonial exhibits have arrived In this country. Many of tho articles are still in boxes and cases which have not been unpacked or opened. But qulto a number are ready for exhibition; and enough ol the collection can lie seen to Justify tho highest an ticipations of its wealth and variety. 11SK 81*ACM IN THH MAIN BUILD!XU. In tho main building nearly one-quarter of tho entiro flour space is assigned to (irem Britain and her colo nies?Ureal Brltaiu having 51,770.3 square feet, Canada 24,070.8, and Australasia, India and other colonies 24,070.8. Tho British section extends from tho central truusepl of the main building nearly to tbe west wall or tbe building, Italy, Norway and Swodon occupying between thoin about 30,000 square feet to tbe west Of course it would be Impossible to givo at present any thing like n detailed description of the British display or even to do justice to the goods already in jiositlou there in tho spaco of a singlo nowspapor article; but it is instructive to ramble through tho Britiah section and noto thS more prouunont objects, passing by the Innumerable articles less conspicuous by their position or thoir novelty. English workmen are busily engaged ou all sidos. Exhibitors and their assistants am un packing boxos, cabinet makers and joiners are putting ?p cases, and coulnsion and noiso prevail on all aides. It is not easy to examine critically or to pause long to admiro a piece of iiua pottery or tnolal work without being in some artlsuu'a way and being told so, rather bluntly, iu an odd sort of accent. doxbub siiowcaris. The first peculiarity an American observes when lie treads upon British grouud is that the showcases sug gest tne establishments whore mourning gooda arc sold in this country. Tho wood-work Is invariably of a solemn black. Sometimes there is a delicate gilt bor der; a few cases aro richly decorated with gilt und carving; here aud there other colors aro very sparingly Introduced. When tho cases are tilled their sombre color probably affords the best contrast to tho goods within, but whou thoy uro empty the efloct of so maay tall, cannt objects?for uiost of them aro upright?is much tho same as a visit to a largo undertaker's shop where the cofflus aro kept standing ou end. When one beuoiucs accustomed to this darkLcss of color It is found to be restiul to tho eye and in infinitely bettor taste than tho majority of tho cases in tho American department. The British cases are solid, subslinlial and of chasto design, wlnlo those now Doing put up by our own exhibitors?oltcn moro expensive aud mad* of tho Uncst mottlod walnut aud polished woods?are generally loo florid In ornamental ion. British exhib itors ray that the cases from their country aro all mado by three famous houses in London, who make a specialty of maunlacturlng handsome work of this kind. DOfLlOM WARS. The Urged slug!* spaoe allotted in tho British aee- j Hon Is that of T. H. Doulton & Co., of Lambeth, man- j ufacturcrs of tho pottory universally called ''Doulton waro." 'tbolr stands cover 3.000 square iceu Nearly all tticlr goods are ready. Tbis establishment, which Ih fatuous throughout the world for km Hue work, t-onds nut' of tho choicost collections of all, aud certainly the tluost in its peculiar lino. The fatuous group of "America," in terra cutis, Is to bo piaccd in the centre of the Art Gallery. It ha* arrived aud been unpacked, but has not yet been sot up. Of Its thousands of fragile purls not one was injured, so carefully was it packod for transportation. Another of theso exhibits is a beauti ful dolphin fountain of elaborately ornamental Doulton ware, which has been placed in position in the coniro avenue of the main bulldi'ng It is ten feet high aid of beautiful design. Divided Into a number of sepa rate groups are manufacturing aud domestic stoucware. One group Is of largo jura, surmounted by a monster ho dtug -tMJ gallons; another is for chemical and scien tific waro; and another for plumbers and sauitary goods. A huge sogmcntal sewer plpo, nearly five feet In diamctor inside, which can be taken apart llko tho rtaves of a barrel, is also exhibited. The gems of this collection, however, aro In tho art work?ornamental china and potter), designed not only lor the tablo and the mauiei, but tiling for Hours aud for Inlaying in door panels, mantels, furniture aud walls. Tlicro are over 1,500 dillereul specimens Of Uiesi; alone. This exhibition of Doulton ware, showing tho many article* which can bo made of pot tery aud etiiua, nod tho innumerable uses aud orna ments It can lie put to, will certainly be one of tho great leaturos of the British display. MKTAI. WORK, Another prominent obloct is thn line metal work of Klkingtou It Co., where, iu a spore ul much less than ?joo square feet, will be goods valued at jftou.iK*) in gold. Tliesa handsome articles will faco upon the central rotunda, in the most conspicuous part oi the building. Their neighbors aro the case* of A. B Panlolt & Sou, ? who exhibit costly uud elaborate ornameuial CIIIXA WORK, whose goods were amoug the lira! to bo in position. I 1'ortcluin and earthenware uro ulso exhibited by T. C Brown, Wesihoad, Mooro it Co.. from Hanley, Mtallord shiru; Browulield .V Son, of Cobridgo, riurtordsbire, uud others. Maw & Co., of llroseley, Staffordshire, have a very pretty structure of cucausiic tiles uud mo saics, aud adjoining theui Craven, liuunell & Co., of Mirop.-h:re, havo a floor and wall of mosaic tiles. The Staffordshire potteries are well reprcsvuled, and such a ? display of ware was never beiore seen iu this country. 1 wo ,argo columns of polished Aberduen granite are the pTMMl most prominent representatives of old Hcotia Tbey are sent by MoDonaid, Field * Co., and Thoniaa Burner, of Abcidecn. IBII.X art work. A oouspieuou* object is a very elaborate iron lawn pavilkm. now erecting by Messrs. Kari.ard, Bishop k ' Barnard, ot the Norfolk Iron Works, Norwich, exhib itors or line art work In metals. This pavilion Is well worth a description in full. The details are thus given I in a technical description In the Norwich Mrrcury of | April Ih? J This pa\lllon. which I* intended for me upon a lawn, or oruaiuenWI irr -uiuN. is W Met long bj If feet wide by an fee loifh to tun extreme ridne It i? ntunmod upon a dais of four ?iri>?. It lia? two flour*, the upper of which U reached br * H>irel *talrea*e. It it supported by twrniv richi square i eoluKus placed two Teal ala laches apart. The uriiHtnenl In the stoalts of th*?e culumut is of a very rich and varied char 1 actor. At a hei.rht ul ?nen feel six inches frum the L'r.niiid j a trwnenia b*r connect* the column* Tlia lower vrrandu Is I ?ti;>ported by cam Iruu bracket*. lirnily necurrd to the col ' urnii*. The outline* ul theno bracket* are In all caev* allko, j ? bat the enrichment ul their tpamiril* I* varied by 1 ; ba? relief", the ?nlijeels of which are atudle* front I thn "A|'pla blei'Siim. with living bird?;" "White, then. ?itb pboatant*;" "he,itch Or, with jays;" "Hun- | flower;'' ?>*iitbemum. muds-n*, dai*y aad I irr***. with a crane and ri*in? lark." Ac, Ac. Thaae j I brackets farther mm.ort tha suiter and cresting of lower I ! root The i restiu* lurni* a wavy line, which i? xurmouuted ?t IntSrvals Ity lans richly carved, having lor their aubjeeta i atudte* Iroiu the ruse, honev?u<kle, chrvaantiientum, < hydrangea, Ac. Between each Catalan, beneath the I ; transom bar, is a flchljr carved pcn<lenti?e ornament fortsini an arch. Above the tr*n? m bar, aud be i tweea It and the an iter, are richly carved open I work key pattarn panel*. In which are Innueierable I aiedalllenaot \ ariou* design*. I>elii|i itadle* freiu hutterlile*, ! bee*, bird*. lUh aM many other i|uaiut and iceometitcal pal- { tern*. The upper floor I. surrounded bjr a Wroagbt iron bal cony railing, tour flaet high, of a light and aevere d-*lgn. ! etibltlng how nech grace can he produced b> mere ?tralght lines when they are propeily arranged. The oupir roof is 1 supported In IU I ant by tveau eelaataa el a sliailar i M(i to tba lower oml These m eonn*et*d by ? tr annum bar. above which Is ? rich open-work S*h *cale panel supporting the upper gmter. with creaiiuu and bat of alike character to the lower one* The bracket*, however, U|i?m these column* are of a different outline to the lower ?Ma, and the >piudrili are tilled with many deciifn* of a bolder character. Between each bracket, both upper *nd lower, b a richly oraameatcd eelling of a combined Moral and geometrical pattern, the chrt?anlheiuiim belug taki n a? .? type lor it* ornament. The ro<if (the raller* of which are or wrought Tee iron) i* covered ?>ih due, in curved tile*, aud ia surmounted by uu elaborately carved cresting. The facia and pendant ortiamuut heueath the balcony and overhanging the lower root I* of a quaint anil effective design. (<ue of the most important und novel feature* of tbi* work i( the railing which (urroumU the entire buildiug. TUi* i* lour lent aix inciie* high, and I* entirely of wrought Ircu. The minitower lia? been taiieu an a type r?r it* ornament. The railing has been divided into *eventy-two panel*, each of which i* oc cupied by a suutl-'wer three loot *i\ mche* high, the (lower Itself being eieteu incue* in diameter, having care fully veinel leave*. *ix ia number to eaeii Mower. The anpcaraace of tbU railing I* ol a inokt *tnkltig and unusual ctanclw, and as a piece ol w<rkiuan?bip I* unrivalled of It* kind. Waut of time lias pec tented tho pavilion being ttuialied In it* entirety, bat it i* iuteuded, when completed, to have a rich eeiliug .to the upper aud lower compartmeui* composed of eaat iron panel* in bus relief, and the upper (loor will be approached by an ornamental ataircaae in caat iron. While upon exhibition at I'liila lelphia the reiliug* and the upper portion of the wall* of thu interior will be covered by a allken cloth having rich embroidery upon it, specially deaignod by Mr. Jeckyil. CIICRCK OgCORATIOKS. Church decorauous, of baudsouie workmanship and beautiful design in brass, sliver, glass, enamelled |n>rco laiu, tiles aud wood are shown by sorerul exhibitors. Jaines dUooibrt'd & Co., of London, and other firms, have put up structures lor the display of art furniture. This display will be particularly interesting una attract ive. There come* irom Huston a statue <>t Christ, ia Derbyshire iilabastur, ami largo carved chests for val uable's. tioods iu iron, ciay ami terra cottu aro shown by Ivory Si Wood, ol West liromvvicli. The leading English makers ol tiles?Minion, Holllns & Co.?also send many exhibits. Tho perfumery exhibit will be u very pretty one, tho principal exhibitor* being J. & E. Atkinson. In trained glass iho exhibition will bo thoilnest England his over made at any international lair. Splonuid ipportunltlo* iut display are afforded by the large Windows over tho cuds and bides ol tho ) main building. Tne south centre gallery windows were assigned to England. anil the most lumotis Eng- j iish makers are sending tliotr best specimens, tho cou- : Iributions being so nuuiernua that nn extension of spaco j was granted. There will be an excellent chance to i compare tho English glass with the lar-lamcd German work, tho latter country having been assigned the windows ol tho west trout lor her exhibitors. OTIIKR KX llllllT.-. In the departments ol watches, clocks, scientific, sur gical and inatheiiiutical instruments, and in cupels, llro grates, lurnlturo and stationery, the display.* are going to bo good, as also in upholstery, glut-swam, stoves, silverware, woolleus, cottons. linens, uilisls' ; materials, in rends, yarns, poplins, luces, hosiery, gloves, jewelry, musical instruments ami leather work. Texilc fabrics especially will bo completely rep resented. Tllg LOS DOS GRAPHIC has erected an enclosure on tho walls of which are ex hibited muiiy of the origiuui designs ol their pictures, j which make It a very attractive exhibition, lu tho centre of tlioir space* there ;s a model ol the inuchine on wnich the Grupkte is pi'iutcd, which will be usod lor , printing circulars, und w ill have power furnished by tlio agency of u gns stove. Tho lllustraltil London Aettin, ulso, has u structure on wluoh are shown luauy of their boil engravings. llrudburv St Agnew, the publishers ol Punch, will exhibit a curious collodion ol cartoons lrom that lam ou.s publication. Tnc British Geological Survey and Orduuuce Survey will show maps. Ate. An oruutu 8avill.ui been erected lor tuu "school of Art eedlework," over which thu l'riuccHs Louise pre sides, and iiere will be shown, uiuoug other tilings, work soni by the Queen and royal lamiiy. mom is mx. Tho exhibit of Iudlu goods iu tho main building Is lieurly all arranged, and will bo ol much interest to Auiericuus. Thu greater portion is sunt lroni the India Museum of Loudou. 1'hero nru specimens ol tho lood and other products of India, showing everything that tho natives eat, wear aud use. Thcro are dyes and silks iu every possible lorm?raw, lloss, cocoon, spuu, woven, dyud, Sic.?aud wild silks. These specimens are carefully arranged In cases, with neat labels snowing whence they came. There uro also cases containing native Indian arms, pottery, metal wuro (sotno ol it of great cosilinoss), lacquered work, boxes made of porcupino quills, saudal wood. Sic. An aaso.nment ot native ians uro exhibited, ulso Iniaid ivory un J natlvo stone work. Thcro are specimens of tho Hindoo Irom Amaravati; ulso textile labnt'S iu silk und cotton, unique drawings in inlcu und embroidered work Irom Delhi. There is a cose ol jow oiry from Bombay, a case of imigiuflceut India shawls, au exhibit of Indian carpels :iud also Hue specimens of lace worked by the liativo ladies. In <he carriage uuiex to the tnalu building En gland lias 4.000 s>|tiaro leot und Canada 2,700 square feou The goods uro not yet, however, urruuged. Tho loading carriuge makers ot Loudon, Worcester, Man chester, Norwich and other places send contributions, tbo famous Loudon establishment of J, Peters It Sons sending tan vehicles, Irom the lordly "drag" to the ladies' "Victoria." One of their linesl curriagcs is ustdby tho British Commissioners iu l'hiluduipbia, tho royal arms being painted on the panels. There is ulso a'llue exhibition ol harness und carriage lilting*, j lamps, tec. Tho structure of tlio British vchlcle is I generally much hoavier than that ol this country. Mr. .1. H. Jopiing, tho Superintendent of Fine Arts In the British scction, Is in this city, and has laid out . plans lor haugiug thu pictures in the Memorial Hall. 1 All thu contributions aro here. In tho horticultural ! department a considerable British display will bo made I ol gurdeu ornaments, terra cotta ware, lawn mowers ' mid other similar articles irom tho vurlous manufac turers mentioned above. England will not have much to show In horticulture Watorer, the liruish florist, sends a display ol rhodo dendrons; Veltch. of London, sends a fine collection of plnutK. There will be lusule the ball a collection of 200 plants lrom Jamaica. New Zealand sends a tine exhibition ol lerns. AUSTRALASIA. The Australian exhibits ure cluefly specimen! of raw products, views ol scenery and llowers and samples of soils and minerals. New .South Wales has erected In the centre ol itr spaco a large trophy containing speci mens of coal In blocks. The Queensland exhibit is in tho most forward state of prep i.-atiou ot any, aud is in cimrge ol Mr. Mackay, oi the yurtnnltindar. Her spaco is enclo.ed and has in thu centre au obelisk rep rcseuting the quautlty of gold lound in the colony since IMS. The height of this o >clisk is 19 ieet 5 inches; it Is 3 leot 3 inches square at thu base and IV Inches square at tho apex. The gold it represents weighed oo tons and was worth $35,000,000. Towering above tho enclosure, this obelisk is a prominent object in llus part ot the building. There uru photographs aud colored drawiugs on the walla, representing ttie sceuery of the difleieut parts of the oolouy, the towns, villages, gold regions, kc. These are arranged In geographical groups, each group having a descrip tion on the wall above it aud specimens of tne soils aud products beneath. Tbo oolouy sends spoc'mens of tin. copper, sugar, arrow ruot, wools, oils, timbers, silks, history und also botanicul preparations. The production of tin is now eclipsing that oi goVI in Queensland, aud thu oolouy lias sent no less than twelve tons of tin to the Exhibition, representing the metal In every stage from the crude ore to tho smelted tin. Tnere are ulso ttve tons ol ooppcr sent, otio single mass of cop|ior ore of very Hue quality weighing two tons. There are turi, leatlior, wiues, spirits aud also line wools from the Durliug Downs district.. An clnl> orate box, exhibiting tweniy-lwo different woods of tbo colony, is exhibited, these timbers beiug also repre sented in tho log. Tho Canadian exhibit is not yet ready, the cases being all up. however, and much of the goods on the ground. Kaw products will make op a great portion of tbo Canadian display. THE CENTENNIAL COMMISSION. PREPARATION FOB TOES CELSBBATION OF THE COMINO FOUBTH OF JULY?EXPLANATION BY MB. KIMBALL, OF NEW YOBS. Phjla dklphia, May S, 1876. The commission camo to order ai itireo P. M. There waa bui a allm attondancc. Mr. Kimball, of New Vork, who wua reported in yesterday'a Hkkalo aa taking ground in laror of abnagaling tho existing contractu In regard to the liquor question desires a correction nuide? via., that be wait decidedly In lavor of sustaining all existing concessions, but acknowledges that he was In the outset opposed to tho soiling or liquor on the ground's but us the concessions hud been granted, bo would undoubtedly sustain them. The credential!* of & S. klkins, or New Mexico, were presented and referred to thu proper couiinitteu. Hi relerence to preparations lor tbo 4th of July cel ebration, General Hawley exi>itt<iied that the proces sions could not be I used, that thoy would be tach ao massive that the streets would bo obstructed and too much time oucupu-d in paa?ini:. It bud therefore been proposed that tint civic, military and society displays should l>e allotted dltlervni sections ol the city, which would, no doubt, lie carried out. The ceremonies upon the ground have boen previously published so Ur as It could be arranged al preseut. A preliminary committee of three were appointed to organise the celebration* ol the day and report after tbe opening of the Exhibition. on motion, the [commission adjourned until Monday next at three P. M. SPANISH-AMERICA AT THE CEN TENNIAL. Several respectable commission houses dealing specially with Spam and the Spanish-American conn" triee have lurnlabed lunds to establish, In the Inter national Exhibition, an otlice devoted to the promotion and the Increase of trade between tbe United State* and all the Spanlsh-epeakiag countries, being at the same time a place to give all kinds or information re garding the Kxhib tlou and lla contents to Spaniards and Spanish-American visitors. The eScc w ill be known under the name of ".Spanish American Commercial Ag< ncv," and lla managers will be M<-*ara. C. Carranzn and t. Ansoutegul, with whom tho idea originated. Among the subscrilwrs or stock ho'ders are found, besides these gruttomen, the well known llrms or MuAox ft Kspnells, lute Ribon k MeAos; I> l?e Castro * Co., E. K. Davison k Co., Her Bandex k Tracy, tin I way * Caaado, Ac. Mr. Carranza baa been lor a long time tbe chargri d' affaires ofthe Argentine Republic at Washington, and Mr. AnsoaUigul Is the Consul General frun Honduras. WOMEN'S CENTENNIAL"" UNION. The lost general meeting ol tbe Women's Centennial Union will fce held at Chiekering 11*11 to-day, at two o'clock. Tbe President's and Treasurer's reports will be read, and the banner destined lor the Women's Pa vOion at Philadelphia will he exhibited. STREETJRAVEL How London's Four Millions Travel on Land and Water. The Great Usefulness of the Underground Railway. THE "'BUSES." Over Fifty Million Passengers Carried by One " 'Bus" Company. Instructive Facts for New York Conveyance Monopolists. Loxdox, April 22, 1876. As ntlcht bo exported, the necessities of the Item ing million* who inhabit the "couuty of houses'' colled Loudon havo culled into existence a mauilold system of locomotion which, in extern and general adaptability, U without equal. A ylunco ut the statis tics relating to the are i and populatlou of London will suffice to show what the locomotive necessities ot the Inhabitants must bo. Spread out on either Hide ot the river over an proa of 78,000 acres, equal to 122 square nnles, iu an end Iocs labyrinth of bricK-lined streets, the Vast city (-bolters a population ot 4,OUO,UOO souls. London must be regarded as a congeries of towns and cities amalsutnaied into one vast wholo, the nucle1 being the cities ot Lou ion proper and of Westminster* Arouud these two centres the growth ot centuries Las produced modern Loudon, tho extreme suburban points of the circuiuloretice being Hamustcad, Islington, Stoko Newtugtoii and Hackney iu the north; Stratford, Luuo bouse, Ueptlord, Greenwich, Woolwich, Charlton and l'lum-tead iu tho east; Cambcrwull and Streatham In the south, and Kensington, Fulbatu, Hammersmith and Putney in the west. Thus, although all theso places retain their old manner, they are m fact swallowed up by the huge and omulverous monster of whom they have become pai l and parcel As tho question of KAI'lt) AND KKHfcl'tivk TRANSIT Is now exciting mueh atter/^n in New York, the read ers of the Hkkald may ltko' to have some details as to I he principle and method employed in solving this im portant problem for the Immense locomotivo popula tion ot London. It must be stated, however, at the outset that, owing to the entirely differing conllgura tion and topography of tho sites of Loudou aud Now York and tho completely dissimilar geological forma tions on which the two cities stand, no strictly parallol comparison can bo made botwoou them. Ybo triplo city of Now York, Jersey City and Brooklyn Is sepa. rated by two vast streams and lies upon an unrivalled harbor, whereas London, lar inland, is simply bisected by ono groat water artery. Thon, again, Now York stands upon rocky ground, London upou a formation which has given a name to geology?tbo "London clay"?a point of inuoh Importance whan the practiea bilily of subterraneau railroads ta taken into consider , atlon. The three great hues of transit and travel in settled countries beiug ROAD, RIVER AND RAIL, It Is under those hoads that an account of tho systems of locomotion should be classified, lllver and rail, as arteries of London locomotion, do not present any par ticular points ot inlorest Just now with regard to tho question of transit engaging the attention of New York, wbero an elfective and suitablo system of omnibuses and cabs seems to be the great desideratum. Indeed, so lar as locomotiou by river U concerned, London has far more to loarn from New York than New York (rom Londou. There is scarce any ground tor comparison between tho little "penny steamer," Hitting about on the Thames, and the majestic ferryboat or the North and East rivers; although, on the other hand, tho dimensions ot the penny steamer are In keeping w ith the sice of the stream on which it plies, just as tne mighty*. St. John Is in harmony with tho oceatfic stream ot the Hudson. As to the facilities afforded by ,|u-| TilK RRTUOfOLITAN AMD UIUTRICT RA11.WAV, the many schemes which have been suggestod to provide New York with an underground railway must have made tbo London system familiar to your readers, and it will uot be necessary to dwell at any length upon the subject. A glance at the otticial map ol tho Dis. trict Railway and its connections explains the wholo system at once. The underground railway sweeps in an oval torm arouud the central and wostcrn portions of London embracing the centres of commcrce aud fashion. Attached to tho oval ou its west is a loop lino embracing the western suourbs as lar as Hammer ! smith. At different points In Its circumference the underground system is tapped, by the main lines of railway which rad.ate from tha metropolis to tne provinces, the radiating lines crossing ou the north a loug line which traverses northern lAindon. and on tbo west a line which traverses tho extreme western por tion of the suburbs aud connect* the main lines which run north and south. The first section of the undor ground railway, consisting ot three and a half miles ot tuunels and cuttings between Karrtugdon street and l'addlngdon, was opened in 1HC2. It cost ?1,^00,OCX), and ruus ou tbo samo level with the gas pipes and water maius. Hencc It has been called the "Hallway of Hats'' aud "Tho Main Sower." The southern halt of tho oval was completed in I860 aud 1871, aud runs through more cuttings than tho northern portion, from which circumstance it has been dubbed the "dayiigbt routu." f.XDKRCROrXp LO.XDOX. This system or rail ha* proved an tmnienso boon to the huudrod* or thousands who, when tuoir day'* work i* over, wish to etcupe apccdily to tho trcer air ot the suburbs, and it* complotion has no doubt tendod to swell Immensely tho growth or tho suburbs. Tho epocd of tbo underground traius varies from twenty to thirty mile* an hour?a rate which is maintained bo twovu the frequent stopping places owing to the system ol brake*, by winch tho traiu.i can be brought to a dead atop in a tew yards. The Moors ol the carriage* beiug on a level with tue platlorni* of the station*, tho car riages arc emptied sud tilled .n an incrediaoly abort space ol time, the average iituo ol stoppage being about twenty to lliiriy-livo scconds. The chief, ami indeed almost the only cause ol complsliit against tho Metro politan Kailu ay, i* tho overcrowding of tlio carriages during the busy hour* of ibo morning and evening, following each oilier, a* the trains do at lutervals of but a lew minutes, tn* crowd is so great that tho usual stringently enlorced rule against persons ?landing iu the carnages is abandoned by tacit consent, an underground railway carriage being the only public vebioie in which such overcrowding Is tolerated. Occasionally eouie old gentleman with corns will com mence a treble protest, '?Kenlly, you kll<iw ?in terrupted by -'Very sorry, but I've missed two train* already." ?o much, then, lor river and rail. Ibo two branches of UOAD OH STHSrr TRAFFIC OF LOXIKM aro tho omuibii* system and ibo cab ("hansom'' nnd ??four-wheeler") system. Very different Irom the small, light New York stage, drawn by Its weedy horses, is the huge, solid, lumbering London omnibus, dragged through tbo crowded streets by its heavy, sturdy Belgian horses. Perhaps no Icature ol the street Ilia ol I^iudon strikes Ike American more than tho ap pcaram o ol theso great '"buses," crowded inside mill out, lor, a* a general thing, though a ???bus" may not |Kisse*a It* lu J complement ol passengers within, there is nearly always a double row ol male travellers, seated back t<> back, upon the "knile ooard' and two others on each side ol the driver's box. 11 such be the prac tice tu the damp, rainy climate ol l.ondoii it would acern that the r ding outsido and the consequent enjoy ment or tbe air mi^ht very reasonably be adopt<-d on the Now York tramways. Another point or (Inference ia the invaiiable employment of two officials to oach stage carriage. Tit., driver and conductor. In the Amortcau stage, which, even when crowded with peoplo. both seated and standing, cannot allord ' accommodation lor more than thirteen or lourteen. the ! driver, like tbe hundred-handed giant of mythology, , has not an lm|ios*ible task in managing bis hor-e's. 1 looking alter pas?eugers and giving change, although Ills dexterity in the pertorinance of this complication ol dune* i* a matter of astonishment to Kuropoan*. But , in tho case of TilK LO.XDOS OMXIlll'S, 1 with iu twelve passengers inside and fourteen ont, tha . periormance ol such a task in tho narrow, crowded | streets would, of eourse, bo an utter Impossibility, sud ! the conductor is therefore a necessity. A lurtliur dil 1 fereneo consuls in tbe lart that tbe foueralny of Lm* don 'Mmsaes" have not moTable windows, the panes of glass along the sides being fixtures, sbovu which the vehicle Is pieread lor Tentilatii>n. One ol the objects of this arrangement dount, to proiect the insido paaseugcrs Irom any disagreeable consequonces which i might t>oaslbly arise from the manners and customs ol the *inokcrs on the ioor. This closing upol the vehicle, however, renders the inner atmosphere or a crowded omniims on a damp day n thing to be aToided ir p>?st ble, tbo mora so aa tbe majority ol the passengers oo Mi baton* to the oiaas who are m tM habit el umi "frsnglpanBl" or "Jockey club'' on their pocket! kerchiefs. THE UKIVKRH AMU CONUCCTUM ?ro Dotorlous lor ibeir rough and rea-ly manners and cu-toms. homo of the drivers. weather beaten and seasoned, look u If they bad been born and bred ou tboir boxes, and ibelr thoroughly professional charac ter ia very well illustrated by tbu dexterous manner II wnich they guide llieir unwieldy vehicles through thi thoroughfares, a collision or eveu a graze beiu* a mat ter ol ihe utmost rarity, lu direct contrast lo th< stolid, immovable driver la ihe nimble und dappei conductor, the groaler |J4rl of wbaae hfo j, ,(,ont ? standing ou a step uf about eight Inchon square. ant hanging on by a strap, bia eyes ceaselessly aoannlB| the stdewulks lor passeugers. his band always raised, bis tongue til way a going. These manifold duties, bow ever, bv uo means interfere with tbe exuberance at "chair and rough wit. which pour ftrom bla lips al every uvailuble opportunity. He delight* in lat old women as bia fares. Ho will with tbe greatest good temper load himself with tbe parcels ol the out?id? pas.->.-ngo; s while they climb to the top. Ho will gen erally remember tbo exact spot nt which oacb person takes tbe 'bun, and tbe precise point at which hi Is requested lo put any stranger down. Thi '-omnibus rud, as las sobri<|uet is. has oven been im inortali/.ed hi song, for it will be recollected that "l'ollj Perkins," the bolle of Paddtngton Green, whom tlu soug says was Iteautifcl as a butterfly, l'roud as a queen, tingled out one of this fraternity to elope with, aban doning her dunces with viscounts, earls and milkmen. The pages ol launch teem with the sayings and doingl ol tbu omnibus fraternity, who are, ou tho whole, > portion o: the population of the many sided motro|>o!ii which could not be spared. Their almost iuvariabb good temper and their capacity tor looking at thi bright side of their arduous lile of hard worn und ex posure have made them public favorites. TIIK A VfcKAliB SrXKIl of tho London 'busses, including stoppages, is from Art to six miles per hour. Daring tho middle of tho day, when tbe old ladies are abroad shopping, the speed tuny be sometimes rather less; iq lact, It has been ro markud ibat during theso sluek hours tbo snail luaj gallop guyly bust tho tustest 'bus, and tbo tortois? (Having an appomimcul to kcop) prefers walking to I soal ou tbo kuil'o board UMXIUUS ROCTK8 traverse London in all directions, through the centra parts to and from the extreme suburbs. There an about l.&uo different otnuibusos (about 000 of which art tbo property of tbe Londou General Uuinibus Com pany), employ lug nearly 7,uuo persons. The majority commence running ul eight in tbo morning, and, as I rule, do not cease until midnight or later. They suo. ceed each other during the busy parts of tbo day at in tervals ol live minute*. Tbo lares vary irotn one penuj lo sixpence within the metropolis, according to dis- ? lance. A list of the lares lo the chief points of ill route Is posted In each omnibus. The chief centres from which omnibus routes radiate aro:? All tbe railway stations. Thi- Hank 01 Kuglaud. General 1'ust liUlco. Chariug Cross. Ox lord street, corner of Tottenham Court road. Oxiord street, Kegcul Circus Sloulio street. Piccadilly, lb-gent Circus and White Horse Cellars. Bishopsgate street. Grucccliurch street. Angel Inn, Islington. Klepliant aud Castle. I.udgato Circus. Tbe chiol starling points on the outskirts of Londoi are:? Uayswatcr to Wbilcchapel, by Oxford street aud Uul born. ltlackwnll to l'imllco. Hiompton lo Londou Bridge. Cauiberwoll lo Grucechurcu street, by London Brldgai Camborwell to Camdeu Town, by Waterloo Bridge, Charing Cross, ltegenl street aod Albany stroet. Chelsea, Kiug's Koud lo Bishopsgalu street, by Sloano street, Si. Paul's aud Bauk. Hammersmith mid Kensington lo tho Bank, by Pic cadilly, tho .Strand, St Paul's, Cbcapside. Keunicgton lo King's Cross, by Blackfriar's ltoad. Fleet street. Gray s Inn laue. Mothor Ued Cap, Camden and Kentish Town to Bayswater. Puddington to Oxford sirool, Holborn, Newgate stroet, Cbeupside. St. John's Wood to Bunk. St. Joiin's Wood to Klophant and Csstle, by Baker street, ltcgonl street, Charing Cross aud Westminster Brid e. Westminster to Higligute, by Chariug Cross, Chan cery lane, Gray's inn lane, Islington und Hollowuy. York und Albany (nearZoological Gardens), Hcgent'a l'ark, to Caiuberwell gate, by Portland road, KegeuS street, Charing Cross, aud Waterloo Uridge. Thus tho whole aroa of tbo great city is intersected by tbe omnibus routes, which' form an important auxiliary lo tbo underground and suburban railways, connecting tho stations and raciiitatiug the coaselusa desire to "tuovo on." HISTORY or TliH LO.VDOX OJIXIBOH. Having said this much it will be well now to Inquire more particularly into the history and working ol the omnibus system of London, it is to tho French that lionuon is indebted for tho inveuiion ol tho vehicio: for iu llHU an edict ol Louis XIV. established a lino of "carouet a ciw/ tous." A grand file Inaugurated ih? use ol theso uovel Carriages; they becarao "tbo rage" and were monopolized for some timo by tbo woalibiei class, so that those tor whom tlioy wero especially de signed could uot avail thviu&olvcs ol tbo new vehicle. When, iu course of time, tho rich |>eoplo grew tired ol tho novelty the poor would have nulhiug to do with tlio canittrt, which cousequenlly gradually fell into disuse. lu 1VJ7, however, they were revived and lu 1 Bitf introduced . into l<oudou by a Mr Shillibecr, and, for a considerable lime, wore known alter bun by mo uauio ol Sbiilibeers. From thai daio of ibis importation of omulbuses into Knglund until tho year isui tho omnibus system ol Londou, which was, of course, of much smaller pro portions that ut tho present time, was purely proprie tary. In tbo latter year, however, a M. Orsi, who had accompanied the lato Kiuperor ol the French on the "lame Kagle" expedition to Boulogne, hit upou a scheme lor improviug his own loriuues und at the same time bettering tbo condition of the Londou om nibus trallic, by introducing into London the same kind of management which b:?u long worked udlnirubiy in Puris. Having associated himself with a business man uatned Foucard, aud drawn up a prospoctus, these two enterprising Frenchmen aubmiited their scheme to th? lour leadiug Londou oiuuibus proprietors, who at one* fell iu with the proposal and became the agents ol Orsi & Foucard. The new company was established in Part* as a Socteti en Commandite, tho "CUXI'AliaiK UK.NKKAt.K OKS OJffflBUS UK LOXI1RK"*,'' with a capital of ?7(M,UU0i Meanwhile, ibo ugeuts la Kngluud bought up the rolling slock, horses, harness, stabling, and good will or nearly ail the existing omni bus pioprioiors, and bocamo the owuors of OUd "'buses," tl.ouo horses, and employors of a numerous stall ol coachmen, conductors, and other workmen. They also bought tbe goisl will of tbetroutes which were to be traversed, und |?aid in sotne cases as much :u X-UO or X-jO for Iho good will ol one omuibns. Tu? company continued working in Ibis form, as n French coinpnuy Willi English managers, until December .11, 1no7, wbm, the Limited Liability act bavin* come into operation, tbe Aociele en Commatulile was iruiisiormod into an English compuuy under tlio styi? ol "The l.ouilon General Omnibus Company, Limited,'1 since which, no lurihor allcralious have been made in | its organization FACTS FOH SKW YOHK, , FVnm tho semi-annul report of tins prent company (the shares iu which suu<l uow at 130) lor tho ball.year ending December 31, 1876, 1 extract ibe loliowiug statistics:?The gross receipts for thecal! yenr were ?.t20,:i32, of wbii'b num ?200,768 wore produced by the ordtuury omnibus traliio and privatu lure, ?61,089 by tho bousing of iraiuway cars, and ?4,884 Irom ibe s.iio of manure and advertising; tbo number ol pus.scngura carried during six months by omnibuses wna 25,Mil,390; tbo average number ol omnibuses working on week days was 50*; tbo averago number of omnibuses work lug <>n Miuuays, 4o7; the averago trailic receipts par omuibus |wr week were ?18 la. ll?,d.; Tho aver .ge tralllc receipts per omnibus |ior working d.iy, ?2 13*. Id.; tho average lare per passenger, iMd.; the avor age earnings per mile rua, 11.02<t ; total number of miles run by omuibuses, i,87t>,.>47. Hie total expenses I or ibo Company duriug the half year wore ?396,381 13a. 70. ? OR?KH. Tbo number of tlie Company's horse* employed If omnibus aud tramway servioe on Docember 31, 187&, was 7,855; tho urerage price paid lor homes during tlx bail year was CM *h. *mL, In tnocorresponding period ! of 1874 It wits ? 9 6s. Od. The number ol dead aud llY lu^ bort-'s sold uuring tbo half year w?< (>w, I In the corresponding half year of 1874 If wan pro|Mjrtiona(cly to tho total numbet I of tho Company's horses tbo toss was 1 0.0 |>er cent loss than Iu 1874. Tbo total co.-t of liars* ; renewals Iu the half year was ?3o,016 17a. lOd.; In tb? hall year ending December 31, 1874, it was ?.1:1,147 14?. lid., u decrcaso of ?2,5301.4. Id. This company owns almut CM of the 1.600 omnibuses wnich traverse tbo metropolis. The rcmu.ntng J JO are the property o' a lew lessor compuuiea and ol private individuals. The pay of tho drivers ol nil tho London omnibuses U about $1 60 |?r dieut, nud that of the conductor* aix.ut (1. On the 31st of Decomber last tliere were 2,536 omnibus drivers and 3,402 conductors licensed. THIS HASTY amXAKT 1 of a subject which might bo swelled to much largor dimensions tnay l>e of Interest to those In New York who are Interested In procuring Tor that city a system of public conveyance which shall bo cheap, commo dious and effective. Although the system ol horse c.irs, or, ne they arc called hero, "tramways," is so mucli more derelopod In New York than In Loudon, and meeu bottor the requiroemnts of the population, 1 lear that not manr bints cab be derived irom tho preceding remarks. In fact, what the horse cars d? ! lor Now York the omnibuses do for London, and Irom the configuration or London It is not possible that the "'buses''can bo superseded. Thu London streets ire far too narrow and tortuous to admit of rails, wuicli, in the wide and reetangiiiarlv intersecting streets of Now York are conveniently practicable. In Uin suburban portions ol London, however, horse cars have, allot much opposition, been successfully introduced and have furnished one moro means of cheup and rapid transit tv the hugo and ovorgrown metropolis. Tin real want of New York, as recently shown lit tbo col umns of the Mkralh. is cheap cabs. The want hat been well met in l.ondon by tbo development of the bansoin cab system. ? CHEAP CABS. j To thk Editor or tiik Hk*al?:_ Now that we are blessed with a stage coach, why cai not New Yorkers advunco one stop further and ban I "Cheap Cabs." as before stated; wo do not need t fancy ei)ui|uge, bat plaiu, durable turnouts, auilatxi lor wear and leur on our pavements. Aud I think thai a comfortable, cioan rati. l? u over so nomoly would 1?? almost universally patronised la preiorence to tb' packed and close liorso curs, or tedious omdibuses Knowing your sympathy with us In this respect, 1 s.a cereiy trust you will keep this matter agitated. I MMVYMUt.JUfl.U74

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