Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 6, 1876, Page 5

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 6, 1876 Page 5
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in mm' {sstrnctiTe Interviews With Three of the Old Heroes of Baltimore. Nicholas Brewer. Joshua Dryden and Jesse L. Hiss. THE WAR OF 1812. Centennial Reminiscences?Religion, Travel and Morals, A. D. 1800. OOLONEL NICHOLAS BBEWER. Baltixork, May 4, 1876. Oolencl Nicholas Brawer, the secretary ol the "Old Defenders' Association," of Baltimore, whs eighty seven years old Sunday, March 21, 1870. He does not look to he mora than seventy. To bo sura his hair is white as Ibe driven snow, but his voice is strong, bis eye is keeu md bright, his nerve Is perfect, bis sup quirk and lias tie, and bis short, thickset boly gives a person that Mea of strength which causes one rather to prefer an other antagonist, should a discussion degenerate into bard knocks. Ha talks with tlio ease and vigor ot a man ol forty, and It would be hard to And a pleasanter raconteur withal. When asked what were his views upon ran APPROACHING CSNTKSSIAL he said:--"1 think they ought to colebrato It as John Adams said about tho Fourth of July, 'with the tiring M guns, tho beating of drums, the waving of* flags, tho ringing of bells and Addling, singing and dancing.' 1 was glad to see Congress move iu the matter. We (re ferring to his association of tho soldiers of the war of 1812) have been talking about making arrangements to go an to Philadelphia. Yes, sir; I heartily there approvo of It and expect to bo If 1 should live so long. Our members aro very few now, ana when mon reach my tlmo of life they do not wish to look far ahead; but It would bo a disgrnco to us as .i nation If this celebration should fail. Whyt sir, when we consider that but 100 years ago tbcro were only 3.000,000 Americans in the United States and tbat now we spread from ocoan to ocean and are the iquul of any nation ou the globe, the tbiug soems in eroiliblu?a nuncio, sir, a miraclo, and oue tbat should bo marked by just such a demonstration as John Adams rocommcnded." "AS OLD AS TRR PltKSl nKNCT." When a?ked to give some recollections of bis early life, the manner* aud customs then prevailing, the amuse ments in vogue, kc., he said:?"I was burn in the city of Annapolis, in the same month that George Washing ton took his seat as President of the Unltod Stales for the flrst time, so that 1 am as old as the Presidency It self. Annapolis At that timo was pretty much as it is now?a finished city. People in Joko used to talk of running a lonce round it. The Stato House, wbero Washington resigned his commission, was really n fine building, and there was a handsome church and col lego, nnd the old ball room track of tho hotel, in which Washington has danced m?uy a night, was tho finest ol its kind in tho country. 'l'bu ball room still retiming pretty inocli in the same condition us when Washington honored it with his presence. At Ibid umu old John Johnson, Iteverdy Johnson's lather, and old Mr. Kelty were both distinguished law yers. I renumber Luther Martin well He was n man of wonderful talent, but very peculiar in his manner. At times ho wot sociable und (amiliar with everybody, While at others ho was morose and distant and very aisagreenblc. I think ho was unquestionably tho greatest lawyer that Marylaud ever produced, though he nev.T would plead a case unless be was under tho iiiuuuiicu oi iMiuur. M.U.TIMOUK IX 1800. "I never saw Washington, but knew of him, ol course, white he ws.s living, and bis death is indelibly Improved upon my memory by the profound sorrow wlilrli seemed to overwhelm tho people, regardlos* of oiiiss or sex. i\tin.ipolis was wrapped in glootn as though a pall hung ovei it. I moved to Baltimore shortly alter 1*00. The city then had about 30,600 in habitants. Where I am now {Colonel Brewer's house Is on Jefferson stroet, about hair a milo from the water and at least two miles from tho nearest boundaries Of the city] there was a burying ground. Wo used to ?hoot oats right bar.k of It We had a theatre iu the citv and gardens all rouud the su'iurbs, where wo had fireworks and plays on ttunda.vs, and the cltizeus flocked thero by the thousand and drank their milk p'jochos. Thero was an old lei low by Iho name of During wbo used to havo bis com pany here, and on the edgo of the city, about a quarter of a milo from hero, we used lo have chicken tights, bear tights and bull baits. On the Fourth of July there was always a gen eral parade nnd a solute tired. Though the city was ?tnall at that tim$ (1*01) wo bad some 3.000 men In uniform. It was during tbla year that the leopard fired on the Chesapeake In our own bay. 1 never saw anything like tho people in my life. They were stark mad. In less than a year 6,000 troopa were uniformed and equipped. Tho excitement increased, and In 1809 Captain Fryor arrived here with three pipes ol gin on board bis vessel, on which tho Hrttieh had oompellod bim to pay tribute. We took tbom out nnd.burned thorn on tAndeuslager s HilL Captain Fryor, then a prominent merchant, led the party. THH RIOT or 1*12. "Yon ask me if I remember General Lingan's death !n 1812. Perfectly, as though it were yesterday. Lingan was a Montgomery county man, out ho got nixed up with a party of fellows here who published a paper called the federal Republican, which opposed the war and Indulged in tne moat scurrilous abuse ol the l'reaident and everybody else except themselves. Tho people roae up and tore down the building. Tho pro prietors took their paper up to Montgomery and issued It Irom there, spreading tt broadcast through Baltimore. If they had remained thero they never would bare been aiolosted, but they had the temerity to come back to Baltimore and rent a house on Charles street from a Mrs. Whiu. They collocted a number ol men together and barricaded themselves while printing this ob noxious sheet. I heard of It and, mounting my horse, rode to the ofllee. I found tho people in a stste of terrible excitement. The newspaper ?en from behind tboir barricade had tired on tho people gathered in front of the office and had killed a Citizen uamod Gale. George P. Stevenson, our brigade major?a thorough going follow ho was, too?directed ?e to go after Captain Hanna's company ol Fell's Point dragoons, for the purpose ol taking the men out 9t tbe house and carrying them over to jail. 1 ex* ac?tod his order, aud they wero safely rumoved, in spite of tbe menaces of the mob; but when night came ? great oversight was committed. . No guard was sta tioned at the jail. 1 walked up there with Adjutant Bias shortly sfter nightfall. There were a lew rowdies about and a great mauy lookers-on. 1 turned to Bias tad said that the lookers-on only encouraged ihe row lies, and we were setting a bad exumple. With twenty men I could have laxeu care of tho jail and driven oif tho rowdies. We wero turning away when tho nob made a rush on the jail with axon and crowbars sad burst iu the doors. I Immediately rushed in with thorn, but the prisoners, unfortunately, attempted to make their way out. General Lingan was beaten to a shapeless mass on tho steps, and Ueorgo Winchester, proiniueul then and afterward, got a cut across his lorohcad which bo carried to his grave. A WORK Or KK.1CCB. "I was very indimuut at the outrages and Interfered In t;ine lo save the liie of one man, but my friend bade nm In c.iruful, or I would bo idontifled with (he prison ers, as a mob never carod much wbo the victim was *> Hist their infernal uiahce could be gratiflcd. Tnomp ?uii. an tCngllshiuan by birth, tut at that time a promt tent merchant in IJaitimore, was seised by tne mob. Ttiry tarred and feathered btm, baring stripped him to Hie ua.at, and stuck at least filly plus in him. lie was then put in a wa^on. Just at this lime an Irishman in ide a move (o kuock him on thu bead with a pickaxe; but I I dled him to ihe earth without any moro to-do, and walku>i oil with luy friond toward homo be.'ore the mob discovered who the assailant was. I took a short cut aud soon reached homo, but had not been there m^nv miautss before I heard ? horrible yeUjng aud hooting ud h* th? |U coming down by my bona*, with Thompson In the wagon. Tbo cry was, 'To the market house and Hang him on tho hooka!' and I have no doubf th*y \vould ha*o carried out their vil la no u? threat, but the mam body ot tbo mob had gone on to tho market bouac while the wagon stopped at a pump In front of my dwelling, only a lew or the row dies were guarding It, and I quickly got together aouie of my neighbors, who were only too glad to assist In auch a praiseworthy undortaking. We drove <>11 tho rowdies and took tho wagon over to Capiaiu Run bury'*, where poor Thompsou wa? enabled to concc.il himself From bis persecutors. ! don't know exactly what became ol him. but I thick very shortly alter bo had removed his adhesive coat of tar aud leather* he shook the dust off hi* leet and went back to tbe Old Country. FIOOTIXCJ TBI RKD COAT* AT SORTS rolKT. "When the war broke nut I was made a lieutenant In tbe Sixth regiment of Maryland Volunteer:'. We wore stationed at Fori Mcllenry, but when lyird Colas War ren and Admiral Cockburu made their flrxt trip up tho bay wo were ordered to North Point. Tlicv came up our river almost under the guns of the for* and rap tured a packet. They attempted to land at North Poiut aud we bad a scrimmage with thom, aa<i would, 1 think, have capturcd tbe whole party hod not our com manding officer hoen loolnuch in a hurry. After tho baitlo of Biadenxburg there was intenseevcitiment in tbo city, bat no giving way. a 4otorml?M<on bhum tested itself to meet the enemy. Porn Heat, no* wern thrown up aud Commodore Uoger* and CotiiuoOore l'orter, with their crews, amounting to about T'si :nen. retuforco'.l the troops. My regiment was commanded by Colonel William McDonald, Wo had ab.nn 3,003 men in the bottle of North I'oint, while tho Ilriti?h had y.im For the number engaged it was a bloody en counter. Wc lost 220 men and the British 600, including thoir commander. Tho night belore they sent up ? party ol 1,200 picked men to take the fort with scaling ladders; but we had a masked battery of sis gunsjuit where tbey intended to land. The guard beard lho dipping ol toe oar*, and tho battery opened on thom and destroyed a number of their boats. "1 went in, with Madison, lor tho war nti'l fought It out. Virginia furnished more soldier* than nnv other Ft ale; but Maryland. In proportion'o her lur niahed live time* *4 many ax any othor. Mosacliu setts lurnished lower than any ol the Stuto<. Mary land, wlih an are* of lu,000 xipiaro miles, place.; 42,000 men In the Held. 1 knew William I'liikncy well. Wo served togethor in tho army. Mo was major ol tho Fiist battalion of r.flt-inen. I have heard him mako mauy a speech, and 1 accompanied him to t;?o mun-of war wbon ho wont to Knglund us Minister. 1 was in timately acquainted with Charles Carroll, of Carroll ton, up to tho day ot his deaih. Richard Cator, who married a daughter of Charles Carroll, was a very One looking Englishman. Carroll died when ninety-lour years ol ago, In tbo full possession of his facilities. Until ho was nlnetr-two lio drew his own deeds. Ono day, shortly aftor no had reached this advanced ago, he walked into my olllco and said:?'Brewer, 1 ihiuk It is about time for mo to stop. 1-hall appoint a trim tee,' and shortly afterward ho appointed ono of hi* sons-in-law trustee to take care ol his propery. CUSTOMS AMI) MANSKR* OK TDK T1MK. "In the olden time* all travelling was done by stage conches. Tho mail coach would take a whole day, and sometimes more, to go Iroin Baltimore to Annapolis. Three days from Baltimore to I'hilndclphla was rittlier a quick trip. There wore inns at regular intervals along tho road. You paid #10 lor your pus>age, *ud you spent lully $10 moro bo lore you reached your den tinal on lor meals, lodging and incidentals. 'Supplies came into Ihu city by immense mountain wagon-'. I have 6een hi tho Marsh market 200 of thcke tremendous wagons ol.it morning; uono of your twopenny tllairs, like tbey have now, but great lug concerns, with can vas coverings, like houses on wheels. "During tho war of 1812 wo wore blockaded and al most starved here in Baltimore. Wo hadn't a manu. factory ol any kind. Tho mauul'acturo of cotton wag slurtcd daring tbo war. "In iny young days people were not only sociable bnt honest. Kvery body knew everybody else. You could go to bod and leave your Iront door open with perfect security. It was not like it is uow. We had about half a dozen watchmen iu the city for show?Dutchmen who couldn't 'understand a'word you said aad you couldn't understand them. ' I remember tho honk riot very well. Ii was in 1835. I was always oppose^ to rioters and assisted in putting this down. I have always taken a deep interest Vii politics. In 1800 1 walked throe utiles to tbe poll* and pulled off my hat to hurrah lor Thomas Jefforson. 1 was a Henry Clay man, an old line whig, and bus laiued tho government during the late rebellion. I ex erted all my influence with (Governor Mick* to koop him from calling together tho Maryland Legislature at the breaking out of the war, and when a raid wa* made in this direction during tho war I was appointed Filth ward commander, and organized a command ot 600 men to moot the invaders." Colonel Brower belongs to nn old Maryland family located in and around Annapolis, some members of which huvo distinguished themselves In tho history of the .State, out It may bo doubted whether any have sur passed him in those homely virtues which are so true n test of the manly laitb within. As was said above, ho is now in his eighty-eighth year, but, with luck, there Is no reason why ho should not live to be a hundred and oven more, lio walks Irom his house to his olUce and back, a considerable distauce, twice a day. Hla sight is perfect, and he writos with a clearness and boldness that many young men would be glad to Imitate. MAJOR JOSHUA DRYDEN. THE PRESIDENT OT THE "DEFENDERS"? PROGRESS OF BALTIMORE?SOCIAL CHARGES? POLITICAL INGRATITUDE OF THE PEOPLE. Baltimore, May 8,187A. I called upon Major Joshua Dryden to-day at bis res laoua- on Liberty street Tho Major lives In a band some four story mansion on tbe decline ot a bill which takes In a view of a large area ot tbe southwestern por tion of Baltimore. 1 was pleasantly received and shown to MiOor Drydea's sitting room on tbe sooond floor, where I found a tall, stately gentleman, with snow white hair and beard, finely cot features and an upright, manly bearing, which a person woo id scarcely expect to find the accompaniment of eighty-six years of American Die. A glance at the surroundings soon convinced one of tbe taste of tbe occupant. Pictures of merit alternated with portraits of those men of a former period whom tbe present generation have almost learned to regard as giants?the frionds, doubt less, of Major Dryden, who bave passed away and left him, as It were, stranded upon the shores of another era. Tbe furniture wait elegant without meretricious orna ment, just as wo wonld expect to lind in th? drawing room of an old hero. A bright wood Ore gave a cheer, fulness to tho apartment which no modern heater can bestow, and several little birds gayly twittered In a cor ner, in which direction the old gontlemaa cast his eyos from time to timo with evident delight. THS CKXTKXSIAU Alter tbe usual salutations, the Major said be thought the contemplated celebration of tbe one hundredth an niversary ot American Independence eminently proper. Our country's development hnd been unprecedented. Ho thougnt the general government sboeld do every thing possible to insure lis success. Tbe States also should all send good delegations to the opening, be cause it is a matter of general interest and pride. Balti more bad been extending her expenditures very largely of late In constructing public Improvements to meet the very great lncreaso In business end population which tbe city has In prospective, and this would tnnke her less able at this tluo to aid hor sister city, but the Unances ot the State arc in such a favorable condlticn that tbe Legislature did not hesitate to give Philadel phia very material aid. BALTIXORS IX KiUimcKX BOUiRSD AM) Til us a The Major, continuing, said:? 'l came to this city when * mere boy In 180.:, and apprenticed myself to a tailor. At that time the population was about 3o,oo0. Howard Woods came within :W0 yards ol my present residence (the Moor's res;denco now is not very far from tho water front, the city extending miles beyond it la every direction), and to the west ot the house, out there whore you sen all those extensive buildings, wero corn fields. Buys wore ooys In tboso days, and we knew but little about amusement*. Now they are in'mi at fourteen. 1 Joined the Church very early .u lite, and never went to a theatre i>ut once. Ye*, 1 was swindled into one once in Mew York by one of hi) daughter*. At tho tune 1 speak ot tbe Hoi 1 ida> Street Thoaire was the only theatre In tbe city. 1 believe there was a circus auroni tho bridgo. l'ealc's Museum, which was subsequently turned imoatheatre, had a very large and tnU'iesting collection. It *m very liberally patruulxrd by ail clacsee of people. Tito prin cipal trade carried on until after tne war of 181'J woe ia tobacco. It was brought to tho eity lu uagonsand cart- iroin tbe up country, and in packets from tbe bay counties, and snipped to foreign ports. MAXStaa or thr 1'Korui. "In old times the people were very sociable. The feet Is Baltimore or Maryland is a Kind of middle ground between tho North and the dbuih, but partake* more of the latter than the lormur. In 180C they tried to make every one happy aroesd and about them, aad I believe tfcoy do tho same thing to day. rtomise is 1x12. '?When war broke out in IMS 1 enlisted In the Fifth regiment, Maryland Volunteers, commanded by Uenerai SterrutL We marched lo Blade asberg when that town was threatened. At Brat (ieuerul Winder had command, but the Secretary of War came up and appeared to lake charge of tlie whole affair. Commodore Barney also Joined us w iihtbe meu from his flotilla, and continued tke en gagement after tho army had retreated. Our force was not more than half as large aa that of toe British, and w-c i?eius raw militia and they roguiar troops too re sult could be easily conceived. The main body of tbe troops retreated to Baltimore, and some lew wont to ward Washington. Of course there wa? very great ex- ; citemcnt in Baltimore, hut no des|>ondency. The ru- ' tnorsoon reached u* that Admiral Cockburu waa coming j up the bay to attack Baitjmoro. I roop* were organ >i<m hastily and fortifications thrown up. We were marched I down :n th? direction of North Point, and wero mi ? tertally assisted by troop* from Pennsylvania acd tho neighboring towns of tbis State. We were drawn up j behind a len< e, and au advance guard was sent out to I i reconnoitre. They soon bo.am i engaged with ihe ' enemy, and, in obedience to orders, fell u.ici. wlion the ! engagement became general. The British opened us us who were behind the lence with rockets, wuicn were bsrmlees, hut soon me Ore of mu?ketry becsme inces sant. lite tight tested about two beers, ted we Mil bask, bat the Bnttsb didn't follow. I havs at ways ! thought that the killing ol (laneral Ro*? *? what | ?i??l Baltimore. I'pou our return lo Baltimore ?o ! ?tro eniliueiasiically rvwiwJ by tho citizens. Trail#, I alter tho war, became Tory brisk. roi.mta ami fKooBiaa '?I used to toWe a 4ra.1t interest In politic*?that la, ] as u private citufo. 1 a us a mctnbrr of the olil whig ; patty, tut wbiu tho country show -d ita ingratitude by 1 turn ng doan Mr. CUy I quit politics and have had but ; little 10 do with flection* finer. "I have always felt tho greatest intercut la the Im provement o! Baltimore, and have contributed to it a* lar ai my jneani would allow, buying up property and building ou li whenever I could, Generally m.v health U very food. I atu at present President ol the Asiocia tk>n of'Old Deicndor*.' " JESSE L. HISS. ANOTHEB "OLD DErENDEB" O* DALTIJIOBE I!* TEEVIEWED?Kl'JCNISO FBOM THE BBIT1BH IS 1812?MANNEI18 AND MOBALITY IN THB FABT? TitADE AND POLITICK. Bai.timokr, May 3, 1*78. Jotie r? His*, another of tho ''Old Defenders" of Baltimore, la lu his eighty-ninth year. Within a year hi* memory was an goal, his mind ns firm aud hie frame a? strong a* at any previous period of his life, but latterly he has broken greatly. The fall destroyer has laid his heavy baud upon biui, and though he strives bard to noart?h tho wonderful vitality that has no long sastaiued hlra< it Is evident to'his Iriends that he li> a mere wreck of Irs former self. He gladly welcome-! the Hkrai.i> correspondent to-day and courteously wuvod him to a seat, apologizing lor not bring able to rise. Ho said ha had ofteu read thai paper -.villi delight and lielieved It to be the greatest journal lu the world. It was one ol' the most remarkable evidences of what energy aim talent eoald accomplish in this great cnumry. In re ply to my question* be said' I am in lavorof the Centennial and think tho general government and the Mate governments have done everything in Ihcir powur so 1 hat its success may bo assured. I was boru in Baltimore county aud came to the rlly In 1AOO. Baltimore city was at that time embraced lu the county. MTKICT.VK.SS Of MOKAI.a IN TMf PAST. "Wliero 1 w en raised there were no nniu?cmeuts ex cept going to church. That was about all people ttiought of. Tbey wore so mriot that people actually would uot allow tlielr children to piny with tlio.-e of their neighbors. There was a racecourse, Tini oneum, not lar from us lu laOO, and Uon eral Rldgcley, a large landed proprietor, raided somo very Una boriso*, but we wero not suffered 10 go near it. In 1.S00 1 learned my trade of chiiirmakin/ with Mr. Kisbor, the grandfather ol tho present bankers Major General Sian*bury was at that time a very distinguished man in Baltimore county and n rival of General Hiilgelcy, whom he several limes outstripped for the legislature, General Jobn linger Howard, of Revolutionary lame, Gonerals Smith and Hollins aud 1I10 Olivers aud Surretts wero all prom loent men. 1 remenibor well auMarAETi'a marriage In 1803 with Miss Patterson, and the excitement It created in Baltimore. It was customary then lor ladles to wear very short sleeves aud very long gloves, which they wrinkled when they moved their ansa, and we used to wear queues, cocked hats and kneo breeohea. I retnemlier an old man, named Stewart, a manufac turer of nulls. He waa very rich aud somewhat occeu tric. Ho wore a queue down his back fully ayurd long. Wo hnd a circa*, theatre and museum In Baltimore ut that time, but thoy wero much stricter with boys (han they arc now, aud wo were not permitted to frequent such places. Baltimore in the old tinio waa a great place for cock Qgbiing. Tho most respectable citizens raised their birds and look the deepest interest In thotr performances. Trade was very brtak previous to tho war ol 1S12. We usod to ship chairs around Cape Horn, and we did a trciueudous business with the West Indies. There was also a large trade carried ou with tho Ka?t Indies. I have known a whole cargo ol tea to be sold here at a tuna "As to cloctions, 1 do not believe they evor barn been or ever will be entirely lair. Tbey used to rheut a good deal in old tinios. It was dono In a quiet way, and generally in a small way. Men were bought up ludl virtually and not by the drove, as they are now; bat ? much better class of men weru elected in ihose days to QU the oiHcea. OHARRII BT TOR BRITIHUKRS. "When the war broke out In 1812 1 went down to An napolis and was sworn in. I was tn tho raee front Bludensburg. As I was getting over the fenco a lutlu fellow ahead of me got struck with a bullet and turned bead orer heels. I never stopped to pick him up, but went straight on as lust as 1 could go. 1 stopped at a tavern and got my dinner, and slept on the floor that night; but they yelled out thai tho British were coming the next moruing, aud, without stopping to Kettle with my landlord, I made tbo best o( my way to Baltimore. At the battle of North Point wo wore cntrenched in Patterson's Park, where the iortllleutions still remain. 1 remember tho riot of 181Ual the ttuio General Lingan was killed. I participated In it. It grew out of the war. I havo always been a damoorat. I went for Jack son becauso bo came next to Washington, and I only wish ho was alive that 1 might vote for him now." At this point your correspondent thought it advisa ble to diacontinno bla questloua, as the old gentleman was vory Iceblo and bla remlniaoencoa seemed to exuite biou THE PRESIDENT OF CUBA. SKETCH OF THE UH AND SERVICES 07 PRESI DENT TUMK, OT CUBA. USEE. An old friend of President Estrada I'alma, of the Republic of Cuba, bns furnished to tbo Herald tbo fol lowing sketch of bis Ife and services:? PRESIMKT PALMA Is a native of the city of Bayamo. His father, a Tory wealthy planter, whose estates wero principally situated on the banks ol the Klver Canto, died while bo was an infant. At twelve years of ago bis mother sent him, alter ho <4Uit school at Bayamo, to the College of Havana. Here he graduated with grant distinction. In l?6t no returned to Bayamo and attended to the care of his mother's property. His love for her Is said ot have been Intense, and tbo parent and son wore almost inseparable. He studied law olid pleaded cases In tho courts lor tbo poor of Uayamo, freo ol cost, and was greatly beloved for bis charitable deeds. In ldtW, WUE* THK UHVOMmOH RKOKB OCT, Pal ma, who had loug been an abolitionist at heart, freed all hie slaves. Many of them Joined the ranks of tho patriot*, accompanying their lormer master. Shortly after?nnmelv, in 18ttH?tho war coinuionccd l'aliua's mother died of a broken heart. The Cuban patriots formed a provisional government and desired thai I'alma should bold oilleo, but he siosdl'y refused to ac cept such trust until a constitution bad been adopted. The constitution was adopted at Uuimara In 1H6U. Paima was olccted subsequently MXMHKK OP OOSOHESS from the Kastero, or Oriental. Department. Twonty Congressmen were appointed, live for each of tho De partments?oriental. Cainugnoy. las Villas ana Occi dentc, The military government ol thu Re public Is satworvimt to tbtt or the civil authorities, and tho objcct has been to pre vent the formation of military cabals. During ??recess" then* Congressmen, whose places of meeting sre generally in the mountain fastuesses, frequently re turn to their districts atxl study thn special require ments of their constituents. Uto discipline ol the Briny, Its provisioning, the providing of wnr material, kc., come under their sdjiorvision. ss also the forma tion of laws, i'alma lu PKMOMAI. ArPK.tltASrK Is small of stature and delicate looking, bat of a lithe and active frame. Owing to a lack of crest physical strength he has not Iteuti sent out with the patriots to attuck thn Spatiinrds, but has given time and time again proof ot Ins courage by succoring, w hile under tho enemy's tire, his wounded countrymen. am maxskks. sro gentle and unassuming, and he in generally beloved by bis brethren who are now struggling for liborty iroiu Spanish tyranny. MAY ANNIVERSARIES. The anm!>er of the anniversary meetings of tho vs rloas societies In this city which are usually held In May !? diminishing each year, snd the custom is evi dently falling into disuse. Several of the largest or ganisations which heretofore have held tbetr anniver saries hero now go to other cities. Tho American Ilihle Society has its anniversary t xcrcl. es in Philadelphia on the 1M? Inst., and the anniversary meoltncs of tha Baptist societies take place in llutl'alo on the ?ld, L'lth, i'nli and Still) lusts. The following aro the moetings thus far announced to take plaoe in this ally :? hi\m?at, mat 7. The anniversary sermon ol th? American Home Mis sionar> Society will bo preached br the Rev. l.eoi,.<rd Uac>n, I>. D., of New Haven, In the Broadway Taber nacle, corner of Sixth avenue and Thirty-fourth street, at hall-part seven o'clock. American Hible Society discourse by Rev. W. J. K. Ta yior, of Newark, la the P'fth avonne Presbytenau church, at half past seven o'clock. mo-xhaT, may 8. National Temperance Society. The eleventh annl verssry will take place si Steiuway Hall at half-past seven o'clock. Addresses mill bo delivered by Ksv. George H. Hcpworth. Ksv. J. S. Konnard, Rov. W. J. Kcrtou, William k_ Dodge and others. I'nion Ttieological Seminary Alumni meeting, at which Itev. Dr. Adams will deliver an address si two o'clock. TCESDAV, MAT 0. Tlie annual meeting of the Woman's Board of for eign Missions will bo held in the chapel of the Col locate Reformed church, corner of Flfta aTcnue and Twenty-ninth street, at two o'clock. Wai'MRSOAV, MAT 10. The annual convention of the National Woman's Snf frage Association will be held at Masonic Hall, eoruer id Sixth avenue and Twenty-third street, the sessions being at naif-past ten A. M., two P. M. and eight P. M. The American Homo Misslonsry Society will hold its annual meeting at me Biidc Housu at four o'clock. The dity flrat annual meeting of ths American Tract Society will be held at Dr. Crosby's church, corner of Fourth avenue and Twenty-second street, at ten o clock A. M. ? thcbsoav, mat It. The Now York Su?to Woman's Suffrage Association will bold its snnanl convention in tho Maionic leuiple, at wnicb there will be three sessions. The snnual meeting of the Amorlcan Blblo Society takes place at us rooms, in tha Bible House, at lour P. M. sotbat, mat 14. Tha anniversary exerciao# of the American Tract So ciety will be held at the Church of the Holy Trinity, corner or Madison avmui ami PertyseeeaS street, st half past aevsn o'clock. COAL WORKERS. 0 LOO XT PRORPECTH rou COI-LIEES?PBODCCTIOK TO BE UNt'bDALLT LIMITED DLBIKO THK BUMMEB. Wtf.KKSRAaitK, I'll., May 6, 18T8. The enforced suspension of coal production In the Lehigh region commenced yesier lay nn<l will con tloue lor twelve lull working days. Tho suspension affect* all the colllerlrs depending upon the I.etugh Valley Railroad for cam and transportation and throw* some twenty mines in the Wyoming region Into idle ness. Title state of thing* baa lie?n brought about by the coal combination, which has tho power to eoorco even so gigantic a corporation as tho Lehigh Valley Railroad Company to draw In tho tracos without a murmur. Last woek it appeared as if some of tho bonds which hold the coal combination together were to bo broken and tho wholo arrangement go to pieces. The Lehigh Valley Kail road Company seemed, too, Incliued to excrniro Home of Us old time independence, and wont on carrying all the coal shippers lit to send by It. Its quota, as es tabiuhed by tho combination, was greatly overrun, and, wbeu notified of the (art, President Packer inti mated that as his was a carrying nuhcr than a coal producing corporation, be did not see bow he could re luse to receive shipment* and disappoint his eu-tom ers at the dictation u?uide pariie*. lie thought li? | would be obliged to take .ill the coal offered unlets two-third* of the shippers by tho Lehigti Valley route should Join in n petition 1 for him to yield to a temporary suspension. Tins itidi- ! cationof policy on Mr. Packer'* part did not tilcuso llio ? coinhmntioniMs, and they immediately took ?tep* to ! forco Mr. Packer to their terms. A thre-ii to ninke j coal cheaper ut tidewater did the business, and tlio Lehigh V.iliey Railroad Is a* ouiel as a iumt> within the told of the groat combination, and quite its im potent to go against the Wtalie* of the coal monopo lists a* any of ilia Insignificant individual operators in this valley. The price ol coal Is to lie muitiLiinod at all hazards. It ih evident, Ihu* eirly, that the soaaon Is to I hi marked by a series of suspeusioii of longer or shorter duration, a- the com bnialton may direct. The men will have less work ; than they had last year, and tint coal trade will lie lit- I fill and feverish to the rud. Miners generally ate in : a state ut great distress Many of their famtlios arc iu actual sufl'-ring, and their condition promise* to he I much worse beioro tno advent of winter. It seems ! moot probable that there will lie a general suspension 01 oral production throughout the anthracite region* : at a no distant date. Indeed, il may bo regarded a* certain tbut no coal will be mined during the month* of July and August, and the period of idleness may ho Inaugurated as oarly as Jutio. Tho prospocts of the coal trade are more gloomy than ever. DELAWARE AND HUDSON COMPANIES. Port .1 Kit vis, May 5, 1878. In accordanco with the Agreement made at the lata private meeting of tho companies representing the coal combination the operators have stopped production iu the upper coal Held*. Tho same tnovotneu. will tie adopted by all the companies In the pool throughout the northern and middle coal tlelds. Tho Delaware and Hudson Coal Company, whose extensive wortcs ?re located In the upper districts, have rodnccd the wagea of thotr laboring men ten per cent. Tots has occasioned much diuat; (faction, and more trouble is expeoted. For some unto pun the worktagmen have been holding secret con ferences, and the Impression prevail* that they havo determined upon a strike at ait oarly date. The least Indiscretion upon the part of anyone might precipitate an open rupture between the men and operator* ut any moment. Those who sro supposed to be well posted about the subject say the workingmeu are prepared to carry on a strike, if once inaugurated, for an indctluUo period. There are tally 26,0UU men out of employ ment iu the various districts, and, ait is usual, much lawiosanees is the result. It was intimated In a previous dospatch that if the troubles were not adjustod soon al Coaldalr, where a perlect reign of terror has existed lor some time, a repetition of Ibe terrible aud bloody scone that was enacted there a short time since would occur. The oondrmatton comes witb intelligence that the des peradoes are re pent Inn other lawless acta. James O'Donnell has been shot at through a window and latally wounded, several buildings havo beeu tired, and certain obnoxious parties have received "coflln noticeh" to leave the region, under peualty of dentil. The evil feeling among the more desperate classes gains strength hourly, and Important and startling develop monts may bo anticipated at any moment. PLYMOUTH PRAYEIi MEETING. There was ? larger attendance (if possible) than ovor at Plymouth prayer meeting last night to welcome Mr Beecher back. Professor Calvin E. Stowo and Mr a] Harriet Beecber Stove were present. Professor Stowo IB a vary venerable looking old goutlomnn, with flowing, silvery looks. A fur the usual services sixty.flre new members were received Into tbo church. A son of Professor John Raymoua and the youngest daughter of Ward Raymond, deacon of a Baptist church In San Francisco. were baptised by immersion. Mr. Beecher's table was loaded with beautiful wild flowers. After tbo preliminary exercises, Mr. Boeehor said"Bxpeneaoo shows tbst no influence la tbo world is like personal Influence. You may Interest men in nainra and art; you may teach tliem ad mini tion ibrougb intellectual processes. but wben It comes to a matter of conduct and character there Is no influence that can compare with the steady pressure of some personal friend. It may be mother or father, or some person aside irom a relative, wno represents wisdom and goodness to yon. It is that influence that God baa sent to roar tbo race. The wholo shape and fashion of oar llTes is given by personal snd parental lafluenon. Whenever, therefore, Jesus Christ Is spoken of as having ottered a new and 1'ving way, .whatever else is IncTudod this is, ttint a sen so, not of ritual or fornr, or regularity, is now Instituted, but with this or without, ax may be, there is .1 personal re. laltonship established between the soul of man and God, a* represented by the Lord Jesus ChrisL God is like the pure atmosphere, the purer it is the less we see It, and in Jesus Cbrist it is condensed and made a person, not a universal spirit, but a distinct person, and Jesus Christ bocoinos our conception of God. Them uro two thoughts 1 want to impress, tlrst, that wo should insko AX IUKtORAHI.lt non lor ourselves In our,conecpiwu ol Jesus Christ. Do not be startled at my saying we make our God. We have never seen Him. Wo huvo ideas, and they form lor curb one a distinct persoual conception of the I.ord Jesus Christ. Now, (his idea uf the Lord Jesus Christ is the Lord you bavo chosen. You liavu set Hun up In heaven and ciowned llun I.ord of all. Who is your Sovereign? What Is Hi- namef What IS He liket 1 don't aek In the intellectual sense, bat a.- your por ?onai friend, how. have you constituted your com panion; your elder bioilier; your personal iriend and llwlwatfj your God? He is what you have put into llun?to you. There ?ro natures we read of that we long to know. Sometimes we fall under itio Influence of one at them, and wo say, "How easy llie would ne li 1 could have such a ouoa near all the time." 11m is what Cbrist makes liimself t<> those who know 'now to know the Christ iliai is In heaven. TIIK (Mirk's CHRIST. ! besceeh. If you don't draw llis likeness in your soul anythiug but beauty aud jr.ice, don't put auy stern or bard or cruel thoughts lu It. Mako your Saviour glorious with your own personal thought ami feeling. Having ilouo that, the next thouii.it is. ir>'Kt him hoaorab>y, \% hieli very lew of us >10. I have oiten thought it I had a friend whoso friendship was luvitlnahle md 1 only utade a convenience ?t unn?only went 10 him when 1 wanted something and treated with indifference or couiempt wiien I did not?how long would lie he my fricndf Men have not the strength to carry on n Irieudsliip against such odds as that. Hut how do wr treat onr Saviour? I bavo met with pros perity and adversity, have known great grief# and great Joys, hare had great pesoo ami passed through gr eat struggles, and i i>ear witness thai nothing could have sustained me, and kepi my nr.id si>ovc water, hilt tho vision I have of the l.ord Ji?us Cnrin. a Floating palace. The new French steamship Cannda, which arrived at this port yesterday, loruis an addition 10 the fleet el tho CompngnlO Gdnlraie Tmn-aiiantique. The Canada's length Is MO left, snd her breadth of beam U9 feci. She Is of about 3.600 tons gross burden, Is bark rigged, ha* compound engines ol MO horse purer and is capshlt of running at au average speed of thir teen knots an hour. Her passenger accommodation is lor 148 id first cabin, ll'i in second caiun, Ai in third cabin and MO in fourth cabin?total, das passenger*. A new leature in this vassel is the grouping 01 tw o cabins snd private parlor combined. >he is said bv her agents to be one of llis most solidly built craft which ever created the Atlantic lu nppearan< e sbo much resembles the favorite Vessel ol tlie line, the St. Laurent. Her commander, K Kraugeml, is ous ol the oldent and most trusted olfloers of iiio line, sud was formerly la charge ol the Viile de Brest, plying in the Weat India trade. The caiuns are titled up in ths most elegapt and costly fashion, nnd the vessel promises to do credit la every respect to the French line. THE OLD GUARDS BANNER Nkw York, Msy 4, 1 ?>7a. To m Borroa or *nn H*rali>:? The flag spoken of ta your paper of yet rday, a* coming from the ladles oi Charleston, ass presented to the "Old Guard," and the only wny in which the Stock Kxchange are IB any *ay identified with it Is that M^or Mrl-ean, who is commandant of our organi sation, is President of that body, and numbers ol our members are also connected (Herewith. Again, the ten gentlemen who visited Charleston on the Xld of February last paid their own espeases, neither asking nor receiving aid from aay one. Very respeetimiy yours, JOHN MAKI INK, first Sergeant, "GUI Guard." Comprehensive History by William Cnllen Bryant. A CENTENNIAL WORK. Treeing Out the Discovery and Development of Our Country. A Porcian History or tiir Cmtro Stat**, from the Firm Disooverv of the Western Hemisphere by the Northmen to t'n.' End of the First Century of the I it ion of tho SUWh, preceded by n fkrtch of the Prehistoric Period and the Age ol the Moundi Build - org. By William Cnllen Bryant and Syduey Howard Uuy. Vol I. Fully illustrated. New \ork: txnb ner, Armstrong k Co. UTO. Such In the title ol one oftfje most Important iKioks ever published in America. Of histories of the I nltc.l States thero are no end. bnt thero arc none that hare aimed at and attained the result ol the preoent volume. It was a happy thought of the publishers to secure Mr. Bryant to writo their great history, and 'it will bo the crowning eflort of tho veteran poet's life. This first viilunio has been under way for two years, and thero Is not a lino In It that baa not pawed through Mr. Bryant's hands, notwithstanding tho ability of hi* assistants. It has been the object of tho authors and publishers to make this history to tho United State* what Knight's is to Fug IftUrt, and judging by the Ursl volume wo should say thoy had made a successful boglnnlug. No pains or expent-e hare been spared In letterpress or" Illustra tions, nert the most careful personal research hss been mudo Hi collecting new and authoritative material. Twenty-live ihousnud dollars is a low estimate ol the tost of this one volume. Or the fl'?8 pages which com pose the volume, tn uro Illustrated. Five of theso pnees are steel plates nnd twelve full page, and all srs mane expressly for this work. The frontNpieco is a line portrait ol Mr. Bryant, which Is a work ol art, and perhaps the best ertori of Its famous engraver, Mr. Charles Burt. A few of the Illustration- were made by tho celebrated French artist. Ktnil llayard, who lllus trated "India" so mapnllleently. Among tho American artists represented are Thomas Morttu, W. I.. !<Iiep pard, A. Uierstadt, 0. It. Boughtou, J. D. Woodward, E. A. Abbey, A. B. Waud, (S. O. White, Sol Kytinge, (iranville Perkins, Winslow Homer, Miss Ilallock, Frauds Uthrop and others comprising some or our best known landecA|ic and figure painters. An nnalytl cal and chronological index combined is one of tho im portant leatures of the book. The llrst chapter of tho prosent rolume Is a statement of the modern discovery of the evidence of the existonco of tho pre-historic man and the present scleiitltlc. aspect or that question. The application of thlsevideuco In llio Kshtcra Hemisphere is made to tho Western, the in tention heing to show that there arc many reasons ror supposing that the priniorsl man had an existonco on Ibis Continent, as well as others; that the copper colored snvago found here three centuries ago was not necessarily that primeval man ; that the supposition that this ooppor colored savage, coming horo compara tively a little while ago from Asia, was the llrst race is highly improbablo. The second chapter Is a sort ol monograph of tho mound builders and Is Illustrated from photographs of Miecimens In tho collection In the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society and never ,cf?? ensraved. It brings together and groups the evidence ax to thotr work, their reniulns and their character so tor M there ?? any Indication of It and pre ??BU them as ? ra.e with nothing in common with iho North American Indians, aud In all probability preceding them. Tho two chapters are an attempt ii> unravel the mystery wrapped around this half ol ttis world till it was discovered by Columbus, and that it had its human interest just as much as the rost O? the world and is new only In the sense ol being new I w the oStelde world. The 'preceding chapters toll the stories ot pre-Columbian times, whether true or lalse, but which have beou and are believed In. The Colum bian chapters show what It was that Columbus meant t^nd what led him In his search, and what to the | day ot'his 8oath ho Uiou*ht he hsd discovered. His character and career are looked at in a new and impor mm iiisbL It 1? *hw shown on new authority now America csnio by *ts name. Trie authors have been larice'y assistod in their wo* by the discovery of some valuable old manuscripts. It is Impossible to speak uk> hiahlv of a work wnicn shows on the la<* ol it the I^donceor so much iSearch and conscientious labor. The stvlo In which tho b.s.k is written is graphic and cracetui, and never rora moment dull. lu an elaborate prolaco Mr. Bryant summsrlz? s tho ?iiiTilect on which he writes and gives a v;iiu.ible essai ou the events ot the past century. Ula oonulusl.ms are in iho main Just and always honest He dwells at laneiti on I be subjsct or slavery and its attendant evils. Inoo n< ?ud I ng * b Is subjectho ?y.:-"Tl.o rham..,?n* oi slavory on one side?abls men and skilled Iu Ute KTitcdunls ol purtr warfare, and In many instances ?incorrupt and pure in personal character?and the champions of the slave on tho other?fearless and ready ror tho martyrdom which they somemmes Indored their faculties exalted by a sonse ol danger? ^n now. as they and their acts pass In review helore tho historian, bo judged with a degree of calmness bcioneing to a new era ot our political eiiswnoe. iu -pcaking of the cffects of the late civil war he -''i-med for a while as ir peculation had been tsken nn hv ? 1s rue class as a profession, so numeious wero the instances of detection. Tho public vigilance was chreeled against every person In a pecuniary trust. Homo who had nevor bolore been suspected found themselves suddenly lu the custody or the law, and mh^r rearing that their turn in gbt soon come, pru dently' ran a way. There norer has been a time when it was >o dauge'rous for a public man to make a slip in his accounts. Investigation becamo the order of ihe j v rn.4 a considerable p?ri of tlie content* o! erory dafl'y paper consisted ol the proceedings of committees formed tor examining into the accounts or men who haid pecuniarv trusts. As first sight It seemed as If the world lno suddenly grown worse; on a second reflec tion it was clear that it was growing better. A process i ll..Mutton was gomg on , dishonest men were si ripped ,K. r o"'o,?| lurtber mischief and branded with disgrace, and men of whom belter hopes were entertained put la their place. The narrative or theso f. mi!,.* could not properly stop short or tho punish m M wIi-ch overlook the' encoders, and which, while ? the lesson of their otherwiso worthless lives In'tructtve. vindicates to some extent the character of the ualion at largo. IS^SSlWXry of the only great nation on tlio glob. the beginnings or which are ully recorded in contemporary writings, and lor wh ch wu ?r..compelled, a* in other cases, to grope in the dTrkucss of tradition, Ihe stttbors of this work have . to the proper sources, tho ancient records immseives. Toe nirrative has been drawn imn.o dia^ltom theso writing, aud by them has every statement and date or our early history been verified. For the >*",r periods the materials are, of course, vol. it. 1 us ami oircuinstantlal. even to embsrrassment. W? are not without the hope ih.it tUo?o who read what - itlfJ written will ?eo in tlio past, wllhall Its vic.^sl tttdM snd with all our own shoric.mlngs, tho promise ^ i prosperous and honorable luture. ol concord at J i i?. ice and respect abroad, and that the ^aine ehoerlul ,,Xv which lea.is ths go.sl man to put his per eonal trust In rt kind Providence will prompt the good I citizen t>. . b-rish au equal conlidonce in regard to the dMiiav reserved iv>r our beloved country. I There i- norcaoii to doi.'it Mr. Bryant when ho i ? ?? We hsve eud-svored to divest ourselves while ! pn'-wed in this task sil local pr?ju.liccs and every in flm m e which might afftet the '.nipsrtiailty of the nsr | r'"vVirr devoting a chapter to the subject of pre lusioric msiiin genci'n i li*- authors say, ? Mow,ver.ironKmay be tlie probability ol the Asiatic or gin ol the North 1 Ainerican Indians, behird them appears another race which mu?t hsve been displaced by ibst Mongolian It here S* vlsewhere there were races moro ! "I'^. han h:.s hitherto been Mipposed, we can no 1 icrlook upon tho Western iMm-phere as s<d tary nu I utipeopI.?'I. unknown and useless to man .." he ""' wu Ll in tho Fast. numerous cn..ngh and l?r f,r0** adViuoeu In intelligence and wants to wsnder ^b^d ujon"be r^-or Iho eertb in search ol a new hTlio .ubieet or Ihe mound builders Is ouv of the ,-ri.iMi interest n?t only to the hisiorisn bnt to the uIVar?i r-Sdsr. The anihurs have evidently i?fen more EJMSS interetted their rosearcb un this sub ^rii^.Nolth American lnd:aus are. as a race. Ill no hliiher i lane t>l culture than mey were years ago. I Ibi y have any luheient capability lor | rog.es,-if tnc\ coni.i hsd tuey remained laolatod and unmolested, liars evor raised i hem'fives above the conditions ?f ihe second age ol Stone implements, that progress was l?re-ied whot. tbey < ame into subjection to anotIter mid a hither ra<". It has i^en easy enough to imon "he weaknesses which d.sUagu.shejt tliern as sav lacs bv addinu to these the most s. nsual and degrad ? ing Vines acquired from the wlinos, and in that process ot dcgrvtstion has lieen l*t whatever of stern snd manly virtue is supposed to be th.- compensation in tho simplo child ol nature for the minor morals ol civilized Ui he chapter of pre Colombian voysges is new snd in teresting. The sutbors traco tne legendary liiatory of voysges to America by the Wolsli, the Norseineu sud 1 "'"u r 'ha've devoted these earlier chapters," say the 1 snihors *io periods which, in previous histories ol ihe I nitod .States snd ol America, hsve either had no place at ail or have been dismissed in s page or a para yrsph .Should it ever be possible to penetrate the mystery and darkness .which shrouded one hail the world almost as completely ss !l it had b.cn another planet, Irotn the lime <d lis creation to a thousand years after Jesus Christ, such an addition to human knowledge wonld bo ol ineott. m.We viUue and iMn Interest. Modern sciencs 1 has only 'wpnn to rend this storr or rare* and of etnl ; nation that long since disappear* I, leaving no other record than those relic* wtmlt nil rooently have hues , either overlooked or misunderstood. I "What point In time or what degree of knowledge m?v be th'i* reacted l>y future discoveries and deduction* Irout them in a licld n't yet but little explored it would be ra."!i to li t-vt 11 it guess. lint It 1a well to know what ground there ih for ^resuming lh.it it It possible to learn anything ortluil pre hiatoric period. And still more iu actual hiator)-, even though ua n mnii !?? ob. i?cure and imperfect. or only traditions reduced to writing, even though the (wind ol wmrh we ran gain only such imperfect information he, in soine respects, |p;emlar> and romantic, we n<.?y, nevertheless, protlia. My aud pro|?eriy go further hack than thu ordinary * starting point by fire hundred year*. "Hiiiierto the legitimate commencement of Americas ! bixtory hue been he'd to i>o toward the oud ol the lif I Iretith century. and all bejosd tabulou* or inscrulabln. { lint there were bold men nnd sktlinl sailor* liefore ; Columhua. Kvcr since men sailed upon iho aea or . |tofMM?Ml a literature there have been glimpses. tome times transient or iliu?ory. ni other time* dial I net, of a mv-terious world in tho Western Oceao, the .'011)1*1 of curious conjecture, ol vague prophecy, and oflaner, perbap*, than I* supposed o: attempted discovery. Though there wt< no permanent occupation and no positive recognition of ibis a* a new quarter of tin ; globe till the Columbian era, the reul or supposed ap proaches to tlx possession for the MO previous yoara j appeal as nnii h in liiiman avmpatny anil are as perti 1 lent to bunisn procrci* a* the mvthlcsl period* ol thu j historical nation* ol the Old World. 1 ??From discoveries made without design and in Igno | runce of their real character we ure led. in tho gradual j progress of events nnd ihe alow advance of knowledge, 1 to that later time when the ocean was traversed with a diatincl and intailigent purpose and with unhesitating faith. Ihe Northmen, the Welsh, tbe Vsociian*?as suming thdr narratives to I 0 wholly or partially true while they were certain that they"had nailed Into un known ?oa?. and uer- cast upon new lamia and among ?trange people* beyond the accredited limits ol the in lialilted world, also helicvi'd. no doubt, that tlloy had only readied the farther shore* or the outlying Mauds of the con'incnt wlicm* they came. The notiotia an to tho Kliape and the extent tf the earth wero at that period mi vague. even among the learned, ami Iho art of navigation was ho little developed. that 1 her* was not tnui h speculation as to the possibility of pem-trst Ing beyond the known limits of the continent and out of the accuatomeu traeks ol alniis, All that mariners dared to do was to creep along tho roaat Irnin headland to headland, with u fair w.nd, to goto places frequently V.Sited.l' The authors nre of the opinion that ''Columbus, liko ths navigators of t'rince Henry, meant to ilnd a new route to tlio Ku?t/. only iu a Ireali direction; and he died in the belief alter lour vox age." to the New World, that the Countries he had reached were literally tho West Indies?ihe coasts of Asia nppruitrbed Irom ihn went. Thu difference hetwien him and llio-u who by chance crossed iho Atlantic beiors him was, that he, Imp Still Ij a lervnl religious faith uiid by con elusions drawn from scientific study, had boldly sought 10 explore the unknown on which they had olily been ignoiantly driven." THK NAMI.Xli or VVSKIfA. The new theory of how America came by its name la of considerable importance. We do uoi propose, s.iy the nuthois, to enter Into any anamination of a ?lueiiiiou which Is one ol circumstantial rather than positive evidence, and which probably will never be deOnttively settled, Giving to Vespucci the benefit of the ilount, tilers ts much In the loriuitons oircuiustances 01 tho cars to Explain this naming of a newly discovered eouutry by men who, perhaps, had never looked upon the sco, and who may liavo known little, except In a general way, of ihn different expeditions of tho navigators of Spain nud Portugal, and still less ol the persoual lniere.it at tached to tbctr lortunes and their deed* The l>uke ol Ixirralne was a patrou ol learmug; iho young profes sor* of tlio collage uiidor his protection wore ambitious 01 literary lanio and proud of tlieir literary labors, It would bring, no doubt, great credit to 81. Die. If. tu a work Irom Its printing press, tho world should ba taught that these wuiidcrful discoveries of the ten pre coiling years wero not, as had boon tgnorantly sup pose J, the outlying Islands and coiimIh ol ludia, but ol a new mid unknown continent which separated hu ro|>o Irom Asia. Thu conclusion, very I'kely, was .lumped at?it lucky guess of over romldcut youth rather tlinn any superiority of judgment. Had these young book makers lived ill Cadi* or l.isboti, luslcad ol' tho Vo?gcs mountains, tbuy might have hesitated to pronounce upou n question which hud as vet hardly been .-aiscd. If It had been raised at all, among the older coamographers aud navigators. They rushed Iu where even Columbus huJ not thnugbt to tread, aud not only announced tho dlscovory of a now continent but propo-ed to uaiue It ? ? ? WiiMseem&llor (HyJaroruvlus) asRiinung thu date of 1407 to be correct?if it was so given 111 ths lotter I<ud declared the Duke had received from Ves pucci?says 111 III* geographical work, Iho "Cosmo grnpliiio Introductio":?''Asd lbs tourlh part of ths world having been discovered bv Amcnrus may well N railed Ainerige, which is as much as to say the land ol Americu* or America." Again he nays:? "But uow these pari* are tnore extensively explored, and, as will bu seen by tho following letters, another fourth has been discovered by Atuoricus VespucciUs, which I see no reason why anyone should forbid to be named Ameridge, which is as much as to say tho land ol Aiuerlcu* or America from it* discoverer. Amvrleu*, who Is a man of shrewd intellect; lor Kuropc and Asl* have both of them a fotuinino lor111 of naine from ths names ol women." Now, in 14U7 Vespucci wa* still residing at Ksvillo. enguged as factor or partuer in a commercial houac. In llay of the following year, 14'jh, Columbus sailod on Ms third voyage, and for several months previous VtMpuccl was occupied in fitting out tho ship* lor that expedition. It I* linpo* ?ihle, therefore, that ho can have gouo to sua in May, 1497, to be absent eighteen mouthn ? ? ? Tnat Vespucci was tho discoverc? of the American Continent is, therefore, clearly uutruo; although it i* true thai his account of such a continental laud in tb? Wast waa tlio one tlrst published, and by hi* zealous friends at SU IHe, who attached his name to it ? ? ? In the voluminous testimony on that trial Vespocel was not named as ono lor whom precedence could bo claimed, while Ojeda. under whom Vespucci went on hi* first voyage, distinctly arsert* than ihe mainland was dia covered by Columbus. It is. nevertheless, probably true that Va?nuccl ex plored along tho American coast tn his several voyages lurther thaii any navigator ol hi* time, as hs sailed from about the (IDy fourth degree of *ouih latitude 10 the peninsula of Florida, and possibly to Chesapeake Usy at the north. Whether the ?SL Ui< editors really believed, or whether tho dates of III* voyages wero iu come way so chstiged a* lo make It appear, that hs was also ihe first discoverer or a wciisrn continent, sra questions which may never be answered, liut the uaa they made ol hi* name was adopted in various works wit 111 n the next lew years, and thus in the course ol lltno America beeaino the designation of thu whole western hemisphere. LA.HDtaa or tiis ptuiHixa. The date of Ihe landing ot the pilgrims ba* long been a bone ol contouiion among historians, but tt Is settled very simply by the authors of this volume : December 11, Did Style; December il, New Style, In 170V. tnc " Undiug of thu ? Pilgrim Kaihxr* ' " waa flrst cnmnietnorsted st I'lymouth, and the date in New Style was erroneously made tho &M, instead of tba ?Jim. The error, which ha* been perpctuatod ever Rlnce In the celebration of the dav.aroso.lt has been supposed, Iroin the addition of eleven days, instead ol ten, to mark me utflerouco tietwecn Old .Style and New. Tho explanation is unsatisfactory, as such s blunder seems nsrrtly likely to have occurred. The error mora probably caino from a mistake in puucluaitou, in Mourt'fl Hrintiiin, where the statement Is: "Aim hert we made our rcudczvou* all that day, tielng Jiatunlay, 10 ol December, 011 the Sabbath day we rested, and >n Monday we *oiin<le?l the harbor,'' There should be a period after "Saturday." when It would read: " And here wo made our rciiilozvoua all that day, being Saturday. 10 of DeeemlH-r, on tho Saotialb day, we rested; aud on Mondav," Ate. Saturday was certainly the Oth, not Iho loth, but when, Iu litlt), 111 Plymouth, they turned to Mourl4* Hrlation, 10 ox the date ol thM Incident, and read tho record with its erroneous punc tustion. ihoy ol course called Monday the Piih, and, adding ten day* lor difference of style*, mado "koto father*' Day " the -J<t. AX OLO TRXK. Opposite page 4W1 i* iho portrait of the famous mat l>?rrv tree, which Is to Maryland what the Charter Oak I* to Connecticut. Mr Morau haa done hi* beat t? iimko a faithlul |*irlrait ol ihe old relic, and baa suc ceeded. The tree stand* at the blull at 9t Mary*. "On the highest part ol Ihe bluIT stood a mulberry tree, large enough even then to throw a broaa shade about it, and to be visible lor a long (balance up and down tho river. For more than two hundred yoart atterwnrd its mas* ol loliage slid crowned Hie pronion toiy, anil its decaveu and olacktuod trunk, lying where it lell nut a lew year* ago, yet mark* the place ol IU growth, but nearer to the odgo ol llio bank than It waa when ihe settlors flmt stood around it, lor tho nvcr has changed and reduced the sandy cape I'uder this troe, according 10 wall-authenticated tradition, l<eonar4 ?divert ninde a treaty witn the Indiana ol tho village. For a certain payinenl in cloth, tool* and trlnketa the tribe of Yaocotuico consented that the strangers ahoufd share their town with ilioin through thu harveat, aud then should purcbtso all tbe *iie, while tho eaally conientc'J savagea removed their dwelling elacwhere," vai.i UU Msa. For many years tbe MH. reonrds of Maryland, lo which lloxinan and others writing in the early part of this century appear to have had access, have been lost. In Ui'h-iiiIit, lilt, a fcO* of old pa|ier*, supposed to be worthless, was to bo *uld Irom tbe record ofllce at An n 1 poll*, when, on a carcful exaniiaationof its oontenta. a portion of tho MS. covering a considerable period suosequent to Calvurt'a death was dtacovered la an almost complete state of preservation. Without dia* rinsing any new lacta of moment. It bears witness to tho correctness of lloiman's irsu-M-rlpts. In the text a fto-aimile 1* given of a part of the pace bearing Cierk llrett-in's record ol Calvert's deathbed appointment ol tircen. It runs a* follow*:? Whereaa by C'ominisrioii from ya Kt. Honble Cecil, 1A Propr of ye Province ol Mary laind to ye late Gov ernor l-e-oiarit Caluart Ksqre. be.ir.tjg date ye 14th Sep tembr li>44 alt his l.ps (!,ord?lnp'*J Fort att St Manes ye sd Province lie* ye ad l.eou Calvert waa authorised, 111 case hee should happen 10 dye, or be aliseiit from time to time, out of ye ed Provmoe to nominate elect Je appoint *utb an able |ieraon Inhabiting * residing wtinb ye ad Province (aa he on his discretion should make choice ol, a ibinke Alt) to i>c Governor of ye ad Province These are therefore to publish h declare te all those wlmm It may concerno yt re *<l l^on. Calvert did by word ol month 00 the N intn day of June 1A47 fly ing uppon his death bed, yen in perfect memory) notnui nte A; ap|MiintThomas Greene K'qronc 01 yeCoun*eli ol this Province, tu be Governor oi ye same, wth all ys same authority h power ol govormt as hs yesd l/Coiiard Calvcri was authorized by his l.p* tommivn to eonferrs uppon him. A* by y? oath* ol Mrs Margaret 4 Mar* Urent, Francis Aukesiil k James I.lnsev (who were nil then present wth htm att ye same time) Is averred to 1 be true. Teste me WHIm Itretton, Clk. The three succeeding volume* of this work will flit r low a* rapidly as the great laimr necessary to their com 1 pletton will allow. The loretaste of the good things t< come given in minute I. only make ns lbs Mrs ilk 1 patient lor those which are ysi to teilow.

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