Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 20, 1876, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 20, 1876 Page 4
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PETER COOPER, The Venerable Philanthropist on the Condition of the Country. THE VITAL ISSUE LN THE MG CAMPAIGN. Commercial Depression Directly Trace able to Contraction. THE MODERN SEARCH FOR A MAN. "Yet." said the venerable Peter Cooper, as ho looked ?I a Hkrald reporter over till tour-glassed spectacles; "I think Grant has a belter chance than anybody else. 1 don't object to a thlrd'term. It isn't the length of time so much us the man. If Grunt wore a second Washington, 1 should think it a good Idea to re-elcct him. ltut he Isn't. If I wore to suggest any ctiango at all In that,* dirottlon It would be to have but one term?a longer one than four years?and then niuke it Impossible for a President to bo his own successor. That being the law the incumbcnt, Instead of worrying nbout a renoinlnation or a desire to get out with a for tune, would l>o naturally desirous ol leaving a good Impression, so that, lute In life, ho tulght, perhaps, be recalled to that exalted station." Rki-oktbr?From the emphasis you laid on the words "the man," just now, I Infer that yon are like Messrs. Adunis and Weed?looking for the "Grout Un known." The Western convention seemed to think you might be ho. Mr. Coot'KR?Yes; I see, 1 see. God knows I love my country and would cheerfully lay down my llle lor her lu tins dark hour of her need. The terrible con dition of airalrs Is well calculated to stir every Rontl ment or patriotism mid regard a iuaii has In his breast. Tho end is uot yet. llulf TilR CITY IS MORTUAOKD, f and the mortgages can't even pay the intorest. Lot mo give you n specimen brick. Some time since n friend ot mino purchased property for $20,000. He had a mortgage on It of $10,000. He did'nt comply with tho term* It was ndvertised for sale. Ho attended. The only bidder was the mortgagee. who bought the $20,000 property for $600 cash, und now holds the $20,000 property and the bond lor $U,500 besides. ??Will he have tho heart to enforce the bond ?" ?'Every cent of It, until It takes the lust drop of blood In his debtor's body. Now, that's a nice state of things, ib'nt It ? And it's what wo ore all comlug to. Ltbor Is too high.' Evorylliing olse Is depressed, and yet the BY ST KM or STRIKES Is encouraged by the great body of workingmen and by some of the Inconsiderate press. 1 know what labor Is. 1 began life us a worker, mid frotn my $1 50 u day saved and saved until 1 went Into business and amassed enoogh to koep me in comfort us long us I Inst So with the honest and Industrious men of to-duy. They work and lay by something tor a rainy day, but pres ently uttriko comes. They ure thrown out of work ind tho bard earned money they carefully put avtuy is Wasted in supporting a lot of luzy fellows whose ouly claim is that they belong to tho union. It's all wrong ind very terrible, but tho MONKY TINKKHS ARK AT PAULT. "When wo were at war, struggling lor tho life of the Ballon, no sacrifice was too greut. To save the country was our first utid constant thought. We did right to borrow gold and silver as long us wo could and then wo did right to Issue certificates of indebtedness until peace cauie and then tho borrowing should cease. Wo had then lu circulation nbout $2,000,000,000; now wo have about $700,000,000 or $800,000,000. Look at tho stupendous, the ruinous difference! How can we expect to prosper with this state of things? The $2,000,000,000 was the price of the nation's life; It should bo restored to circulation again. It should be made tho uever changing, never tluctuatiug standard of value, increased or diminished only per capita Vith tho growth of our population." OOVRRXOR T1LDKX. Rkportkk?The politicians rather avoid the serious aspects of this question. Have you spoken with Gov ernor Tilden ou the subject? Mr. Coopkr?Oh, yes. I called on Mr. Tilden a few days ugo and loft with him an address I was to have lead, and which was read, at the Indianapolis Conven tion. As 1 did so, I Mid:?"Mr. Tildon, if you oan eland on this platform it will afford mo very much pleasure to do what I cau to muke you President" Out he has other things to think of. All these poll, llciaus aro thinking of self und how to advanco their own prospects. Mr. Tilden is a well meaning man, but he ,i usi take a stand ou this questiou if he hope* to be supported by thinking men. TUB COMING MAN. Rkportke? Who is tho coming man in your opinion? Yourself? Mr. Coopkr?Heaven knows, I would make any sacrifice for my country; but I am too old. I am elgiity-eigbi years old nnd would hardly live to reach the placo, let alono tho end of the term. Ob, no. I wrote tho Convention that I was admonished by the nllrmitics of age?although I am in better health than 1 have been in twenty years?that I must decline, and 1 did. They have nominated Mr. Allen, who is an ex cel leu t candidate und will develop a strength thut will turprise the critics. There will bo enough voters leave tho party ranks to elect the third party candi date unless action, which mcaus relief, is taken at the eon volitions Kkpoktkr?How about Grant? Mr. Coopbr?oh. Grant 1 wrote to Grant long ago In relation to llio subject I told him then that tho men who left thoir parties, having faith in his leader ship, would stand by him agaiu If ho placed himself right on this vital question. Wo look too much at men and forgot the neces lity of looking at principles. The constitution Ihows us what to do. Nowadays people know very little about the constitution, and caro less. That docu ment is a chart by which the way to prosperity can al ways be found. It expressly directs the government what to do, and among other Imperative duties It says government shall coin money, and that monoy?not uecessarilv gold or silver?is to bo receivable for taxes, duties aud debts of ejery kind. Wbou we borrowed money of tho people we issuod these evidences of debt, and tiieir withdrawal is tne chief cause of our financial distress. Tho depression affects us all alike, und I am glad to ilnd thut in the rauks of labor throughout the country there-is not only un approclatiou of the act that our trouble is properly chargeable to the mone tary mistakes of Congress, but also an intelligent understanding of tho desired remedy. I have been in correapoudoiico with trade unionists all over the country and find a very gratifying response to tbeao suggestion*. You may de(>end upon it, if the two great parties Ignore the central foatare of tne cam palgn, T1IK rXOPLK will take tbo matter In their own hands and elect tho ticket of their own choice. The preseut condition of affairs is unbearable. Where we will all end is easily Men. Mortgaged proporly, closed stores, lazy strikers living on the littlo savings of tho iudustrlous, busi ness paralyzed, whilo idleness and extravaguiico waste our substauce. We need to return to the solid foundations. Equity demands the re turn to the people of that amount of Money which was in their hands at the close ot tne war, and what equity demands should always be granted. Why, I sat next to Jones, oi the jTiSkti, at the Chamber of Commerce dinner the other day and Went all over this question witk him. He assented us I went along, and then said:?"You are corroct, Mr. Cooper; this is all as you say, but we cannot say so in the Time*." The Iact is the papers are subsidized with out knowing it; al>soiutely overshadowed by the power and weultb of our great corporations. Both cuds are wrong. LABOR IS CAPITAL. Wbjr, I went into the office of the F.xprut uows paper the ether day, and in talking with my Irieud Brooks, he said:? ??Mr. Cooper, I bave thirty men in that composing ?MMU 1 want to put any l>oy in there, but they won't |M Be, because they bave two apprentices already I" Haw you see there must bo a comity of in IsisbI If in expect to bave a prosperous country. My Inn bleeds for By country. Heaven knows the aim Ig in, and getting deeper and deeper all the ime. II only there could be born soma mighty mind I that would tear away the veil that obscure* the vision , of our public lueu and shed the full light of Intetit genceand honesty on our aflairs, It would be. indeed, a glorious day tor na. My hope it in Allen. What the result will be I can only Infer. If Grant and Tildcn, or some candidate who is but Grant's right hand aud Tildcn, are the opposing candidates, unpledged on thig | great ,nation, tho third party will elect Ita ticket (or the healing ol the nation. KcfoKTKH?lu addition to yonr addresses on tbla subject and your letter to the President, are you doing anythinir to affect legislation in thla direction f Mr. CoorxK?Yes, I have circulated all over the coun try this i-btitio*. To THE Sr.NATK asd Housk or Rkfrebmtativm ? Cokorksm Assk*iu.ei>:? . Your petitioners desire most earnestly to represent to your liouorable bodies tho sintering condition of hundreds or thousands who not only gave their best ?ffBlta, in all forma of property and labor, but also risked their lives Id save the nation through the years ot its greatest peril. We now llnd ourselves deprived ol' our former employments, property aud meaus ot living by what we regard as a mistake made In tho Duanclal policy ot our country. We believe that It la even now possible tor Congress to restore prosperity to our suffering people, by recognizing the fact that thero should bo but one kind' of money for all pur|M>sos; and all that Is now or ever h s heen required to cause Treasury notes to be and remain as valuSlile as gold Is that the government should niako them receivable for all tortus ot taxes, duties and debts, uud interchange able, at the will ot the bolder, with the interest-bearing bonds of the government. Wo also suggest the with drawal ol twenty-live per cent anuuallyot the present bunk circulation till all ta replaced by greenbacks. We urge on your honorable bodies, by every consideration ol patriotism and humanity, and as ttie only uicnns.of establishing Justice and promoting tho general welfare, to legislate at once In tho reliet of the great bullorlng and continual loss that tho present poiicy ot gov ernment entails on tho great mass ot tho people. Tho circumstances of the country make some relief now Indispensable, as a largo part ot the property of tho people la under mortgages, that will inovilabiy pus* the property from the dis tressed holders Into tho hands of those who now hold mortgages tor but half ol its original cost. We most urgently, therefore, press upon your consideration tho moans of relief act lorth in this potitiou; and lor this we will ever pray. That goes to tho root of tho matter, and if Congress would act In the promises we would be spared a torrlhlo disaster. Out our politicians aro but politicians. Tho nood of tho times is, indeed, n man?an honest, consti tution respecting, God-fearing man. REPUBLICAN REFORM MOVEMENT. The offlcora and members of commltteos ol the Re publican Reform Club, No. 39 Union square, are, thoy say, actively at work this week carrying out practical meaaures resolved upon at tho last meeting or the Ex ecutive Committee, the nature ot which they decline at present to make pubho, but which, thoy declare, are of such a nature as to increaso thoir contldonco that tho etl'ort to socuro tho nomination of reform candidates at Cincinnati will bo successful. Some additions have been recently made to the list of officers of tho club, which is now as follows:? J'retidetil?Hon. James Emott. Pica frttidmU?Joseph li. Choate, Hon. John Jay, Hon. William K. Dodge, John Jacob Astor, Isuno Sher man, Rev. Henry W. Bellows, Robert l.onox Kennedy, Alexander Hamilton, A. A. Low, Hon. K. L. Fancher, : James C. Carter, John K. Williams, F. D. Tappan, John K. Parsons, Albert Gallatin Browne, Jr., John II. Shor wood. George 1* Schuvler, Jackson S. Schulti. Lo Grand U. Cannon, Solon Humphreys, Elliot C. Uowdin, General J. II. Van Alen, Houry E. Plerrepont, J. Pior pont Morgan, Kuihertord Stnyvesaut, George Walkor, llenjamiii H. Sherman, A. S. Barnes, L P. Morton, Georgo Cabot Ward, William IL' Guion, U.G.Arnold, David Dows, George S. Coe, Dorinan B. Eaton, John Sherwood and George H. Forster. Secretary-?Colonel Gouvorncur Carr. ? Treasurer?George Walker. Executive Committee?General II. L. Burnett, chair man; John W. Ellis, Francis A. Stout. Generul Emer son Opdycke, Cyrus Bullor, John A. Weeks, General F. C. Harlow, Chester Grlswold, Colonel William C. Church, Charles Watrous, Thomas L. Thornell, Will iam L. Strong, George W. DlUaway. GERMAN REPUBLICAN CENTRAL COMMITTEE. A regular meeting of the German Republican Central Committee was hold Inst- evening at Romboldt's Hall, Judge ftittenboefer In tbe chair. On motion of the Executive Committee It was re solved that thin committee will, lrorn now until after election, bo known as the German Republican Central Campaign Committee; that every district committee now reprosented be entitled to further Ave delegates, and that aM now organizations be entitled to three delegates. It was further resolved that Uio President Issue an appeal to all Germans to Join this organiza tion, and that a meeting bo held on tbe day after the Cincinnati nomination. It was finally resolved that all new bodies, must organize bofore the first Monday la J una. INDEPENDENT LABOB PABTY. Tbe Independent Labor Party met last ovenlng at Masonic HalL The organization went into an eleotlon of officers and succeeded in choosing William A. Casey as president, Frank Waters and Benjamin F. Wcerdiua vice presidents, Thomas Tully recording secretary, Frank Livingston corresponding secretary and Joseph J. Finnert treasurer. The organization tbon adopted tbe greenback platform und the resolutions passod liy the .state Committee of the greenback party at Uio Sturicvaut House ou May 1, 1870. Anew constitution and bylaws were adopted. POLITICAL NOTES. Nashville (Tenn ) American:?'"A party that for 'eiyht or ten years past has been growing steadily worse' offers no very alluring promise to genuine re formers. t^irl Kchurz mado a good application of a current political bon mot, in the Justification of politi cal fence riding, 'because thero was so much mud on both sides.'" Syracuse (N. Y.) Courier:?"The gentlemen of tbe Conference had plenty of ability but little experience In politic*, which accounts for their wordy address to the peopla These Independents have no place In American politics to-day. The people are bound to support the nominations of tbo one or the otber of the great political parttos. Thoy have tried experiments enough, anJ we cannot expect that they will look with \ any great favor upon tbe Independent movement" Troy (N. Y.) Whig:?"Tho Ohio democrats are bold men. The Slate Convention defied public sentiment by elocting George JL Pendleton its President. This was a blow at public and privato honesty. If Pendleton is I au honest tnnn, after the proof that be took somo j $80,000 lor nominal services on a claim that, if bad, ought not to have been paid, and. If good, ought to j have gone to the railroad, then Belknap ought to ho i considered honest. Tha claim paid to Pendleton was | not a valid one, and It i? acknowledged by Genera) Dunn, a government officer, that it was rejected on its merits and was ultimately paid on tbo personal influ ence of Pendleton. Pendleton wronged the govern* ment out of the whole cluing and pocketed nearly all of { it. Belknap did not take a dollar of government money." Troy (S. Y.) /Imlgrl .'?"General Sherman is to be brought forward for the Presidency, and thore'a elec tricity iu tbo name. Iowa will propose him to the ' Republican Convention. He would 'run like the chol | era,' nud could get more votes for President tban any man in tbe l/niicd States.. He is tbe most popular man yet named for the Presidency, as Roscoe Conkltng is tho most able." Sacramento Union "The democratic managers at Washington are at present engaged iu the novel task of digging their own graves and the gravo of their I party." Troy (N. Y.) HwlgH :?"Conkling stock Is steadily rising. Liito news from Washington Is to tho effect that Conkling will have tbe delegations from Kansas and Nebraska. Conkling hits at least lour ?f tbe Ar kansas delegation and a larger number from the Geor gia delegation. The others of the last two States named ure divided between Morton, Brislow and Blaine." Augusta (Go.) Constitutionalist:?"I'nless thero are some new and startling developments in tho next thirty days it would seem that Governor Tllden would certainly aoeure the prize, even if tho two-thirds rule be adopted, as he is gaiuiug all tbo while. We trust, however, tbis rulo will not be adopted at St. Louis. The republicans havo succeeded very well without It for twenty years, and there teems no reason why It should longer defeat tbe majority in tbe demooratio party." Macon (Gn.) TtUgrapk:?"When the Augean stables had to be cleaned Hercules was called on to undertake tne Job, and be did it by turning a big river through the concern. Yesterday William C. Bryant and party ?Mt la Mew York to nudertake a similar Job for tl.e radical stable, and expected to do It with a Utile Ink and champagne Tho result will be a failure." Newbury port (Miss ) Ilcrahi: "Ills safe to predict that If Mr. Ad.imi should be nominated by any party that bud a lair prospect of carrying the election be would be as certalu to aoeept it as was Horace Greeley, j These superior sea are, alter aU, haaiaa." POLITICS, PEOPLE AND PAPERS. BLAINE AND BBI8TOW?NJCW JBB8EX POLITICS GOVERNOR TILDEN IN THE SOUTH. Nothing ib more noticeable in rrcint politics than the fact that, while up to the day before the Ohio Demo cratic Convention newspaper erldence pointed to Thur man s the choice of all Northern Ohio and of half of Southern Ohio, aa a Presidential candidate, old William Allen stepped in at the last moment and carried off the practical honors. This was because the politicians em ployed by Allen were better machine tenders than thobo who sentimentally followed Thurman. The truth Is that to-day the heart of democratic Ohio is iu favor of Thurman, while the machinery has been manipulated so as to give the practical preference to a man who is far (roin being trusted or loved. Thurman must be put down as a sentimentalist who did not know how to run the primaries What Thurman has lost will not accrue to the benefit of Allot). Ohio will, alter the Qrst ballot at St. Louis, cast IU vote lor a can didate from some other Slate. The Allen voto may bo had for Thusman. but it does not represent the people* Among the republicans the Ideas of the managers ?re narrowing down to Blaine aud Brlstow. New Jer sey is as fully committed to Blaine as if her Uolegates had been elocted upon an Instructing platform. John Y. Foster, who wrote the Know Nothing lotter to Blaine, wan a potent factor in the Trenton Convention Dr. lluut, of tho Newark Jilrrrtitrr, was a Ultimo tnan ; and Ueorge Worts, ol tho PateraoB JPrtM, was mentally commuted to lllalne. Senator Frolinghuyscu Is really a Conkhng umn, while Cortlaadi Parker Is in favor ol Secretary Fish. Tho I'reu says That the sentiment of tho Convention was over whelmingly for liluine is u fact that every one who took pains to jjuuge it must admit. But that uuy attempt was made 10 manulurtiiro sentiment lor Mr. Maine, or that It was for a moment contemplated to instruct tho delegation, or even "indicate" a choice, is uttorly base less. In the South tho strength which has boen given to Governor Tilden because ho was the least of many Northern evils is beginning to wilt. Tho idea In tho South seems to bo that if New York, which holds the casting vole of tho North, will bo democratic enough to voto for Tilden, why will It not vote as stolidly lor some other caudldato Just as good us he? Tho South counts both Allcu and Thurman as out ol the race. For all practical purposes the garrulous and vain old Mr. Allen has thrown hisStato away, ll we Judge Irotn newspaper evidence, which must not always bo ac cepted as olthor popular or political ovidonce, the dis affection between Allen and Thurman will give strongtn to Governor Hayes as a republican candidate for Presi dent. Thurman, of hard money thoory, is as woak as a schoolboy, and Allen, a | aper man, is as stroug as a blind mule; and Ohio is republican more through dern ocrutic senility than through republican wisdom. Governor Hendricks seems to recognize tho weakness of his position and, practically, to have withdrawn from the race. The South does not recognize him becnuso ho Is not a man with Southern proclivities. The Reading (Pa.) Timtt says:? The South to day is as much a unit against tho North as it was beiore the war. There Is scarcely a rebel who did battlo against tho Union during tho war, who would not draw sword or s-lioulder tnuskot a/uln lor tho "lost cause" If he thought there was any show of success; and, by tho way, tho race of Northern ''copperheads" is by no means extinct. In the samo voin tho Savannah (Ga.) Ntvot, while ac cepting Tilden under protest, says:? The Georgia delegation will not go to St Louis com mittod to Tilden or any oilier candidate. The Georgia delegatlou will not cast Us kolld vote lor Tilden on any such grounds us those suggested by the corre*|>ondcnt of the Oiiiciunali Commercial. Tho Ueorgia democracy have a higher opiniou ol the New York democracy than to bcl'cve that thoy will attempt to dictate tho nominee at SL Louis, or that they will abandou the party to defoat in tho cvont tnat the nonnuaiion is not lor the third time given to a citizen of that State. The democracy of Georgia deslro the success of the demo cratic party in the coming Presidential election as the only means of restoring honest, constitutional govern mcnt. aud rescuing the country from impending rtnn. Thoroughly Imbuod with this conviction, the Georgia delegation will go to St. Louis entirely uncommitted in favor ol or aguinst cither or the recognised aspirants to tho nouruaiion for President. The real object ol white politicians In the South is to make the States pare. This Is an outgrowth'of old Slate rights traditions, bat it is by no means an un. worthy purpose. The Idea ol the old conservative ele ment Is that if the goverument of the States recently In robellion can be made as models the people of the Union at largo will respcct them the more. In no State in the U~lon have tho Intelligent people made themselves more respected than have the poople of Georgia, who drove the negro out of command in State government. In South Carolina the sentiment Is the same aa It is in Georgia. The Charleston JYe?o? says:? At no time have the white citizens of Mouth Carol In i been more enrnost or more determined in their pur pose to drive further back the black tide or corruption and to make the State government as pure, capable and frugal us It was In the palmiest days of the Repub lic. They may laiL Radicalism in democracy Is as fatal to the public good as radicalism In any other guise. But they will not (all tor want of striving, lor want of effort, lor want of perseverance. Why, then, do they hold aloof from the democratic organizations? Meanwhile the republicans of the West are by no means unaware that the war had political results. The SL Joseph (Mo.) /feraWlays:? * Tho Confederate leaders and sycophants, who, by the unparalloled generosity of the government, have been rehabilitated with cilizoiiship, howovor, still chale un der tho soro defeat of their pet scheme or nullification and disunion, and are wreaking their vengeaoce upon tho helpless negroes, reducing them to vassalage and robbing them ol the dearest rights thai pertain to American cllizonshlp. our government shonld tsko steps at once to teach the unreconstructed ' rebels at the riouth that whon they declared that they had ac cepted the inevitable results of the wnr it was under stood as moaning something moro than empty vtpor mgsand hoi low-hearted prolessions, and they should be. taught thai there Is yet power enough in the nation to protect her people "regardless ol race, color or previous condition of servitude." GREAT ADVERTISING MEDIUMS. [From tho San Francisco CalL] , A recent articlo in tho Chicago Tribune baa attracted attention to Journalism In the leading Eastern cities. Examination shows that in each large city there la one and only one newspaper which Is selected aa the popu lar medium lor the small, fresh advertisements that are almost as much a part of tho news of the day aa anything else printed. In New York tho Hbrald m tho medium lor this class of advertising; In Philadel phia the Ledger; In Boston the Herald; In Balttmoro the Sun; In Cincinnati the Commercial; In Cbieago the Tribune, and in San Francisco the Call, In the nrtlclo alluded to at the commencement ol ibis paragraph the Chicago Tribune compared Itself to the Nkw York Hkiiai.u as follows:? . The readorn ofyeaterdsy'a issuo of the Chicago TiVmne? | Sunday, April '^3?could not ha\? lulled to remark tho ox- ! traosrilnnry exhibit of advertising patrunaiie it contained. There *? a total column*. made up of 2.UUH distinct advertisements, of which ^.'"3 were what are commonly deaiiriiated "amall ads." Thia display was equal to 118 columns of ajrutc type in the New York IIkuai.ii, which printed 7<> column* of advertisement* on Sunday, April 10, it* heaviest day. Tho Tribune, it will i>e noticed, serving aa the medium ol advertising tor a population ot Ml .in*), i'alla short but two columna of tho lancet showing made by tho which in a similar capacity serves a population three times that ol Chicago. Relatively considered, the showing of the Tribune ia by lar the more remarkable ol the two, lloroarkable ns this showing Is for a single nnmber ol Chicago's leading Journal, San Francisco can more 1 than niutch It. The SunJuy Tribune is truly a marvel 1 i lor iho number unci amount of advertisements It con- I I taiiis. Hut the Chicago advertising public seem to * have fallen into tho habit el publishing nearly all their advertisements on one day in the week, aud Sunday 1 utth>.t. In San Francisco people who ndveriise do not I neglect any day in the week. Tne new advertisements I printed In the Call on Tuesdays. Wednesdays, Thurs j days and Fridays almost equal the number printed on ' Sundays. It Is only the church and niueltog notices > that give Sunday the advantage. CUAllLES MOOltE. John Hussey, the I,ong Island City rultiaa woo shot Charles Moore In the head during a quarrel in Moore's saloon, at the toot of East Thirty-fourth street, baa not yet been arrested. It is not generally known that I Moore, whose condition Is now regarded aa critical, ha? been ono of the must dangerous men In the oity. For many yonra the Moore family, in conjunction with others, ruled the First ward, and any one who en deavored i ogam auy political ascendancy waa either bru tally beaten or driven out oi tho city by threats. Finally Charles Moore entered Into the emigrant awln dlmg business, and, afiei several jears ol uninterrupted success in robbery, was arrestoo, convicted and sen tenced to State Prison. He served but one year, when his counsel obtained n new trial and he was brought down to the loin in ir>m Sing Sing, lie remained there eight mouths mill wasihen discharged, owing tothesym puthy felt b>r bis wile, an accomplished and lady-1 Ike woman. AHor remaining in the First.wurd lor some months ho bought out auu occupied the saloou in which he waa shou DYING OF HYDROPHOBIA. Yesterday a medical mill was called In to attend a little girt named Henrietta Sorhagen, residing at Nu 2H8 Norfolk street, Newark. Mo found bar sultorlng from hydrophobia, and baa but alight hopes ol her re> , oovary. About two Montha ago the bouse do| bit bar. THE BLACKBALLING OF BRISTOW. To thi Kmtob or tub Hikai.u:? As lb ere uu been 10 much misconception regarding tho blackballing of Mr. BrUtow by the Union League Club ud our connection therewith we think It do* to the public and ourselves to present the following litcta:? liy law a duty la imposed on all raw sugar imported Into the country, and upon the aatne goods being redned and exported a portion of thia duty la returned to the exporter, which la termed a drawback. The law (K. 8., sec. 3,019) providea that this drawback is to be ascertained under aucb regulationa aa aball be pro scribed by the Secretary of the Treasury. The regula tion prescribed by Mr. Brisiow waa hla circular order > ol March 27, 1875, which, relating to sugar, la as fol lows:?"Refined crystalline augur, 3540. per pound, less one per cent retention; refinod B and C, lower grade sugar, 2 'ic. per pound, less one per cent reten tion." Tbis order waa in lorce June 16,1876, when we sold for export a lot ot refined crystalline sugar, lor which we were allowed the rate named In bis circular for this grade of sugar, the same being paid ua Septem ber 24, 1875. In November, 1876, we sold for export a large quunttty of exactly the aamo grade aa formor shipment, and upon applying for the drawback pay ment at former rate (3,75) was refuted, It being sud denly und unexpectedly claimed by Mr. BrUtow that this rule was excessive, and ihia claiui made on hia purl In the lace of the fact that his original order was in lorce at the time o( exportation, noue other having been issued countermanding or annulling it In making these sales wo. ns is customary In auch cases, gave the purchaser credit lor tho drawback to bo returnud liy the government, anticipating no trouble In its collection or arbitrary change in the rate; but by some strange Irvak or caprice of the Secretary he ar bitrarily relumed to pay us but three cents per pound, thus suiijoctlijg us to a loss of throe-fotfrtlis of a cent per pouud, which, after repeated delays und inconvenience, wu accepted under protest. It must be remembered thui this rale ol three cents wax, at time of exportation, unknown to the law as applying to uny grade of sugur, but was entirely arbiliary und exceptional. All or mak Ing our shipments another bouse exported tbis sumo grade of pugar, and betore doing so telegraphed Mr. iirlstow o? to the rate ol drawback, und received a re ply, over his own signature, stating that the rate was three and three-fourths cents. Their shipment was made before any question raised in our cafe. Mr. Brlstow s.ild to us be would puy no more drawbacks at thia rate; yet, alter refusing to pay us, he puid tho tlrm we bavo referred to the lull rate, or three and t>>ree-fourihs cents. He also paid soverai Boston retlners full rule on the same grade ot sugar exported about the same lima We, through our counsel, requested Mr. Brislow to refer the matter botween us to the Solicitor of the Troasury or to the Court of Claims, but lie refused to do so, assigning no reason for his relusul. By law he might have done either, and so avoided an expensive litiga tion. to which wo must now resort. Wo would also suy that at the tunc of making these exports there was in session at tho Custom House a committee of Mr. Bris tow's own appointing to reviso tho proper rule of draw backs, kc. Their first action was to have the Secretary revoke his UQjust order made October 10. 1876, by which tho rutua had been cbangod. The order was re voked, and the eommittec, In speaking of it iu their report dated November 12, 1870, said"Tho interests involved, which were disturbed by the sudden appear ance of said order annulling contracts or renuerlug their lullilment highly injurious, unsettling inarkot values and paralyzing misiiiess, led your committee to the recommendations bo lore referred to." Tbas It will be seen how Mr. Bristow'sown committee characterized ono of his orders, and it ts a fair nomraoutary ou his Incapacity. The publio may put their own construction ou Mr. Bristow'a versatility in construing a specific law, discriminating In lavor of cerium firms to the damngo of tholr competitors. He possibly has bis own private roasons for so doing, to uso an old expression, of "making lisb ol one and towl ot acother," while the law aims at equality. We present the foregoing tacts, briefly stated, to tho unprejudiced minds of iho importers und mercantile e.lsLses ot the community, und would ask them if, in their Judgment, It would bo beneficial to their Interests and that of the country at largo to further or abet tho amMtton of this man for place or power, who bus by tho facts hero presented shown iiot only gross incom petency in his administration of ibo affairs of his olllce und adjudication of questions relating thereto, but has also ns-umed autocratic powers, construing iho laws in a spirit of manliest unlalrnoss and favoritism as his whim or caprice at the tune might praftipt, to the greut detriment of the mercantile interests of the country, which it snould be his special business to foster and protect. C. W. DCHANT & SON. JUDGE DOWLING'8 WEALTH. Contrary to the expectations of all his relatives and friends ex-Police Justice Joseph Bowling died in testate. It was known that in 1871 he had made a will which he destroyed somo time after. It was imagined that he had mado another will in 1874, bat this was in correct, as bofore his death Justice Dowliug Informed ex-Senator John J. Bradley tbat he had not made any will which was in exlstenca The amount oi Justice Dowling's wealth was variously estimated by eveu his intimate friends and relatives as ranging in amount irom $-00,000 to $300,000, and the latter figure was tbat most generally considered correct From the fol lowing schedule of Judfo Dowling's possessions it will bo seen that bis actual wealth fell far sbort of the gou erally accepted estimate. The bale iu the Judge's library was formally opened yesterday by Counsellor James Ffnlay, formerly clerk to the Justice, in presence of Mrs. Kice, Mrs. Keeler and Airs. Bliss, sisters of the Judge, und bis only surviving relatives. Mr. Flnlay tnndo au Inventory of the effects, which showed the Judge to be possossed of ths following estate:? Personal property In bonds, securities, &c.... $40,000 Ownership of shares in Eagle Theatre 01,000 Five lots of ground at Soventy-lhird street and Madison and Lexington avenues, origiually Jo'ut property of JohnJourdan and Joseph Dowliug, estimated value 45,000 House No. 47 Franklin street, in which ho lived. ? 12,000 House No. 138 Mulberry street, in fee 8,000 Furniture, library, jewelry 2,000 Accruod interest on securities. 2,000 Total estate .'..$170,000 Yesterdsy aiteruoon Mrs. Bliss and Mrs. Kice, sis ters of the Judgo, obtained letters ol atlministration on the estate. In conjunction with Mrs. Keeler, bisnther ?ister, they inherit the estate share and sharo alike. NEWS FOR THE TAXPAYERS. Comptroller Groon has received from the Secretary of State certified copies of tho acta Just slgped by the Governor reducing the rate of interest on arrears of taxes and assessments. Interest on arrears of taxes Is reduced from twelvo to feven per cent and on arrears of assessments to eight per cent per annum. Taxpayers must pay all ar rears of taxes within one yesr to avail themselves of the benefit of the law. Arrears of assessments may bo paid In instalments, but the first instalment must be paid within a year. Properly ownera are already avail lug themselves of these privileges. THE FULTON BANK DEFALCATION. Yesterday morning Borluh P. Rogers, who two months ago fled from Brooklyn to Louisiana, taking with him $25,000 of the funds of the Fulton Bank, Brooklyn, of which be wsa paying teller, was yesterday arraigned before the Kings County Court of Sessions, Judge Moore presiding. About two woeks ago, when first arraigned, he pleaded not guilty. Yesterday bo withdrew that plea and pleaded guilty, upon the advice of bis counsel ex Judgo Morris The Court remanded the prisoner lor sentence on Monday It Is understood that an effort is on fool by the bank officers and others to have the Governor grant him a commutation of sen tence so that the payment of a fine may be aoceptod in stead of imprisonment. COMMODORE VANDERBILT. In reply to inquiries made by a Hkrald reporter at Commodore Vauderbilt's residence, last n'lght, it was stated that ho Is not seriously unwell, and that it la expected he will in a few days be thoroughly rid ol the temporary local trouble from which he is at present suffering. DROWNED IN A CISTERN. A four-year-old boy named Charles Green, of No. 110 Academy street, Newark, fell Into a cistern last even ing und was drowned. " RESCUED FROM DROWNING. A boy, about Bine years old, who was unable to give his uamo or address, fell Into the canal from tho i bridge at Summit street, Newsrk, last evening He was seen when be was sinking lor the third timo by a man who was working near tbo window of a neighboring hoop factory. This bravo fellow Jumped i out ol the window and Into tbo water, and succeeded I in saving the lad. LINDA GILBERTS WORK. No. 15a Ka.-t Fiftkkxtii Strrh, ) New York, May 18, 1870. f To thb Editor or the Herald:? I shlpiied today to Lincoln (Neb.) State Prison 500 volumes of books, six doxen slates and eight docen copybooks. Tbere are eighty one prisonors in this Institution, many of whom csunot read or write, and an intelligent prisoner bas organized a school to in struct them. Among this number are four or five Indian boys, and their teaebor talis me they learn more rapidly than any ol his pupils. This prison hss made nu extended appeal to wealthy individuals and Christian a*soristkflis throughout the country, alto to the Mtate legislative l>odn s tor books, without any success whatever. I wish to express my thanks to the Onion Star lino and (bo Chicago, Burlington and Qinncy Kailroad for forwarding these books iree of charge. 1 snail have ready in a tew days my leal year's report of my work in New York. V - ry respectfully. HELL GATE. Description of the Hailett's Point Work. DIFFICULTIES A.\D DINGERS OF SUBMARINE MlNLNCL A Grand Undertaking Promising a Great Success. EFFECT OF THE IMPROVEMENT. New York the Commercial ? Metropolis. The enormously increasing commercial Interests de veloping In and around New York make the sale navi gation of her harbors, bays and r vers of the inosi vital importance to her prosperity as the great metropo lis or trade In tbo United States. In these days or railroads and stoaiusblps, telegraphs and Improved labor-saving machinery, lb? city wblch offers superior facilities Tor tbe export and Import of home and for eign produce aud for the general transaction ol commercial basinoas will attract to hor wharves that much coveted prize, trade. It does uot matter what rank lu the order of merit we may be disposed to confer on any particular port by reason of the beauty aud* grandeur of Ha surroundings, the siinplo requisites of deep water, safe navigation and sheltered anchorage Vrlll In tho end determine tbe great points for the inlot and outlet of trade on this continent. The ex pensive works necessary lor the protection of exposed ports on the Continent of Europe, such as Cherbourg, and In the.British Islands such as Plymouth, Dun duo and Dublin, have been erooted not bocuuse these placcs possessed any merits as seaports, but because the political' necessities or the sevoral nations do mandod tho creation of strategic naval strongholds, wherein lleols might be assembled lor tho dofenco of the coasts nnd tho national interests dependent on tbo maintenance ot powerful navies. It will be remarked that, although immense sums have boeu expended on tho croatlon of arttflolal harbors, trado avoids these places nnd tends to tho pot-la which nature has fitted for Its roceptlon, for In dealing with the necessities of commerce wo can only lmprovo on natural advan tages. We fail whon wo attempt to Imitate them, lor the force* which have combined to produce them are entirely beyond the control or man. TBI PORT OF NSW YORK has been formed by nature to be tho grand commercial gateway ol the New World on tho Atlantic coast. None others possess to anything llko sn equal degree the ad vantages in geographical position, available spaco aud safety ror shipping -presented by our grand bays, sbeltorod harbors and deep, navigable rivers, so that In tho contest for supremacy with othor Atlantic ports New York commencod with every prospect of winning the rank whlcb she has now attained. But tho ellorts to attract trade to other places, which have been persistontly exerted since the establishment of our national independence, have developed many new conditions, to wblch even the superior advantages pos sessed by New York must be adapted In order to pro serve her supremacy. Geographical position is now rendered almost a secondary advantage by the applica tion ol steam to transit over land and water. Cities have sprung up on tho most unpromising sites simply bc-cause they were easily roached by railroad lines and formed tho most convenient termini for great systems of transportation, by which tho produce of tho vast tn torlor is brought down to tho sea for shipmont to loroisn land* Steam on our inland lakes, rivers, and even canals, has created points of concentration lor commerce which largely govern tbo importance of the points of outlet. Thus Cnicago, St. Louis and Cincin nati are inland points, lor the comraorce ol which Bos ton, New York, Philadelphia aud Baltimore are con testing by offering all tho possiMo advantages which the several great railroad and steamship linos terminat ing at these cities can create. To show the lullueuco of mere position on tho law of commercial attraction It Is only nccossary to point out the growth ot Hobokcn and Jersey City, Irom tho fact that both cities, al though separated from New York by a narrow strip ol water, are the termini of several great railroads, which ponotrato to tho centre of tho continent and bring to tho port ol New York tho largest sharo or the commerce of tho Interior. If tho breadtu of a slnglo river can thus aflect the development of ono part or a common port differently fro?i another, how much must a natural doleol In tho navigable character ol a channel or tho want of shelter in a roadstead or want of space in a harbor affoct the port possessed or either ono or moro ol these dUadvantages? New York Is peculiarly circumstanced in rcspoct to her port. Tho latter has two alstinct entrances, one through tbo lower and upper bays and tho other through Long Islaud bound. The rormer Is opon to tho occan, and at presont receives and gives exit to all trans-oceanic trade, as well as to that botwocn Now York and all tho points lying along the coast or tbe American continent thai I aru reached by a voyage to the southward of ilonUuk I Point, at tho eastoru extremity or Long Island. Tho latter outlet is usod principally by ships bound ror tbo New England coast and tho British American ports. The risk to shipping in crossing the bor at Sandy Hook at neap tides is much greater than that attending the entrance ol the upper Esbi Blvor from the Souud, and this latter would have been a ravonte Inlet lor New York commcrco were it not that a dangerous ob struction. created by a largo number ">1 douched rsels and projecting lodges, which cause violent currents aud eddies in the Boll ?ale passage duriug tho ebb and flow or the tides through that woll known passage, havo operated against Its selection. THS CCRRRKT8 A*l> KOUIXS Of HKLL OAT* are entirely duo to tho obstruction to tho regular flow ol tho tidal wave iuto jbo Souud through the East River presented by its narrow channel and tho rocks, ledges and islunds In tbo vicinity ot Hell Gate. Tin) tidal wave arriving from tho southeastward on tho Atlantic coast begins to till tho basin of tho broad un obstructed lower bay or New York aud tho upper bay through the diep chsnuel knowu as tho Narrows, and through which an Immonoo volume ol water Hows In a very limited ttmo. 4. reservoir Is thus created southward Irom the Battery, rrom whence a llow takes place llrst slowly, but with increasing velocity, through tho East Kivef into tho Sound. The full height of tbo tide al Governor's Island Is attained moro than two hours In advance of a similar eoudltion at Han dali's Island at tho mouth of tho Harioui River, and ! a difference ol level is tl.m creaicd which Induces a I violent rushing ol tho waior through tho East Kiver. i In the meantime the tidal wavo has been sweeping along tho Long Island coast, and at Montuuk l'oiut 11 turns Into tbo Long Island Souud, afid flows rapidly westward again toward the point north ol Boll Gato where the greatest depression or level exists. Now, by the time this Sound lido wavo reaches and lllls the basin between Fort Schuyler and iho city or New York tho tide at Governor's Island has begun to ebb, ?o that a reverao tiow commences through the Hell Gato passage rrom the reservoir ropreaunled by tho Sound Into tho constantly Increasing depression in New York Bay. Hence tho waters which enter tho Sound through Hell Galo cause a rukhing current 111 that direction during the flow of tho tide, and Iho waters which pass the sumo point from tho Sound to the Now York nay produce ono of equal volocity during the obb. TIIK PRINCIPAL OBSTRUCTIONS. These are many and varied In character, from tbo exposed island-shaped mass of rock, bare ut all stages of the tide, lo the 6ubiuergod cluster ol tagged knile like ridges that cause only a moderate tiorry ol tho water as It (lows over them. Ul course lllaekweit's Island must bo regarded as a great obstruction to Iho froe navigation of tho East liivcr, hoeuuso It occupies a central position between the river bauks, dividing this space into two channels. In front of Hslleli's Point ihere are many daugerous rocks. Among I horn 1 may ho named the Hallett's Point Heal, the obstruction which Is about to be removed by the groat Hell Gato works. The effect or tho obstructions to the regular flow of th? water is to scour the bed ol tho East Hivor clear of ail deposit, leaving the b it torn formed by solid rock, Irom which riso up the dangerous points that r msv be noticed In manv places along its courso. Tho continuation southward and northward of Blaekwell'a Island, in tne rorm or reels partly submerged. Illus trates in somo degree the general character of tho ob structions to navigation, tbe Hell Gato rock system beiug or ibe same description, oulv that tho roots are 1 more distributed over a larger water area, and conso ! quently complicate tho channels between them lo a I very marked degree. It is our object to describe those dangerous rocka in this poriious channel In detail, bo causo, although they all may be considered as parts or the same system, different plans aro nocossary lor their rtmovsL THK IIALLKTT H rot.IT LKDUR. This bolng deem.d u considerable source or danger to passing vessels, the Unifed Slutes fovernmoni de termined on Its removal, and Intrusted tho work of the must experienced officer* ol the United Mates En^lueer corps, General John Newton. the ledrf1 occupies the foreshore Immediately In froul ol oUl Port Stovens,*and projects 111 a long, sloping, shelving manner far inu. the East River, casing ?P?"'" Cataract in,mediately over and around II ^urlng ih. obi> ami llow ol the tides. The nature ol tho rock Is a | species oL.tratlflod gneiss, t8e stratifications blnn j priweuled lu both vertical anfthorisoutal positions | whsn expos* lo vtsw oft U?e walls of Uts main .hart, , Ordinary blasting operation*, fuch aa thomidopM for tbe retuovid of the lliatnoud aud Coentiea reefs, would he Impossible In- such a position, because urlih the strong currents aud narrow cliiuinel difficulties in mooring the drill tr?wi aud other veascls neco-aary (or tbe operation* wonld only be surmountable at tiie ex panse ol the temporary interruption of navigation through Hell Oat*. It was therefore decided to sliopt tbe very ingenious plan ol aiukinK a large shall or pit on the main land, aud Juat outside of the line estab lished as tlie pro pom* 1 water line after tbe completion of tbo undertaking, ana from this centre to drive tan* nels radiating into the solid tnaas of the ledge aud ai lar as they couid be aafoly carried without breakins through the rocky shell which forms the river bed al this point at preaent. It was aiao determined to further honeycomb -he treat ledge by connecting tbese tunnels by a aeries of galleries coaceutrlo with the cir cumference or the aeml-circuiar pit, and with lb* tunnels dividing up tbe holy of the rook into a aeries of large excavations under a coiumoi root formed by the preaent rock bed of tbo river. Tbii roof Is aupported by rock columus, which were left un touched iu order that the superincumbent weight ol water might bo sustained by the ro< k rooralter tb? mass beneath it was fully oxcavated. It was then pro posed to mine and charge eaob of tbese column* iusucb a manner a* to secure their certain and simultaneous doatruction wheu everything was in readiness to re move tbo obstruction by tbe grand explosion. The supporting columns ol rock being blown Irom undor the rock root, the latter lalla into tbo excavation formed beneath for its reception nnl tbe depth ol water Is and denly increased to that of the preaent floor ol tbe ex cavation, lew that oocupiod by the thickness of the debris ol the root, which would in time be entiroly re moved by dredging and grappling. .Such was the gen eral plan" devised aud adopted for the part of the Hell (?ate improvements connected with tbo rumoval of Halleit's Point Lodge. With very few mod ideations tbia plan hua l>eeii carried out In tbo moat efficient aud MitUfaclory manner, and preparation* are being mad< lor the tlnal ile-tructlon or the rock by exploding the rock columna. From tho commencement of tbo work to tho preaent stage of its progress?aud Indeed wo may now regard it as complete aud ready lor tho explosives? the work baa been conducted with great cure and con summate skill and well deserves to rank in the estima tion of engineers us ono of tbe most dililcult and suc cessiul works of ita kind on the American continent. Tbe most experienced rninefs were employed in driv ing the luuuels through the *olid rock and under the waters ru-hing through Hell (iate, and tho workmen wero aeparated from death ouly by about ten loot thick of tbe roof rock and were daily in dinger ol a sudden leak wbich would admit tho overwnolming river wutcrs. Nearly all the reef to bo removed by the operations at Mullen's Point is submerged. It was, therefore, necessary to protect tho otter or water side portion of tbo aemi-circular shall ny a solidly constructed colfcr dam which excluded the tidewater. This work hud to be built with great care, because on Its -lability aud gen eral effectiveness for tbe purpose* designed the prose cution ol tbe ontiro work was mainly depeudent, II at any tuno during the driving or iho radiating tunnels and the circular counecting galleries tbe dam had given way under tho pressuro of tidewater, tbe whole of the work, with the workmen en gaged thcrmn, would have boen overwhelmed by tho inrushing waters lrom tho Kast River aud tho success ol the undertaking compromised. Tbe ordinary ob server, as a general rule, tails to recognise the merit of uiuny apparently unimportant details of this groat work; but practical muu, who aro familiar with tho diUicultioa that besot tho engineer In an oporaiton of this kind, will readily accord iho credit due lo General New ton aud lua able assistants lor Iho skill and foresight displayed in lis prosecution. rRKUMI.MARY WORK. In order to arrive at ;ho success attained at Hsllott'f Point It was noceasary to make a perfect survey of tho hdgo and Its surroundings, tho character of Its formal ion, the numerous variations ot Ita st rat Idea tion and overy inequality ot its surface. In a word, lul'ormatiou had to be collected whieh bus enabled tbo engineers to produce n perfcct model of the ledge, even to tho minutest details of Its formation. This entailed an umoutit of preliminary work which few but experts can nppreciato, and tbo fact that success has attended all tho operations up to their present advanced stage shows how thoroughly that preliminary worlc was performed. Tbo curronts flowing ovor tho submerged rocks had to be carefully studlod in order to determine as correctly as possible tbe vary ing pressures on the coilor dam and tho probablo result ot >ho removal or the ledgo on the tidal flow through Hell Gai#j. Then numerous experiments had to b? made on iho various kinds of explosives to bo used in tbe excavatiou. This was an investigation requiring great experienco and skill, because it must bo remoin bered that only n thin shell of rock was allowed to remain between tho workings and tho water, aud any injudicious use ol explosives in tho tunnels and galler ies migut have resulted in destroying tho cobosiveaess ol'lbisrtocky roof, which beiug pressed down by ihaenor inoua superincumbent weight ol tho river water a leakage would be created, which no amount or pumping power could overcome or any known means check. Tbo least miscalculation In the drillng of ihis shell of rock might have led to its perforation, and tbe force of the water pouring, undor pressure, through tbe orifice so lormod would prevent any plugging lrom remaining in position. These are a lew ot tbe many details of the preliminary work necessary to Insuro success, which will convey to tho reader an idea of tho dilUcultles at tending ibis unique undertaking. It Is satisfactory to record tliat the results prove tbo moat complete Jus tification of tho means, aud that tbo Scylla of the Kast River Is about to be assigned a place atnoug the thlngi thai wnra. OTJTKR DAXGBROt'3 OnsTKCCTlOSS. Tho pass oi Hell Guts vvoll deserves Us moJorn name, applied to It on account ol the daugerous eddies which ultiiust attain tho scale of whirlpools uvcr Us rocky, rugued bed. Beside the HalloU's Point ledge there lire numerous groups ot large and smull rucks dotting the area ot the passage, all extremely clangorous to the unwary uuvigator. Like tho famous Straits ol Messina, Hell Gate has its Charybdis as well as iti Scyllu, und the passage through it suggest* tho danger! that besot the fleet ol Ulysses when, in endeavoriug l? avoid the many headed Scylla, somo of the ships wera devoured by tho monster Charybdl*. The best known rocks and reefs uro tho Hog's Hack, the Pot Hock, tho Great Mill ltock, tho Frying Pan Rock, Little Mill Rook and Flood Kock, each ioruiing the most promi nent parts of an iutrirate system of s'.;oals and rugged points which is spread over the entire spaco between Astoria and Ward's Island and presenting an array ol solid facts which form the logic ol Hell Gate In lmpress lng tho necessity of caution on the oldest pilots. Soma of those rocks uro awash at low tide, the tops of otneri are always exposed to view; but the channel complica tions they create form an effective barrier to the pas sage of Hell Gate except by vessels of comparatively light draught engaged In the eastern coast trade and under tho pilotage Ol men familiar from childhood with all tho dangers that attend HeU Gate navi gation. RCStXIXQ TUB GAUNTLET. A more interesting experience than the passage on a vessel through the tortuous channel ol Hell Gate at certain stages of the tide cannot be dosired. Approach ing from tha southward the abip is headed lor Ward's Island, apparently with the intention of rnnutng her ashore on that homo for tho poor, the maimed an J the bibulous. The inexperienced passenger, tearing a catastrophe, Instinctively takes hold of the fluke of the catted anchor in order to steady himself tor the coming shock and have something to bang on to it the ship splits upon one of tho woiilsh looking rocks that grin at him out ol the surging, boiling, whirling waters; Hut as sudden as thought tho helm is ported and the ship Is swung broadside on to a cataract that tamblea within a lew yurds of her trail sides. Then the light ened passenger looks at the sky and the greeu fields and the busy scenes ashore as though ho never more would get his tottering limbs undor him on terra flrma. Soon tho ship is pointing her bowsprit shoreward again, but this time at a pretty mansion on th? Long island side. A great knife-iiko reef Ilea across her course, and she drives at It as though she would take a liyiug leap over the obstruction. Her sides vibrato un der the beating of waves generated by currents and counter currents, but she glides post tho reef somehow, and is aL'aln bound direct tor the Ward's Island Ine briate Asylum, staggering ''long like a drunken monster that meditated a roiorm of lite, liehlnd her roll lrtght tul masses of dark water, tumbling over the sunken rocks, and before and around her eddies and froths tho angry flood as she treads her way through a labyrinth ol dangers toward the clear straight channel a hundred yards ahead. By the combination of luck and good stoerlng, which has fortunately attended the passage Ol Hell Gate since the establishment ol a regularly organ ized pilot system, the ship ut last enters a safe channel and proceeds on her voyage through Long Island Hound. The frightened passenger lets go the anchor, looks back at the scene oi his perila and raaarti that It la just tho kind of place to Irighton nervous persona, but that lor his part he never enjoyed himself ao much In his life. ran xrrxcrs or in nmotwnt. These must be regarded from mora than one stand point m order to bo tully understood The obstruction* at Hell Gate at present prevent thorough communica tion by vessels oi large toon ass between what might ba termed the harbor of the Hudson River and that of tha Sound, so that a valuable portion of the water front oi Now York and Qaeens county, L L, is renderod use less lor commercial purpose* If, as Is now certain to occur, tho Holl Gato passage is cleared or all its dan gers to navigation, a marked obange will bo at ones eflectod In the condition of tbs upper parts ol New York fronting on the Kast River, and commerce will naturailv extend Itself to quarters that are now devoted to private residences and ornamental plantations. It is more than probable that tho want of foresight dis played by our elty government In the past in the selec tion of Mackwoll's Island, Ward's and Randall's islands as sites tor public Institutions will have to bo rectified, at great coat It is true, by the removal of all these pub* lie buildings to soma points more remote from the elty and better adapted tor such purposes. By such an ar rangomcnt, whloh has much to recommend it, a large area will be at once added to tho available business spaces of New York, and all the advantages of a splen did water front will be secured for commercial pur poses. The currents in the East Kiver, now caused by the obstntctiona at Hell Gato, will t> > lessened both tn velocity and dolWnoa of Sow between tho tides, be cause an Incroasod volume of water will pass through a wide unobstructed channel to and from the Sound, and a marked effect will be produced In the depth ol channels leading to the Kast River from either end by tbla increase of the wator volumes flowing through them in a given time. The fact that It is possible to blockade New York by a foreign fleet trader tho present condition aod arrangement of our harbor do fences at the Narrows and lower bay proves the neosa sity ot securing an outlst by way of the Hound for all the shlpplmr in the harbor. Sandy Hook undefended leaves hew York liable to acloee blockade by an ac ti vo enemy in this age ol long range riflo guns and tor pedoss, for these engines ol naval warfare are as tflfco ti vo lor oflhnos as d -f.-nco, and I be shallow channels oi tha lower bay ooul<1 be cloned against us while IN enemy luy snugly sheltered, and if necessary dotended by tho Hook, and far beyond the range of toe blggosl guns on Farts Richmond and Hamilton. I ha advantages to be gained by the removol of UN Hell Gate obstructions may, therefore, be eiassud tinder tho general heads of Sommerclal, hydrographio and military, the gaining ol any one of which would he well worth the expenditure neusassry to imnpllrt m desirable a rastUt.

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