Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 31, 1876, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 31, 1876 Page 3
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THE SULTAN ITU His Nephew, Murad Effendi, Proclaimed Emperor of T urkey. ?ORAL FORCE MORE POWERFUL THIN THE DTHASTT. ? Grand Revolution Effected by the Popular Voice. THE DIVINE BIGHT CLAIM EFFACED. The Dethroned Sultan Held Under Guard in the Seraglio. HIS MESSAGE OF ABDICATION. Official Announcements of the Great Facts. MONEY MARKETS UPWARD. History af the Tork in Europe?The Wars ,?f the Crosi and Creieent. DECAY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. London, May SO?12:30 P. X. A despatch to th? Renter Telegram Company from Berlin says"A telegram received here from Constan tinople say * the Saltan Abdul-Asia baa beon dethroned and Mohammod Murad Effendi, nephew of Abdul-Asls and heir presumptive, has been proclaimed Sultan." HUBAJD KTZXDX PROCLAIMED BY TBS WILL OP THE PEOPLE. London, May 30?2 P. M. The Reuter Telegram Company have received the following despatch confirming the report telegraphed lrom Berlin of the Sultan's dethronement:? Coxstantixoflx, Hay 80,117 ft, It is oOclally announced hero that at the unanimous wish of the people Abdul-Aziz has been dethroned and the heir presumptive, Murad Effendi, proclaimed Sul tan. BRITISH MINISTERIAL STATEMENT Of TBS NEWS nOX CONST AN TIN OPXJC. Loxoox, May SO, 1878. Ths Pali Mall Octette says a private telegram states that the revolution In Constantinople was effected with out disturbance of the public tranquillity. In the House of Commons this alternooa Mr. Bourk*, Under Secretary for the Foreign Department, In reply to a question, said the Turkish Ambassador at London anfi the English Ambassador at Constantinople had Informed Lord Derby, the Foreign Minister, of the de thronement of the Sultan and the proclamation of Murad Effsndl h his successor. Mr. Bourke added:?"No farther particulars of the Bwent have been received, but a simultaneous folsgisi* from Salonica announces that the proclama tion of Murad Effendl was reoeived there with general approbation." SHB TUBXISH REVOLUTION XXWB OX 'CHANCUB? ? BENEFICIAL XTFECT OH SECURITIES. [SPECIAL despatch TO THS HmUI.l) BT ] London, May 80, 187S. The Stock Exchange Is much excited by the news of Ihe Sultan's dethronement. There Is a great rebound upward in foreign securities?Turkish, Bnssian, Egyp tian?and consols. SHB EX-SOLXAX OUARDSD IX THB SXBAOXJO. CoxsTAimsoru, Msy 30?P. M. The dethroned Sultan is kept undor guard In a kiosque at the extremity ot tho seraglio. ?is scccassoa iocvm The Ministers informed Murad Effendl that ho was proclaimed Sultan on Monday night. A popular demonstration took place the next morn ing, but no resistance was offered to the new rtgiwu. ALL FA*TIBS PLKASID. Perfect tranquillity now prevails. Both Christians and Mussulmans express groat satis faction at the change. ' cmra avoid* a. Tho city will bo illuminated to-night. Tho festivities Will continue three da;a THB XXWS IX PABia. Paws, May M, 1878. Le Tempi state* that a message in cyphor aotlfying the Turkish Embassy her* of the deposition began as follows:?''We, Abdul Asia, conformably with the Irishes of the maiority of our subjects, abdicate." This was immediately communicated to the Duo Do psses, Minister of Foreign A Stirs. The Embassy slso received a messsge Mating that the soflas first required the Sultan to relinquish the title o! Caliph, which rendered him Inviolable. The Suitan soon afterward abdicated. A X131STBB in DAX OKB. Le Ttmpt adds that Murad, tho new Sultan, is dis posed to remove Hussein Avni Paaha, the present Min ? ister ot War, because he favored the project of Abdul Asia to make the son Instead of the nephew heir to the throne. N Murad spooks French. This Is considered a groat ad vantage, as ho will be able to dispense with inisrproters Whoa ho receives foreign ambassadors. SCSSIAX B1PLOXACT. The Bussian Ambassador has vistted the Duo De cs zaa. The latter gave assurancss that Franc* would con tribute by *v*ry means In her power to the mainte nance of pesos and the preaervation of a good under standing bstween the Powers. thb ?uut nrnun satisfied. I'abis. May 80?Evening. Tho nows of the ravolotioa In Constantinople Is well received la both political and Dnaacial circles. It I* believed that the settlement of the Esstsrn diHsalti** Is thereby facilitated. m PLATroaa or fovanxaxxr. It I* staled that the new Turkish Ministry will comprise M Id hat Pasha as Grand Vizier and Sadyk Pasha, at prcacat Ambassador to France, as Minister of Flnancs. According to reports published In Cologne, U id hat Pasha sod ths Grand Vtsler were at the head of the revolutionary movement. Murad has accepted three of the propositions submitted to him, vis. 1.?The institution of a Permanent Assembly of Not J.?The abolition of the s?r?:Mo. a?The redaction of the civil list la *600,000. A* UTBBHATIOBAL CONFBBBBCB IB PBOSPBCT. Paws, May 30, 187?. It i? reported hero I tut England is will log to agree to tho holding of an International conference on Uio Eastern question. H'lUiliH miXUENCI a 1111 TCBBX8H PBOV WCBS?WHAT THB CZAB ha* ACOOM PLIBHBD. Lonx?, May SI. 187a The standard's Vienna decpatcb aajr* tbo succession of Murad to tbo Ottoman tbrono Is generally coniid orea as mainly duo to Bussia instigating Servla and Montenegro to Immediate warfare. xxGuaa cabuwt cactiox auAijiST hasty ixriarxx net The Standard's correspondent at Bono says It is reported that tbo Italian government has received an Invitation from England to come to an arrangement for united action In the East The Parle Estafttle reports that Lord Derby baa In formed tbo Turkish Ambassador that England is pro pared to accept an International conference, provided the programme Is set forth boforohand. "EHPJCBOB OF TTTHkkt " Wasuxutox, May 30, 187a His Highness the Grand Vlner has Jaddressed the following telegram to the Turkisb Minister hero:? "In presence of the unanimous will of all the people Abdul Axlx Kban Has been dethroned to-day and His Majesty Sultan Murad, belr presumptive to the im perial tnrono, has been proclaimed Emperor of Turkey." WHAT TBB TUBXI8H HINI8TKB IK WASHIKOTOK 8AIB AN "ABTOW8HIKO AKD UNIOOXID POB BVEirr"?THB INFLUEMCTNO 0AUSB8 WHAT MAT KN8CK. Washisotox, May 30, 1874. In conversation with Aristarchi Boy, the Turkish Minister, this evening be remarked tbat tbo abdication of Sultan Abdul-Azis and the proclamation ol bis nephew, Mohammed Murad, as his successor was ?n astonishing and unlooked for event. He is as yet with out full Information, having received only very meagre despatches from home, and he does not pretend to ac count for the suddenness of the change; but supposes H to have been at the demand of tbo poo pie, who required the sword of authority to be passed from Abdul-Axix to Mohammed Murad. The now ruler bo speaks of as a man of thirty-six years, educated at Constantinople according to the cus tom of Turks, but with ideas broadened and a mind Informed by frequent travel in England, Franco and Germany. He Is a man of amiablo disposition, an ac complished musician, and has cultivated the friendship of worthy persons. The Minister did not say what were the Influences which brought abont tho sudden elevation of tho new Sultan, nor did he know what would be tho em>ct upon European politics of bis acccasion. He had reason to believe that the new ruler would be by his amiable character and bis familiarity with European ideas and society, able to master tbo present situation and establish himself as a wise and prudent ruler m Turkey. Beyond this he could say nothing, except that his country is, to his surprise and cbsgrin, greatly misrepresented In the journals of tbo United States, and be remarked that oorrespondents in Europe, and notably one American of distinction at Vienna, whoso name he1 declined to give, had done much to cause a wrong understanding of the situation of Turkey in this country. TDHDSH HOVKMBBT AOAIB8T THB 1NBUBOBMT8 ANOTHBB ATTBMPT TO BBUBTB BICWC. Baucsa, May 30, 187a Intelligence from Slavonic sources ststes tbat the Turkish General, Mukhtar P.eha, has left Mostar, and gone toward Gatchko, on what Is supposed to be an other attempt to relieve XJcsia Tho Insurgents are concentrating la tho Dugn Pan. BLOOD! BAXTXSS IK BOSNIA. Loxdox, May 30. 1878. A special despatch to tho TtUgrapK from Paris ssy. the Insurgents bare attacked and burned Blhacs, in Bosnia, killing 800 Tnrks. At a second encounter In the same neighborhood tho Turks were defeated, leaving 120 dead on the Hold, wo asavuxs movixci cxnxa acssux niascnoxa A Pesth telegram reporta that the Servian Prime Minister, Bistica, In accordance with the advice of General, has decided that the Servians will cross the Birer Orina on SL John's Day. THE RULE OF THE CRESCENT. THK FLOW AMD EBB Or IB LAM ISM?T BOM A COLONY TO AN XMP1BK?A LOKO LIN* OF SULTANS OV TBS HOUSE or OTTIMAN. Tbo Ottoman Empire In Europe bad ill origin in tha conquest ol Gullipoli in 1367 by tbe warlike Soliman, tbe ion of tbe Kallf Orkhan, who tben secured a (onl ine on European territory by tbe seizure of tbe key to tbe capital oi tbo Byzauiine Empire. Tbii success was Inllowed by a scries or attack* along tbe shores of tbe Hellespont, which resulted In tbe establishment of Turkish colonies and tbe gradual extension of tbo Otto man power. In 1381 tbe Sultan, AIICAAT THK COXQCEROR, took Adrianop'.e, tben tbo largest fortified city io tbe Empire of tbo East, and established tbero bis second official residence. From this ccntro of opera tions tbe Sultan pushed bin couquoita until bo bad sub duci a large territory peopled by the Slavic races, who, however, combined lu revolt again?t his sway, and wore deleated with great slaughter in 1303. Tbo i'rince of Servta, bowover, prepared tor a grand effort to throw off tho Turkish yoke, and met Amurat on the plain of Kasaova, where, after a desperate struggle, the Ser vians were defeated. But the vlciury cost tho Sultan bis llle, for daring tbe battln, as tho chroniclers relate, a noblo Servian named Mtloscb penetrated to the Sultan under tbe prctence of making a con fidential communication, and stabbed him with a dagger. ?Mam, bia successor to tbe turone, cstablubod colonics In Scrvia, and In 1390 began a eeneral war on Europe, In which be forced tho Greek Emperor to Join him by furnishing troops to tbe Ottoman army; but that prince having abandoned bun be turned all bis lorcos ou tbe empire ol tbe Greeks, and besieged Con stantinople during seven years, but without capturing the city. However, tbo direct result or tho war was tbe annexation or Wailachia to the 1'orte and the occu pation of toe territory or Bosnia up to tho Huogarlsn iroutier. At this stage ol Turkish aggrcsslou Europe coalesced against tbe Conqueror, and the chivalry of franco, Germany and Bavaria, with tbo Knights of dt. John, arrayed themselves under Slgisniund, King of Hungary, tbo Ottomans; but at tbe battlo of Xicopolii, lou;ht m September, 1306, the allied anny was cut to pieces, and tbe crescent was again triumph ant over the cross. The rage of tbe Sultan was io great on lcarniug ibat bli loss amounted to ?0,000 men thai be Immediately ordered tho slaughter of 10,two prison ers who fell into bis bands at Nicopolis. This terrible butchery was executed on all but a few prominent cap tives, whom he compelled io ransom tticmselvei *tth immense sums. This great victory added to the Ottomau prestige In Europe and Asia, lilting the lormer with I ear and the Utter with enthusiasm lor the cause or lsiaui. The Turks now attacked the country along the Kiver Save and invaded Styrta, which tbey penetrated as lar as I'ellau, completely destroying ibat town. Constacilooplu being still the centra ol Greek power, taring successfully test a led tbo attacks or BAJaaet. he Saltan determined on lU capture, and the popula tion, feeing reduced to extremities by ibe vlgbr of hia operations, induced ihe Greek Emperor to make terms witb the Turks by allowing the estaWUhmeal of an Ottoman colony within Ita walla and even tbe erection of a mosque in tbe capital of Eaatcrn Christianity. But now tbe tide of success turned against the Turkish conqueror. Tlmour tbe Tartar, at ibo bead of an Im mense army fresh from the conquest of I'ersia and Central Asia, met Hajazet on tbe plains of Angora, and, after a desperate battle, defeated and captured the Sultan, who died la 1403 of vexation and grief at his defeat and captivity. Bis successors were M Alio MKT L A..ND AMI." RAT It, whose reigns were not aiguallzed by any workable advance ol Ibe Turkish cause. Indeed, tbe Utter named Sultan, although succeaslul In maintaining his bold on tbe Europeau portion of his Empire, was twice delcsted by tha celebrated Hungarian, John Hunyud.v, who commanded an army of Polea, Servians, Wallachlans and Germane, which loreed Amurat to abandon the slrge of Belgrade In 1440. After a temporary retirement from the cares of government Amurat again took up arms to chas tise Ihe King of Poland for a breach of armistice, and in 1444 defeated tbe latter at Varna with great slaugh ter. In 1448 his vengeanco was gratified by the signal defeat of Hunyady noar Kassova. Ho died in 1450 and was suocccdcd by his son, M.WIOMKT B., the conqueror of Constantinople. On tbe flth of April, 14U, Mahomet commenced tbe siege with an army of '260,000 men and 420 ve?sols of all slzos. It was during this celebrated siege that monster guns wcro llrat used by the Turks, and Greek Are, an incendiary compound, waa applied for the purposes of the de fence. After a aeries of terrible combats, in which lanaticlam and despair lent an almost miraculous power to the arms of the coatending forces, tbo city ni captured on the 20th of May. Tho Greek Emperor fell, fighting to tha last, and his unfortunate capital waa abandoned to all the horrors of pillage and slaughter. So great waa tha deaoiatton caused by this ter rlblo event that even the heart of Mahomet relented, and ha' endeavored to repeoplo tbo city by recalling the fugitive Greeks and according tbem many privileges, such as tbe free exorcise of their reli gion, as an Inducement to return. With Constantino ple fell the Empire of Constantino tbo Great, 1,125 years alter the rebuilding of tbe city by that monarch. Mahomet 1L lollowcd up hia triumph at Constantinople by a serine of Important movotucnts on the line of tho Danube, and waa so far successful as to rcoccupy Servian territory which had been partly wrested Irom tho Porto during preceding roigna and to compel John Huoyady, the most active opponent of tho Turks, to make peace and pay a tribute to tho 8ultau. Under Mahomet tbo Greek Archipelago waa attacked by Turkish Iloets and many important Islands were added to tbe Ottoman Empire, but the Turks wcro delaatcd intbelr second at tempt to capture lielgrado, although this cbcck waa more than counterbalanced by the conquest of Grcocc, which waa accomplished under the personal direction ' ol tho Sultan. He also deleated tbe Venetians at Negro pontlnl470. However, although tbo Turkish conquests were marked by tbe most terrible devastations and slaughter of the conquered, they wcro sometimes met and checked by Christian valor. In 1475 Soliman Pacha, at the head or 100,000 men. invaded Moldavia to enforce tbe payment of tribute by tho reigning prince, but KUcnuo almost destroyed tho Turkish forcca In baltlo, and the surviving lew lound refuge in tho territory south of tbe Danube, after which all the lmportaut lortrosscs along that nver were recaptured by tbe Moldavians. Tbe lusatiablo ambition and mill tary skill of tbo Snltan were also rewarded by tho con quest of the Crimea and the sub?oqucnt dcstructiou of Moldavian Independence. But It was at Rhodes that the Turkish standard received Its most humiliating defeat at the hands of tne Christian Knights ol St. John. The engineering skill displayed at this famous siege marks It as the commencement of the moro mod ern system of warfare. Artillery may bo said to have lor the first tlmo perlormed Its Junction as a breachtag arm in tho attack on Rhodes, but the valor ot the Cbriatian defenders was prool against the terrors In. spirod by ihla new and formidable engine, ueatb found Mahomet prepirlag for an expedition Into Asia, aftor the conquest of tho Eaatcrn Empire and that of Trebizond, which incluued more than 200 towns and ?even kingdoms. Ho well earned the title of "Con queror," and expired suddenly on the 3d of May, 148L Mahomet waa succee<%d by BAJAZKT 1L, his son Selim, and graadaon Soliman the Great, t'n der tbe tormsr tbe war against tbe Moldavians waa successfully waged, and In 1496 a treaty of coaamorce waa asiabllahed with the Russian Czar, Ivan HI. Tbe Venetian a were defeated at Sapiens*. In 1512 a revolt of the Janissaries and the people of Con stantinople caused the Saltan to abdicate in favor of his son no, who, during a short but bloody reign of eight years, conquered tbe Peraiaaa at lauria aad aJ Egypt, and died In 1620. BOLIMAS TH> CSIUT succeeded him. 'l'lils remarkable man was suc cessful In the third siege ol Belgrade, a city which bad hitherto defied capture by tha Turks, snd all"? in the second siege of Rhodes, which now became a part of tho Turkish Empire. In 1524 Soliman conquered Hungary after a de cislvo battle near Mohacs, and desolated tho country witn Are and aword. In 1629 ho besieged Vienna, after taking possession of Buda-Pesth, but failed to tako tho Aastnab capital owing to scvero autumnal rains, which threatened to cut oil' bis line ol retreat. An invasion of Germany took place-In 1532, bat, when etrongly en trenched on tho Danube, tbo Gorman Emperor mado tbe Sultan proposals ol peace, which were accepted by the latter. After a series of successful expeditions, which added much glory to hia reign, Soliman died in ' I5tkl He waa tho contemporary of Henry VIII. of England, Francis I. of 1'rauoe, Charles V. or Germany and Pope Leo X., und rivalled them In tho magnificence of his reign, but far surpassed tbem In tho extent of his conquests. Hia sou 8EUM II. ascended the throne and conquered Arabia, hot the power of tuo Ottoman Empire received lie first fatal shock under this ruler. The CbrUtian nations organ ized a fleet under the command of Don John of Aus tria, consisting of more than 200 ships lrom Spain, Koine and Veuioe. and, meeting the Turkish fleet at Lepanto, completely destroyed it. The reign ol tSellin marked the commencement of the decadence of Turk ish power in Europe, and under AXl'BAT III., his successor, who died In 1606, the Turkish arms suf fered many groat reverses on fields that formerly were the scenes of their greatest victories. MAHourr iil, who relieved himself from proepoctlve family embar rassments by murdering nineteen of his brothers alter be bad ascondud the throne, suffered many deleats, which were so latal to his power that hia son and suc cessor iouud it expedient to conclude a treaty of peace with the CbrUtian nations and tUus acknowledge the waoe ol Islamiim In Europe. Mt'STAMU AMD OUIAX a In 1617 the semi idiotic kiustapha was promptly de poked (or 0?man IL, who, In turn, was murderod by bis troops. ? CSTAPHA IL Had a short and inglorious reign, marked by mlli'.ary revolts. He was succeeded by the boy Saltan, Amnrat, whose mother, a very energetic woman, administered allairs until he had reached his twentletli year. The reign of AMVMAT IT. was full of warn ana bloodshed, the latter result ing from the Sultan's terrible crueltlcs to the people he eoaquend. He died in 1040, and waa tucreoded by II1AUX, wliose reign waa markod by profligacy and dlselpation and waa insignilleant In its results with the exception ol somo advantages in a war with the Venetians. In IMS he was dethroned and murdered by the Janissa ries. maiiojikt iv. waa only seven years old at tbo time of bis accession. The Empire waa then in a tearful oondltlon through tbe tad administration of the government, but was quickly restored to something like its former strength by tbe vigorous meaaorca ol Mahomet Koprill, tbo Grand Vizier, lining thia reign tbe lamoes aiege of Candla, which lasted lor twenty-Uve years, was In progress. The straggle cost >0,000 Venetian and more than 100,000 Turkish lives before the troops of tbo Sultan dually triumphed. A brief campaign against thq0!Hastens, which retailed in successes on both sides, waa terminated by treaty in 1091; but a aecood alego of Vienna, which city waa mooed from tbe be siestas Turks by John 8obie?ki, brought IsarftU dlaae ?Ml M the Otlooui trail ti ion Again, Id 1000, Olen, or I'mUi, oo the Danube, the mwl important Turkish outpost against K uropcan DAliooi, was cap lured, alter a moist heroic dofoncr, by Mo Christian war. Tli? lota of ofcn (Pesth) was followed by that or many other forts, and in 1087 a great dereat on the bunks of the Drite further weakened Turkish power on the Danubei Tbmte results to exasperated the Otto man troops that, they deposed and Imprisoned the Saltan, setting up la hit place SOLIXAX II. Thit ruler had a atormy reign, during which Bel grade wat captured by the Chrlttiant, but was retaken in 1000 by Mustapba Koprill, tho Turkish general. In 1001 Sollman died, and wat tucceedod by hit brother AHKKT, who had a reign marked by defeats, particularly that at Poterwarden by Louis le Undo, In which the Sultan lost hit Grand Vizier. Civil wtr subsequently reigned throughout all the provinces of the Empire. In 1805 MCSTAI'HA II. became Sultan, but bit troops were defeated at Zenta In 1007 by Prince Eugene. In 1000 tho peace of Carlo wits wat concluded, which delivered Hungary and Transylvania Irotn the Turkish yoke. Azof wat ceded to Russia, tho Ukralno and Poaolla to Poland and the liorea to Venice. Thla treaty may be said to mark au Impoitant stage ol the rapid declino of tha Turkish power, which comtncuced with tho duaatrout deloat ot Lepanta Anyhow, u shows thst Europe wat begin ning to recover Irotu tho terror inspired by Islauiism In tho early development of its strcngtb on that conti nonk The modern history of Turkey in Enrope begins wltb the peace of Carlowitz. Immediately ldllowing this event the efforts of Koprill and Kami, the Turkish Ministers, to rororui tho abuses of the State, and par ticularly in tho array, created au inteuso hostility to these oltlciais, which lluall) reacted on the Sultan's popularity and caused his dethronement In favor of ahmkt hi. - In 1703. Tho most romarkable events of this reign were the campaign against Russia, in which Peter the Groat escaped capture only through the devotion of his wife, Catherine, who bribed the Turkish Vizier to make peaco when the latter had tho Russian army surrounded by his troops in a position whenco there was no escape. The war was instigatod by the rolugoo King, Charles XII. ot Sweden, who bad been forced to seek shelter in Turkey after his defeat at Puitowa by the Czar. The roconquest of tho Morea by tho Turks so alarmed the Emperor of Germany that be declared war against the Sultan, and 1'rluce Eugeno dofeuted the Turks at Petorwarden ater a sanguinary battle. Tho struggle was renewed under the walls of lielgrade, on which city the Prince advanced; but notwithstanding tho eftorts of the Vizior the place with immense booty, fell Into tho hauds of the Impe rial army. In consequonco of these reverses the Sultan concluded peace at Pastarowltz, after agreeing to restore lielgrade, Temesvar, a part of Wallacbla and a portion or Servia to tho Emperor, the Moreu being restored to Turkey. A robelllou ol the Junitsarict compelled Ahmet to resign, and the throne was taken by M wmocD l This ruler, alter a war with allied Russia and Austria, compelled these nations to make peace on terms very lavorablw to Turkey, which Included the surrender by Austria to the Porto of lielgrade, Servia, Wallachlaand Orsova, and the acceptance ot the Osnube and Save as tho boundaries between the two nations. Russia con sented to demolish the fortress of Azor, to employ only loreign vessels in her Black Sea trade, and abandon all her reccnt conquests of Turkish territory. Tho death 0( Charles VI caused a reopening of tho European lutor-Stato quarrels, by an cfTort to deprive Maria Theresa ot her crown. The Sultan, though a neutral, ondeavored to reconcile the contending States, but failed, and tho war was terminated only In 1748 by the treaty of Alx-la-Chapelle. The Sultan died In 1764, and waa succeeded by OTHXAlf lit, whose reign was peacetul and unmarked by any 1m, portant event. In 1*03 he was succeeded by MLSTAFUA il, who, sympathizing with Poland, declared war against Russia, but suffered many reveiaet, and dlod dur ing its prosocutloiL Hit ton, AB1>UL 11 AMID, end>ft tie strife by aiguiug the peace ot Kainardji, which recognized tho indep?ndouce of tho people of the Crimea, Betsarabia and Kuban. Tho fteo navigation of the seas waa conceded to Russia, and tho partition of Poland rocognized. The peacc, however, did not last long. In 1787 a now war broke out, but resulted unfavorably lor the Porte, aad peaco was declared cpon the capture of Oczakow, where every man of the Turkish garrison perished. Abdul llamtd died In 1789, and HKMS1 HI mounted the throno and suflerod a defeat from the allied Rujaian and Austrian urmy near Belgrad& His fleet was also destroyed by the English at Uullipoll. Thi.- latter trouble grew oat of tbo ellort of tbo enemies of the French Republic to compel the Sultan to unite lu the general war against France. Sollm was deposed by the Janliaarles, and was iollowed as Sultan by X('llA IV., who reigned a year only, at:d was in turn succeeded by MAHMOl'O it, who, after a disastrous war with Russia, signed tho Treaty of Bucharest, whlcb gave tbo Ciar the line of tbe Truth as bis Iroutler. In 1819 the Independence of tbo Ionian Islands was rcuognlzod and Urcecc began to show signs of revolt. The vigorous measures of tho 3ultan to suppress llils movement culminated In tbe atrocity known as the masnucru of Solo, wbcro 20,000 persons of both suxes were put to tbo sword. Europe, borrilled at tbe barbarities of the Turkish command ers, Interfered snd destroyed the Sultan's licet at Navarlno, compelling him to reco-nlzo tbo independ ence ol (irecce in 1820. Mahmoud destroyed tbo tur bulent Janissaries by nn organized massacre and in troduced many reforms in tbe civil and military de partments of his government, notwithstanding tho lanatical opposition of his people. In 1828 Turkey was Invaded by a Russian army, under Wittgenstein, and the Sultan was obliged to establish his line of dc ic-nco on the Balkan cbaiu, with Sliumla as his bead quarters. The campaign resulted lu the total defeat or the Turkish arms altera series of obstinate battles and sieges Tho Russians socured the control of the mouths of the Danube snd important commercial prtvl loges in Turkey, also a section ol territory witli several largo towns in Asia and an Indemnity of seven millions of Holland ducats Egypt now became involved in a war with the Saltan and in flicted several defeats on bis army In Syria, particularly that at Konleh in December, 1833. In 1830 hostilities were renewed, and Egypt won another great victory at N'ciib, la tbe same year Abdul MeJjtd succeeded tlabmoud, and his first experionce as a ruler was not calculated to inspire him with confidence in his own officers, lor two wcoks after his acccsslou bis Chief Admiral deserted with his lleet to tbe robelliour Pacba of Egypt. In 1840 England, Prussia and Austria re solved to procure the recession of 8yria to tbe I'orte, but it was necessary to send au armod force to Acre and reduce that city before Neliemct All would surrender the State. In 1852 tho cam belli of tbo Crlmeun con flict arose and was followed hy tbe scries ol events lamlllsr to tbe reader. Sebastopol was captured in pari by tbo allied armios of France, England, Turkey and Sardinia, and peace was restored under coruin guarantees from Russia, ombodied In tbe Treaty of Paris, which sbo has since lakon occasion to set aside. TBI KKIO* OF ABDUL MSDJID. Abdul Hetijld was born on April 23,1823s snd suc ceeded to m? throne of his lather, Mshmoud II., on Jnly 1, 18%. His youth and weakness of character unfitted him for tbe responsibilities of gov ernment at a time when foreign complications and in ternal disturbances rendered s vigorous policy abso lutely necessary to tbo preservation of the political statu* of Turkey. In 1841 tbo Ottoman Empiro was formally admitted Into tbe political family of European nations, bat litis was due more to the necossities of certain of the great Powers than to any diplomatic re gard fur the enominate Sultan or his Ministry. How ever, undor Abdul Xedjl J, the courso of Turkish policy toward tbe Christian and Hebrew Mtibjects of tbe Porte was so lar modified as to remove many causes 6f com plaint, and something like an equality before tbe law for all was established by tbe advtco of tbe enlightened Hasaid Pacba. In ISM the Haiti I/umayum or liberal constitution waa published in the Empire, bat these measures have seldom proved more tlutn a name In Turkey, fanaticism neutralising their beneficial in fluence*. Abdul Medjid took special paina to European lie his people both as to manners aad costume, and led tbe way in person in soma of tho most ra ileal reforms; hut these chsnges, so foreign to the conservative spirit of the Koran, aerved only to awskaa discontent. Many revolts took place durum Una rsiso. and Intrigues at court took from the Sulun all but the na-no anil stylo of Commander ot the i'aitbful. Abdu MetljM died on June 25, 1861, leaving seven sous and two daughters. The eldest of the sons, Mebemet llurau Effcndi. would have succeeded bta talher but for tbe right of seniority, which, according to Turkish law, gives tho throne to the cidcat malo member ol the royal line of tubman, and not to the eldeat son of tho Sultan. In this Instance the Sultan's younger brother, Abdul Axlz, possessed the highest claim to the throne^ and aucceeded bta brother, Abdul Medjid, deceased, on J une 25, ltMU. AUDL'I. AZIZ ia tho second son or the Sultan Mabmoud I!., and was born on February 8, 1830, and la now only lorly-six years old. HU youth, like that of all heirs to the Turk ish throne, wa? passed In comparative Bccluslou, but he is said to have exhibited an early usto lor agricul tural pursuits, and established a model larm at Scutari, j where he spent much tiiuo In experimental farming. When he was called to the throne by the death of bis elder brother he showed a desire to promote the wel fare ot his peoplo by the introduction of im portant reforms and the removal or tho mostcryiug abuses. With this Idea ho reduced his civil list and cut off many causes of expense, such as tho seraglio, proclaiming his Intention to embraco monogamy, and lessen, If ho could not altogetnor abolish, tbe abuses of tbo barom. Like his predeces sor, Abdul Aziz was deeply Impressed with tho neces sity ol harmonising the political and social conditions of his Umpire with European Ideas of progress, and it was here that bo created the tlrst antagonism that ?rose between tym and bis people, and which has cul minated In bis deposition. Desiring to examino In person tho diflerent phases of European civilization, the Saltan in 1807 mado a grand tour of ibe Continent, and successively visited Austria, franco and England, where he was magnificently received by tho respective rulors of thoao countries. This contact ol the Padishah with the Giaour* gave great scnndal to the orthodox Mussulmans, and It has boon evident since the Sultan's journey that his popularity has been steadily on the wane. Among the chlel military ovents of the reign of Abdul Aziz are tbe suppression of the Montenegrin ro volt In 18U2 and that of the Cretans iu 1808. His ro.a tions with Egypt were somewhat similar to those of his predecessor, until in 1866 ho consented for tho con stderatton of a large sum of monoy to recognize tho right of tho Khedive's eldest son to succeed bis father, tbat is, tho right of succession in the direct line. This concession, although In direct opposition to Turkish law, was conformed by an Imperial Urinaii, which virtually gives independence M Egypt. Of course tho stanch upholders or the old Mussulman Idea wore shocked at this departure Irom law and custom, and when it was sought to mako a similar change in the lino ol succession In Turkey the opposition bocame so great that tho project was abandoned as impracticable. The Sultan was desirous of being succeeded by his eldost son, Yussuf, born in 1857; but, as slated, tho feeling vu so strong against changiug tho anclont law ol tho Empire that tho claims of tho heir presumptive, Mahommed Murad EHendl, tho oldest son or the late Sultan Abdul Medjid, wero recognized as paramount. Abdul Aziz has lour sons?namely, Yussur Izzedtn Effcndi, born October 0, 1857, iind commander or the Imperial Guard at Constantinople; Malimoud Pjomol Eddin Effcndi, born November 20, 1802; Mchemod Selltn Effcndi, born October 8, 1886, and Abdul Medjid, born June 27,1808; also ono daughter, Sultana Selikhe, born in 1802. Tbo ovents that havo brought about tbe dethrone ment or tbo Sultan Abdul Aziz are directly traceable to tho deep rooted prejudices ontertainod by his Mussul man subjects against tho ideas or Western civllliatlon, which ho admires so much. The war iu Hcrxegovina and Scrvla Is but tho repetition ot tho horolc struggles or tho Christians to shako off ihe cruel yoko of tho Turkish power that havo been going on slnco the days ot Othman. Tho successes of tho lnsurgouts havo ex asperated tho lanatlcal portion of the population of Constantinople to such a dogroo that they wroak their vcngcanco evon ou tbe "Father of tbo Faithful" blm scir regarding his weakness and indecision or charao tcr'as tho chief causes of Turkish reverses. This spirit of Intolerance is manilostlng Itsolt all over the Turkish F.mplro, and bodos evil for tbo luture. The selection of the regular heir to the throne, **I1K*KT MURAD nrilWDI, as the successor ol the deposed Sultan, shows that ad herence ;o ancient Turkish laws snd policy Is the guld lug Idea in the miuds of tho reactionary party. The flamo of ranatlcsm Is tanned by appeals Irtin mosque and nunarot, snd the now Sultan mounts bis dead father's toroiie with tho keynoto or the policy expected of him ringing in his ears. Tho rise of Turkish power was surrounded with a bloody magnlflconce which dazzled and overawed the somi civilized nations that strove to combat IU Its prime was *n era or splendor snd comparative orog ress, because tbe Turks are naturally given to rotitic mentand study; but in IU decay the evidences of the corruption that is gnawing its vitals are only too plainlv visible. A little over 600 years ago tho Grst footprint or the Moslem was set in European Turkey, and we now watch with increasing Interest the signs ol bis departure. Truly U Is said, "Time makes all things even." MEXICAN BORDER TROUBLES. Sax Fraxcisco, May 30, 1878. A despatch from San Diego says a runner has Just arrived from Campo, who reports that about 100 Mcxi cans arc withered just bolow the line, intent on un other attack on Campo. The seniors are gathering lor Uelcnco. MISSOURI WHISKEY CASES. St. Lotri*, May 30, 1870. Motion for a now trial In tho eases of R. W. Ulricl and others was sustained to-day In tho United States District Court. In tho eases of John McFall, John K. Howard and I.ouis Kollerman, Unitod States gangers, judgment was entered against their bunds in $10,000 cacti. AMERICAN SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION. FLATTERING BESL'LT OF LAST teak's WORK. rmiAOKLPUiA, May 30, 187a The American Sunday School Union held its tlfty. second anniversary this afternoon and evening at the Academy of lluslc. Iter. Richard K. Nuwton, D. D., presided at the first meeting, and addresses wero made by Stephen i'axion, ol Missouri; Hev. John McCullogh, of Kentucky; Rev. Thomas Wright, of Michigan, and T. O. Ensign, of Illi nois, ail missionaries and superintendents ol the so ciety. The Hon. Joshua Nye, of Maine, prosided at the evening meeting, and addressee were made by Sir Charles Head, M. F., of Kngland; Hev. Ouniel Mursb, D. 1)., of Fhliadulphiu; Kov. B. W. Chidlaw, of Ohio, and Ho*. W. F. Parsons, of Missouri. Tho Aoadomy was crowded to overflowing at botb meetings. The record or the union's work lor the past year shows that 1,20(1 new schools have been formed, and 8,218 other schools visited and aided, wbtoh have a membership of 'J28.245. This work has been done lu thirty-onu States and Territories. In permanent re sults, tho society considers this one of tho bust years of Its labor. BAPTIST SOCIAL UNION. FniLADBLPHiA, May 30, 1878. The second National Convention of the Baptist Social Union of tho Uuitod States convenod this evoning in the First Baptist church, at Broad and Arch street*, Representatives were present from twenty unions scattered throughout Now Kngland, tho North acd West. An address of welcome was delivered by 0. D. Boardman, I). D., chairman of tho local committee, after which au interesting discourse upon "Mow to re ten Nun-Church lioer*" was read by Rev. A. K. Fot tor, of Massachusetts, tho speaker urging as among the chlol elements of success lu this work an increase of spiritual warmth nnd Individual eiiort In the Church ol Christ as distinguished shke from sensation alism and indifference. I lie exercises wore interspersed with singing. To tnorrow morning tho exercises will cotcinonco withd ovotlonsl services at nine o'clock. PROBABLE FATAL ACCIDENT. Fuii.Ann.rntA, May 30, 1878. Ell Bongbton, of FlalnBeld, N. J., received an injury to-day that will probably prove lataL In coming to the Centennial on tho Bound Brook Railroad ho put hla head out ol too car window, when he was struck by a car on a side track, the blow causing a Iracture ol the akull. FOUR PERSONS DROWNED. Bobtox, May 30, 1878. By the npaotting of a sailboat on Fresh Feud, la Brighton, this afternoon, tho following namud persons were drownedMrs Duncklee, tho wlfo of iho pro prietor of tho t'unnyaidv Hot:so of Brighton, her daughter Maud Uui Wilson and Iter littta brother Johnny. WASHINGTON. FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. Wasuix.tos, May GO. 187& I TnE **SSIH8irPI INVESTIGATION ? GOTEDNO* AMES BEEOBE TUB COMMITTEE?DOCUMENTS SHOWING THE TBUE HISTOBY OF THE VICES BCBO MOT I SI DECEMBEB, 1874-THE IBOUBLB INI HATED BT AMES iTOB POLITlfir, TITB" POSES. It i? understood that In big testimony before tbo Senalo Committee on Mississippi Affair*, which sits In secret, ex-Governor Ames told a story about tbe Vicks burg riot in December. 1874. Tbo following doctt inent* toll tbo truo story: < rosby, an illiterate and corrupt negro <loinagoguo bud bi'.'u elected sberlfl of Warren county. It was < liarged ncainst him tbat be was acting and collect Ins public money without having given lawful bonds, and a inub illegally coercod blui to re si?n bis place. Ho went to Jackson to consult with the Stato authorities, and a meeting was beld at tbo Governor's mansion. At tbat meeting tb< AttorneyGcuorml. a republican, advised, as bis test!, mony given Ik.low provos, tbat Crosby bad a i>eac?abli n nn Uj m the courts. Several prominent cltlxeui tttro ready to go to \ Icksburg, as commissioners, t< ?ottJe thu matter poacenbly. GoVornor Ames rejected al advico and told Crosby to go back to ?Icksnurg, summon tbo negroes from tb? surrounding country and reinstate biius.ll >) lont. i ho negroes, so summoned by notice in tu churches on Sunday, marched on Vicksburg Monday morning in a straggling mauner, and as, In lact, a niob; wire met outside by u party of whites, and driven off, a number bcing shot. That was the Vicksburg not; and concerning the manner in which and the purpose with which Governor Amos de Iberately brought it on, tho following sworn testimony will be laid bofbro the Senate committee: /.,i/_rarbell, Judge of the Supremo Court, a North ern man aud republican, present at tbo meeting In tbe Governor's bouse, says under oath: My theory of Crosby was that through bis lauoranre Incompetency and dishonosty be hud brought the stale ofth ngs wo were thore to consider. ? ? ? 1 retarded E"tlcr,y u" worthy, untrustworthy and inooin fhnf^r "k y P?*ll,ou whatever. It wai cous.deied ussisunoo Was rendered to Crosby It was to bo composed of colored people. Hecotui Captain A. W. Allyn, also presentat the oon suitatlou, says undor oath:? Am captain of tho Sixteenth United States infaatrv I fnnl.n?T'?Kd thp po8t "Jwksonj was Vr?ut I7i iniotlng in the early purt of December, 1874- haoorned there casually, without Invltatioa; the cm turned upon the lorced resignation of Crosby (ohertff Warren county) aud upon ibe power ol lEe Uer.ffM I ?u"un2? * Ixidy of tho county un u posoo to enforotf Um i*' , . ,oro Wtta a difference of opinion as to the sher iff h ability to regain bis position. Tbe opinion <if At torney General Harris was ihat all the legal Jo 4or 5 tho courts should be exhausted before It woo ? Vir "J0 *-xecu,IV0 to tako action. * ? ? It w>> alloged that a posse o' negroes simply would bloodshed. The (Joeernor cutrrtM that uiulmmkt would. * * That "fry likely fifteen er negroes may be kitted, but tit at it would '? m benefit oj the republican jwrty." Third Attorney Goncral Harris, a republican aatf tbe official legal advisor ot the Governor, also pr?Mt at tbe consultation, says, under oath:? Was present at the interview at the Oar. ernors mansion in December, 1874, Jnst before tbo \ icksburg riot. ? ? ? rh?J tioj!?L?2I (Aii.cs) uskod mo concerning the law of ilia matter (In Crosby's case), and I commonLl give him the law by which Crosby could obtain poo session of his ollli'o in the courts. * ? ? (jnvarna* Amos then turned aud sddrossed himself to the ool ored men protont, remarking that he and othorwSte men had faced tne bullets to Ircethein, and if they wen ?ort?v?Vn5 ,0? ,li{hl ,or lbat thov were ^n worthy of it. Some ono remarked that it CrosDy uuder replied'? * W0U 1)0 llvca lofct. "uU the Govemof ' What if It does cost blood? Tho blood of tbo mar" ? * m I advised tho Governor that It was questionable from Crosby s statemont, whether bis was an uctual returns tmn or whether it was duress, and thcreioro it was a question lor tho courts. ? ? ? i w? au???L! General at the time. Attorney Fourth H. R. l'easo, a ropublican and Northorn man, ex.United States Souator aud at presont post master at Vicksburg, says: Ha l a conversation with W. W. Doaderick In Wash. Ington city tn tbo month of Jauuary, 1875, as to wV't occurred in tho Governor's mansion n ? iCi?iC about the Vicksburg-Crosby aili?r ? V " H0 .pok'S ol the peculiar language, temper and manner of tbe Governor at that meeting; said tbo Governor was verr much excited and advised Crosby to go to Vlcksburir and summon tbe colored people and reinstate hnnsofi n his ollice. Upon which IJeiMlerick said be aud some one else remonstrated with the Governor as to the policy of sending Crosby back to Vicksburg to summon Iho negroes; tbat il Crosby was sent back tbere It would result in blooushod p giving that as ?n for n? sending Crosby buck, to which Ames replied, "That tho killing ot twenty-live or thirty negroes would be of ad ?nntiigo to tbo republican party, on tbe principle thut the blood of the martyrs is tbo seed of the Church " iSl^T"0' This testimony shows that tho real and dollberalo author of tho Vicksourg riot was Governor Ames him sell; that his order to Crosby to summon tho negroes was given In tbo lace of the advico or his Attorney General tbat thore was a remedy In tbe courts, and with, as bis words show, tho delibcrato Intention ol causing bloodshed and tbo killing of negroes In order to ud vanco partisan tntorobta. FROM OUR REGULAR CORRESPONDENT. WasRiMoTon, May, 30, 1870L THK NEW 8ECBKTABY Of WAB IN WASHINGTON? THE POBTFOUO ACCEPTED. Mr. Don Cameron arrived at Wlllard's by tho nln? o'clock train to night, In good hoiltli. He lelt the ho tel very quickly and remained out to a late hour. Ho will take possession at tho War Department day alter to morrow. Ho gave a largo ontartainment at Harris burg bofo rc loaring there. * GENERAL WASHINGTON DESPATCHES. Wahhixutox, May 30,1878. THE BELKNAP IMPEACHMENT?PBOBABLE POST PONEMENT OP THE TRIAL UNTIL PAUL. The Senate having decided that It has Jurisdiction in (ho Belknap Impeachment matter, tho opinion u ex pressed that tho trial will be postponed until November next, when the Senate will reassemble Tor llutl special purpose. Mr Belknap ba* a large number of witnesses to be examined, and u hi* counsel will in defence o( their client contest every atop ol the managers on the part of the llouse of Representatives, there la a strong probability that the trial will continue six weeks or two months. Mr. Lord, Chairman of the Board of Managers, ex presses tho opinion that it will occiipy, at least, six weeks It Is believed that to go on wild tbe trial now would prolong the session of Congrexs until tbe Utter part of August or the Bret of September; ss, In addi tion to tho timo consumed by the trial, a month or six weeks will bo required to finish up the absolutely necessary legislative business of passing the annul appropriation bills. (June a number of Senatois are In favor of postponing tho trial until the fall, and, when (be question is aab mittod to tho Senate, they will urge their views sa to the advisability of such a postponmcnL It Is alao sug gested by several Senators and prominent members of I tho House that the trial should bo postponed until the first of July, In ordar to sflord a reaaon abie prospect ol action by tho Senate on the appropriation bills in tho meantime. Aside from these considerations, grave doubts aro expressed by many disinterested persons whether, In view ot the fact that leas than two-thirds of the Senate have votod in favor of Jurisdiction, there ta anything to be gained by proeeeding with tbo trial at alL Very east nent legal authorities, wno bavo no conueetlon what ever with tho procoedings, assert that the twenty-nine Senators who yesterdsy voted against taking Juried lo tion will not be precluded by the Seuato's action from voting "not gniliy" on this jurisdictional ground when tbe final issuo Is prosentod. * THE RECENT CABINET CBANOER. Tho understanding la that all of tbo recent Cabinet changes will tako practioal elfeet from the 1st of Jon* Judge 1'ierropont will remain in this city lor somo time provious to his departure for Knglaud. Mr. Cameron is oxpeotod to take charge of th%War Department on tbe 1st of the coming month. Judge Pierrepont will leave New York for England ea the W 01 Juue. PIPER'S LAST CONFESSION. Bos to!*, May M, 1871 Sheriff Clark fmbllshes e letter declining to give to the public tbe last written coulees ion of I'iper, wtoefc be withholds at the reqoest of the family. U MMf coaaims hie previous alleged eonieeale*

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