Newspaper of The Weekly Ottumwa Courier, January 30, 1861, Page 1

Newspaper of The Weekly Ottumwa Courier dated January 30, 1861 Page 1
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new. semes, gginto ijalamitv, vol. «, no. t. Jh W« .\0 it IK IS$ Proprietor. €|c (Dttumtoa Courirv. IS PITitLISHED KVKRY WEDNESDAY IN 3E^J^5|QTrS BLOCS, (THIRD FLOOR) OTTTTMWA, WAI'I:LLO C., IOWA, BF J. W. & «. P. jVORRIS. E n 9 BLiY IN ADVANCE On? ?o|»7, per year Pour foplei Ten Twenty" ll»me« tmltfs they arc a.ccoi-.i7ni]twith nn»i SPEECH Hon. William H. Seward, i ^ret this. Disunion is so un-xpeeted and annatural, that it must plainly reveal itself llefore its presence can be realized. I like st, also, the courage which rises slowly, #nder severe provocation. If it be a Christ iln duty to forgive to the sti anger even sev- •tntial to rec mciliation. advise a Congressional are MTM |1,B0 .. ft,00. 12,00. ..24,00. persons wtjliinirto «nbscHte foralest time tlmrone originality, the sovereignty, .. Pl«rean «io «n u? r*mitt!np the nmnnnt they wish to peudence of the several Delivered l« States, and the laevs made in pursuance there" of, are the supreme law of the land, para Mr. Seward. rbances, now, in our turn, seem to be fall- are abundantly competent to discharge it. a momentous and disasterous revo- I propose, therefore, with great deference. lution. 1 Aery sigh that its inger draws forth. I to them to liavu been re-er-c I dive the Union. The opinions of parties and lovernment with the requisite power. The. Sliced the existing alienation. A truce, at and prejudice is whether it conduces Itast during the debate on the Union, is es- to the interests ofthe people of this country i Persons bent on that fearful step wul not care and disposition of the public domain, atand long enough on forms of law to be colonization, the organisation and admission Aslodged, and loyal men do not need such of new States, and, generally the enlarge- narrow ground to stand upon. ment of empire, one nation under our present I fear that littie more will be gained from Constitution, then ^iscussing the rights ofthe Fedual Govern- themselves into separate Confederacies or conviction that legislative compromises which sacrifice hon"stly cherishel principles, while they anticipate future exigencies, even if they do not assume extra-constitutional tWherare'rertain to Inde^f Mr President afh onor or dishonor,of life or death. Although suppose political existence compatible with means, and the display, if need be, of greater lament the occasion, I hail with cheerful disunion and, therefore, on the same day force. Every one knows how placable we tpjess the duty of lifting up my v ice among that they declared themselves independent,' ourselves are in controversies with Great Aistracted debates, for my whole country and they proclaimed themselves also confedcra- Britain, Fiance and Spain and yet how ex its inestimnble Union. ted States. Experience in war and in peace, actinjr we have been in our intercourse with Hitherto the exhibitions of lirit and re so- frmn 1776 until 1780, only convinced them New Granada, Paraguay and San Juan de lution here, as elsewhere, have been chiefly of the necessity of converting that loose Con- Nicaragua. ttkade on the side of disunion. I do not te-j federacy into a more perfect and perpetual! Mr. President, no one will dispute our forc- #ity times seven offences, it i« the highest of which the country was composed, and the assimilates them with one system watches patriotism to endure without complaint the fate of an empire in many respects the most I for them with a single eye, which it turns passionate waywardness of ]oliIic brethren interesting in the world. I enter upon the in ail directions, and moves all agents under no long as there is hopu that they may come subject of continuing the Union now, deeply the control of one exccutivc head. A nation to a better mind. impressed with the same generous and loyal so constituted is safe against assault, or even prayer brings us ne ?rer to God, though it The founders of the Constitution moreover of the Union are always ample. flhnnot move him toward us, so there is heal- regarded the Union as no mere national or have thus far kept out of view the rela l|ig and savin-? virtue in every word of de« American interest. On the contrary, they tjons which must arise between the confede ration to the Union that is spoken, and in confessed with deep sensibility tjiar it seemed racies themselves. Thev would be small and 4K responsibility for the present evils. He failure to continue and perfect the Union treaties with all the others and so h? •hose conscience acquits him will naturally would be a misfortune to the rations. How to give them fre^*-* cT e. 1 v be slow to accuse others whose co-operation much more, sir, would its overthrow now be necessarily, have different interests resulting he needs. History only can adjust the great a calamity to mankind 1 ... from their establishment of different policies account. i Some form of government is indispensible of revenue, of mining, of manufactures, and A continuance of the debate on the con- hero as elsewhere. Whatever form we have, navigation of immigration, and perhaps the Stitutional power of Congress over the sub- every individual citizen and every State must slave trade.' Each w'ould stipulate with for ject of slavery in the Territories, will n rede to it some natural rights, to invest the The Union cannot be saved by proving and .vat, commerce inland and foreign, /.ostal tfiat secession is illegal or unconstitutional. "communications at home •n°nt to coerce seceding States into obedience. States. .... I nrci.lia? circumstances of the flf disunion is to go on, this question will Our country remains now aa it ^ive place to the more practical one, whether —composed not of detached i »any secediir* States have a right to coerce i Territories, but of one whole we the remaining members to acquiesce in a issolution. 7.o,.e, «U„ «,,u nanny ril war. I do not know what the Union I hi* slight diversity quickens a id amphiies 4vil °uld be worth if saved by tne use o, «,e aim minerce. our rivers and fi vord. Yet, for all this. I do not agree with valleys, as improved by art furnished us a Aiose who, with a desire to avert that great system of highways unequaled in the world.! pow­ ers, are less sure to avert imminent evils nroduce even Sr iS^ dangers 7 I think it Indeel, Mr. resident, tninK nni .oi -n,i ther Federal Government. They delud eolu/w .k i •i u the belief that the State war against a State. The dilemma results inevitablj-continues until even the greatest main against a State. The dilemma results inevitably continues until even the great*. from an assumption that those who, in such empire crumbles into many parts. Each ca«e, act again:t the Federal Government, Confederation that shall ultimately arise out act lawfully as a State although, manifestly, of the ruin of the Union, will have necessity Mr. Jefferson did no', hesitate fo nay that of society in Western Europe and in Spanish held thereby attraction. I fully admit the ha'iit of the American people. and the inde-i I will not States within Mr. Pre i lent. Congress ad- mount to all legislation of the States, wheth- every treaty. Local and temporary interests Jfturned last summer amid auspices of nation- er made under the Constitution, or by even and passions, o: personal cupidity and am •1 abundance, contentment, tranquility, their organic Convention. Tha Union can bition can drive small Confederacies or States •lid happiness. It was reassembled this be dissolved not by recession, with or with-! more easily than a great Republic into in Winter in the presence of derangement of out armed force, but only by the voluntary discreet violations of treaties. ^business and disturbance of public as well as consent of the people of the United States,' The United States being a greaf.and form jp-ivale credit, and in the face of seditious colleccd in the manner prescribed by the idable Power, can alwaj*s secure favorable ©imbinations to overthrow the Union. The Constitution of the United Slates. and satisfactory treaties. Indeed, every alarm is appalling Union is not mire the Con stress, in the present case, ought not, trenty we have was voluntarily made. Small l^nly than liberty is the vo il of the nation, to be impassive. It ought, if it can, to re- Confederacies or States must t:ike such treat The Amor can citizen has been accustomed dress any real grievances oj the offended i ies as they can get, nnd give whatever treat to heleive the Republic immr til. Ife shrinks States, and then it ovglit to supply the I'ree- i s are exacted. A humiliating, oy even an from the sight of convulsions indicative of its ident villi nil the means nrrcwiry to main- unsatisfactory treaty, is a chronic cause of tBidden death. The report of our condition tain the Union in the full exhibition and foreign war. ||as gone over the seas,and wo who have so discreet exercise of its authority. Beyond) The chnpter of wars resulting from unjnsti i mas gone over the seas,and wo who have so dwcreet extreme of its authority. Beyond The Hng and with much complacency s'udied the this, with the proper activity on the part, of finble •tidless agitations ofsocielv in lli" Old World the Executive, the responsibility of saving plifv i believing ourselves exempt from such dis- the Union belongs to the people, and they .• .. Our country remains now a* it was ml 787, ^ou]d conventional or unopposed Ihe different onus of labor if savery were Reparation, with a view t. what they call a not perverted to pur,Kises of political ambi- construction. It is enough for me, first,, tion neel not constitute au element of srtife countrv iiavin„ expelled all Eui at in this plan destruction goes before re- the Confederacy. lonstruction and, secondly, that the stren Notwnhstandmg recent vehement expres- gjth ofthe vise ih which the hopes of the, sions and manifestations of intolerance in •ation arc id, consists chiefly in its re-1 some quarters, produced by intense partisan iiiining unbroken. excitement, we are, fact, a homogeneous well assimilated. compromists are not likely people, chiefly of one stock, not customarily asked by a force with its This security is of two kuuls one exempt confederation of such States *uns in battery nor are liberal ooncessiona will bo Venezuela, Peru, wise to discard two prevalent ideas or preju- jb ,.j ijavaria Saxo „«„«l. Ih*. th.1 Cm™ ,s 1.C dices, namely first, that the saved by anybody in particular and second-1 ly, that it is to be saved by some cunning and insincere compact of pacifcrs. If I re member rightly, I said something like this here so long ago as 1850, and afterwards in 1854. Greece, w 1 IIorww ir Japan, 1 States, 1 noirar al sphere by impulsion, if thev could not be our worldwide intercourse, makes pcace the the domestic population of the country.— descend their er .. n ravHes 1 n«w people, and they to address myself to the country upon the I know how difficult it is to decide, amid momentous subject, asking a Wearing, not so many and so various counsels, what ought less from the people within what are called ID be and even what can be done. Certainly, the seceding, than from those who reside however, it is time for every Senator to de-j within the adhering States. ...» [Mr. Johnson, avow my adherence to the of its necessity, and therefore not likely to This Government not only give9 fewer Union in its integrity, and with all its parts, be hastily discarded. The early States, while causea for war, whether just, or unjust, than With my friends, with my party, with my existing as.colonies, wefe combined, though smaller Confederacies would but it always State, with my country, or without either, as imperfectly, through a conurou allegiance to has a greater ability to accommodate them tbey may determine, in every event, whether the British Crown. When that allegiance by the exercise of more coolness and courage. Of peace or of war, with every consequence ceased, no one was so preump'.ous as to i Union. They acted with a coolness very father's maxim, that the common Rafrty of defferent from the intemperate conduct of ail is the safety of each of the States. While those who on the other rashly defy disunion. they remain united, the Federal Government The3' considered the continuance of the Un- combines all the materials, and all the forces ion as a subject comprehending nothing less of the several States organizes their defen than the safety and welfare of all the parts ses on one gen ral princ'ple harmonizes and I think it is easy to pwnounre what mean-! conviction. How could it be otherwise, when, insult. wres or conduct will not sive the Union. enste ul of only thirteen, the country is now I War produces always a speedy exhaustion icree with the honorable Senator from North composed of thirty-three parts and the em-! of money, and a severe strain upon credit, give this Capitol over to desolation at the nc .t! fhr %now, at least, that like virtue, it derives of this ccun'iy i i le.-id he :.e cYties if ,t! «r. an I i' eref r.cco \Ii:ig to nii political «trength form every irreverent act that is men are really capable of establifdung good philosophy, natural enemies. In addition to Committed, and every blasphemous phrase government upon reflection and choice, or' the many treaties which each must make Ifiat is uttered against it. whether they are forever destined to depend The Union cannot be saved bjr mutual for their political constitutions on accident which they would give by violating them, criminations concerning our respective share and force. They feared, therefore, that their Vvith oac 1 e ftn ]i( with so low as to ask wheth-' bunal to pronounce that construction, of fou]d )Cal impor it Ln it would be to divide c.MinRNFA I 'MNFANARARIAE AI» .. .. and distant and fertile region lying within the temperate zone, with climates and soils hardly niore| I dread, as ir.v inmost sou I abhor,!various than those of France or of Italy- the use of the manufacture and o tnmerce. Our rivers and waj ivell connected 1! confident ofits ow^ri'^itand its own stren- Foreign wars come from either violation of Britain not unwillingly and Switzerland is Sh I tWnk alw ha there is a prevailing treaties or domestic violence. The Union guarantied by interested monarchical States. L, has, thus far, prove.! itself an almost perfect Our own experiment has thus far been sue shield against such wars. The United States, I Sardinia, Ecuador, "ch The present danger discloses itself in this the Federal Constitution have lm form. D'scontented citizens have obtained wars with onh four States, two political power in certain States, and they were insignificant powers on the nvoribrow the Barbary, and have had direct hostilities, ... them- amounting to reprisals, against two or three the feasible alliances of those recombinations reueral Government. Ihev delude intm- aM us?ngP this "ut^rity B-barv.'and ha^ had direct hostilities. binations of the States when dissevered, and chief ^-oiild, in case of division, am- itself in proportion to the number of Confederacies and their irratabilitv.— Our disputes with Great Britain about Ore Hare himself. I therefore, following the ex- Union is an-old, tixed, settled habit of the prevented only by the imperturbability of! guarantee shall th^re be against the full de- farm of choice is renewed e\er} four yt-aiS. ample of th noble Senator from Tennessee, American people, resulting from convictions the Federal Government. the use of more various and more libera! Carolina Mr. Clingman,] that mere eulogi- pire embrace", instead of only (our millions, I The treasuries and credits of small confeder- very moment when the dome is rising over hearing in a subsequent election. Have the l|ms will nt save it. Yet! think that as no less than thirty millions of inhabitants. acies would often prove inadequate. injurious to its rivals. K niore i_ the not hc niaintaincd one ould in the scale of ]it ,ance, anil tlu othl ,„ WO the other8 shall be corftent to this hatefulsytem nfttjons w .ouf(, anJ th( .n jike ltlllv 1iecome the accessions i ,, to save the Union. I know, indeed, that well assimilated. We have, practically, only I If, however, we grant to the new confede tradition favors this form of remedy. But it is essential to the success, in any case, that there be found a preponderating mass «f •epar •trike an one language, one religion, one system of.rac,es an exemption from cimplications Government, and manners and customs among each other with foreign States, still common to all. Why, then, shall we not there is too much reason to believe that not one of them could long maintain a republican uld view thenceforward with envy and apprehension. Jealoilsil ,s wouM brin? 0| "J talintl(r„ fl .ars frequent and re- nnd alfthesc wars from the e u i a i u s a n e s o e o n e e a i e s hilve th nature and character of civi "cepToT own'" Catda kans" on cf-sful b«'ause, continually enlarging'their of new hUU-s, the inlluence of each ofthe matical ac now treaties with France, i Dissolution, therefore, is, for the peo- pie of this country perpetual civil wa*-. To else cnuM they accept but the system ofad- te k anJ Jbtum oooaslonal rest, what th ju,tins the balance of power which has ob- uined in |n w »hich the few s(ron natjons dictatcthe very tenns on whicll all li live. When should fail at last, foreign intC rvene, now in favor of one jn aid of another nr crs frojn the C0Tltinent,would and thus our uropcan Pow lapse into an re colonial experience, ate form ((f its aJ Turkey, India and China, theater of transatlantic interven- tion and raracity. -. ... by the continual addition VT liiaintance, have now treaties "with France, members of the Union is constantly restrained v- .i i._ i. ar.d reduced. the Netherlands, (ireat Britain, Sweden, ar.d reduced. No one of course can foretell "ultimately I Prussia, Spain, Russia, Denmark, Mexico. thjwa' «nd manner of trave but history I Brazil, Auitna Turkey, Chili, Siarn, Muscat,, with unerring certainty the end lhe stveral p(rt„„«i N.-w Gran*.!* Licentiousness would render life intolerable and tl,ey Schwerin, Guatemala, the Hawaian Islands, and surrender of liberty, and yield San Salvador, Borneo, Costa Rica, Loo Choo i themselves up to the protection of military Brunswick. Persia, Baden, Belgium despotism. and Paraguay. Nevertheless, the United Indulge mo, sir, in one or two details un within their entire existence under der this head. First, it is only six days bad flagrant since this disunion movement began already ro of which those who are engaged in it have canvassed were insigniiiciiiii powers, on the coast of with portentious freedom the pissible rccom- n ld tt more and they are now at peace with the with European nations, alliances as unnat- would rea^ sooner or later purchase I «p"q»ility ."d 4^ »fo'y by p„ n«tinnn alliances as unnnt. If the Union should be divided i ural. and which would prove ultimately as »f tlwm peetilenli»l to Boowty l«re .h»t of th. OTTUMWA, IOWA, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 30,1861. (Mr. Douglas) says we ive a right to co-j have now and, of course, would lc liable to them revenge upon their ancient enemies, movement everywhere through our own land it involve- the direct national calamities, erce a State, but we cann t. Tlie President give as many causes of war as we now do. the Aztecs. and throughout the world, free speech, free resu't tui^h' h« doubtful f«r th«' RepuMi of of ourwar n-ith Great Britain. ration, that makes war the normal condition invoked the hateful and intolerable espionage of mili- the Gulf States, and their permanent reor- Thirdly, States must be kept within thoir constitution-' America. It is union that view, out" of the relation of African slaves to And now, Mr. President, what is the dis'inct I object of new Confederacies would be able or willing! operation of the Union, fe« no appropriated, in no rn-c win we enternew sphere. But I hold the Federal Government to bear the grievous expense of maintaining remained bnorant of the" controversy, es- far from biing enemies, there is not ant on pbere. But I hold the Federal Government to bear the grievous expense of maintaining remained i inorant of the controversy, es to he equally original, sovereign, and inde-1 the diplomatical relations which cannot be peciallv of its bearing upon themselves. Can i on earth that is not an interested, admiring other Ameriean, i 1 Those on e?»oK foreign Powers, and the cause of war of the confederacies must a'so maintain i^n nations for advantages peculiar to itself, if 't 1 to remain for the general purposes of peace should be as ncarlj as possible I art, under the reign of conscription nay, what interest in them will society feel when fear and hate have taken possession of the for onefurlon further into the pays that no State lias a right to secede, but But we know, from the sad experience of I Secondly, this disunion movement arises pres*, free suffrage the freedom of every partv is weak in a large part of the Union if n^chlo, the construction of two Pacific xve have no constitutional power to make other nations, that disintegration, once begun partly out the United States. Hitherto the against every agtnt who the bounds of political debate by referring it federacies, constantly appreh^iding ass with all other national ment of the ballot box. they have perveit the pwer of the State for as many treaties as we now haye, and ment of the ballot box. Does any one sup- toeach other and contemptible to all beside purpose to g'»p»-ra'cfrom it all collate'al ques- If, in the expression of these views, I nave To an unconstitutional purpose. A class of will incur liabilities for war as often as we pose that disunion would transfer the whole how long will it be b'-fire, on the plea of tions, and relieve it of all partisan passions not proposed what is desired or expected by^ jiollitieians in New Kn l\nd set up thia tha-1 now do, by breaking them. ft is the multi- domain to either party, or that any other public safety, they will surrender all this in- and prejudices. ma.y others, they will do ine the justice to" «ry and attempted to practice upon it in plication of treaties, and the want of confede-1 umpire than war wjjld, after disunion, be 1 desire. Hitherto, cause ~"f"' ~"A irginia tion. Mr. Prcs:dent. Thave designedly dvvelt so long on the probable effects of disuni n upon the safety of the Am rican people as to leave me Tittle time to consider the other evils which must follow in its train. But prac tically, the lo«s of safety involves ever}' other form of public calamity. When once the gnardian'an«-el has taken flight, everything dure, they could severally preserve no share will great achievements be possible for times forgotten ifcctions on that question have been dogmati- simple question, therefore, for us now to de-I if »l..i TTninn tomarily stands upon the dais before me,1 whatever indirection just such a system i .. 111 t. 4til, and it is this circumstance that has pro- cide, while laying aside all pique, passion, i,mIVi i,„ i rok,n it «'raIt in Hip in i an^ i i venera' ev(?rv irrcvercnt ward 1 fu-d wlth Freedom is to them, as to *11 mankind, "the so mu safety, greatness, happiness, and and so obvi u«Iy impossible of they liave practically and are they pendent within its sphere. And the govern- dispensed with except by withdrawing from we hope that flagrant civil war shall rage frisnd. Even the London Times, by no to the^ otli-'r su' jects which I have Inent of ihe State can no more absolve the foreign commerce. among ourselves in their very presence, and means partial to us, says brought in this connection before the Stn people residing within its limits from allegi- ur Federal Government is better able to yet that they will r.'inain stupid and i Ite It is quite possible that the problem of a ate. .... lince to the Union than the Government of avoid giving just causes of war than several spectators Does history furnish u^ any Democratic republic maybe solved by its1 Beyond a doubt, Union is vitally linpor tbe Union can absolve them from allegiance Confederacies, because it can conform the satisfactory instruction upon the horrors of overthrow in a few days in a spirit of folly, tant to the Republican citizens of the I nit"d totheState. The Constitution ofthe United action of all the States to compacts. Tt can civil war among a people so brave, so skilled selfishness, and short-sightedness.' States but it is just as impott'.nt to the ave only one construction, and only one in arms, so earnest shall ruiu cvni iu uiu |?i«i *»i slavory. Opposition to it takes two form ws the result was announced. one European, which is simple, direct aboti- oming in 1 1 1 new "confederacies. Dissolution would sig-1 or spirit, require or imj l.v thai the arguments nalize its triumph by acts of wantonness of one party shall be satisfactory to the other! which would shock and astound the world.! No that is impossible. What is the eonsti It would provincialize Mount Vernon and our heads that was to be crowned with the now successful majority perverted power to invested for hucli purposes have, that will around the delta of the Mississippi, who be outweigh the premium offered by political lieve that the Union is less conducive to the and military ambition What leisure will welfare and greatness of those Staes, than a the citizen find for study, or invention, or' smaller conf 1eracy, embracing only slave post road, and the telegraph, advance not States there a mstivones-s resulting from the wilderness.— With standini stance of our people on the land, and our the ocean, who will piotect or respect, or I enter an world wondered at it, and talked of it States homage, i a dispute over the common do- subject to vote on every law, and for or But on a direct iss in, with all who eh -iidi the railways, one of which shall connect the expounds, adminis- Union on one rage up us? So tint I in conyicti in, and so in Has the federal Government become ty-, whole people, ]\epublicani.-m *':d Ini n tent in purpose, as we are? Ts it a mere rannical or oppressive, or even rigorous or are. therefore, not convertible t«rmg. lie chimera which'sug^sts an aggravation of unsound? Has the Coffctitution lost its pub'icani-m is subordinat to Union, ns eve those horrors l»eyond endurance when, on spirit, and all at once collapse 1 into a life. ryth:"g else is an 5 ought tol»e 1! pn1 l'.can either side, there tion. effected, if need be, by compulsion* had been elected, while the success of ei- througb its occur the intervention less letter No the Fe leril Government ism. Dem-c ncy, every other political name of an uprising ferocious African slave popu smiles more nignnntly, and works to day and thing nil n.c subordinate—and they la tion of four, or six, perhaps twenty mill- more beneficently than ever. The Const!- ougV to disapp ar in the pre e nee of the jont 9 tution is even the chosen model for the or- great question of Union. So far as I am which seeks to arrest ther one of the three other candidates would without invoking revolutionary «-lion the African slave trade, and re-ist the en-1 have been acquiesced in. Was the election others shall invoke that form of action to op trance of domestic slavery into Territories illegal V No it was unimpeachable. Isthelp'-s* and overthrow Gov -rnment, they ... is lost. i tiate a treaty, or procure the passage of a gross on that subject, so as not to oblige pi i Dissolufion would not only arrest, but ex-' l*'*. nil can hardly draw a musket from the ™te per-ons to assist in their execution, and tinguish the greatness of our country. Even P"^ a senals to defend his own person. to protect freemen from being, by if separate confederacies could exist and en- of ihe common presti-je ofthe Union. If the conclusive the arguments which were urged slave States, which relate lo this class of pcr constt llation is to be broken up, the f-tar*, in behalf of the successful canJida?e in the sons, or any others recently coming_ from or whether scattered widely apart or grouped canvass. This is all. Were their own argu- resident in other States, and which laws in smaller clusters, will thenceforth shed i ments against him more satisfactory to his contravene the Constitution of the United forth feeble glimmering and lurid light*. Nor supporters? Of urse they were not th-y S'ab's. or any law of Congress pissed incon the statue of Liberty. After this there would purposes of oppression? No they hav remain for disunion no act of stupendous in- I never before held power. Alas: how prone famv to bo mmitted. No nettv confed ra-1 we are to undervalue privileges and bles cy that shall follow the United States can sings. How gladly, how proudly, would p'r .long or ev n renew, the nnjestic drama of, the people of any nation in Europe accept national progress. Perhaps it is to be ar on such terms as we enjoy it, the boon of rested because its sublimity is incapable of i electing a Chief Magistrate, every four years continuance. Let it be so, if we have in-1 by free, equal, and universal sutfia-e 11 ow\[Th^dU^—Wiulfi.1 deed become degenerate. After Washing- thankfully would they cast aside all their exclusive ami sovi ton, and the inflexible Adam«, Henry, and _[wn systems of government and accept this islateon all subjects whatever, in partsr'let the curtain fall I exhaustion How strange are the times in While listening to these debates, I have which we live! The coming spring s-aaon. i hke every other question, to be some tnvself in marking their °n one side of the Atlantic, wid open on a i contrasted effects upon the page who cus- general conflict, waged to obta:n, through .acts in 'he cases of_ Ore 'on, Minnesota an.l Kansas, without being able to sec ire in them ..... hind him. The youth exhibits intense but the same parallels of latitude, it will open on an Let him weep no more.-1 for themselves, to reveng- their own wrongs',! be obtained by. similar laws, providing for Rather rejoice, for yours has been a lot of i or to gratify their own ambition? .ther do their organ'zation if such organization were rare felicity. You have seen and been a, not men live least of all for themselves, and otherwise practicable. If, therefore, Kansas part of all the greatness of your country, the 'hiefl y for posterity and for their fellow men? were admitted as a btate under the yan towering national greatness of all the world' Have the American people, then become all of, dotte constitution, as I think she ought to Weep only vou, and weep with all the bit-j a sudden unnatural, as well as unpatriotic? I be. and if the organic laws of all the other terncss of anguish, who are just stepping on and will they disinherit their children of the 11 err.tones could be repeated. I could yotet the threshold of life for that greatness i precious estate held only in tiust for them and authorize the organization and admission of perishes permanently and exists not for you, deprive the world of the best hopes it has two new States, which should include them for me, nor for any that shall come after us. enjoyed since the human race began its si w The public prosperity! how could it survive and painful, yet needful and wisely appoin the storm Its elements are industry in the ted progress culture of every fruit mining of all the Here I might close my plea for the Amer metals commerce at home and on every I ican-Union but it is necessary, if not to ex sea material improvement that knows no haust the argument, at least to exhibit the obstacle and has no end inventi n that' whole case. The disunionists, consdous'y ranges throughout the domain of nature in- unable to stand on their mere disappoint crease of knowledge as broad as the human ment in the focent election, have attempted mind can explore perfection of art as high' to enlarge their ground. More than thirty as human genius can reach and social re- vetrs there has existed a considerable finement working for the renovation of all! though not heretofore a formidable—mass of naniel r: when the ecc -ntne movements of the world. What guarantees will capital! citizens in certain States situate near or secession and disunion shad have ended, Stalewould be. This class has availed itself of the contents resulting from the tide, Union has confined this controversy within tcrs, or executes. Unstable and -aloo? con- solution by firce on the other, the verdc' pi and tho other the towns of the Missouri I de and the Lakes, with the harbors on our wca isaults wonl 1 he prompt and almost unanimous. I de and the Lai with all other national ones, to the arbitra- without and treason within, formidable only site thus to simplify the is uo, and for that te n const. .. ... fir this sudden and eternal sacrifice of tag- to hem-elves, so c-rtainly under the freedom? Have foreign nati ns combined, when the purposi is nnd- r-tood., with whom we must naccessanlv act, enter* dismiss it I 1 The opinions of mankind clnnge, an ganization cf the newly ri.-ing confe Ifracies. concerned, it hall be so it should be so if with them the politics of nations. One hnn- The occasion is the election of a President the q-je«tion were sure to be tried as it ought drcd years ago all the commercial European I of the United States who is unioceptable to only to be determined, by the peaceful or States were encag-d in transferrin"' neirro a portion of the people. I state the case ac-| deal of the ballot. It shall be so all tin., -. slaves from \frica to this hemisphere. To- curately. There was no movementof disfin- more s'r.ce there is on one side preparedness disorder and violence has begun. dav all those States are firmly set in hostility if»n before the ballots whHi expressed that to ref.r it to the arbitrament of nvrt war.— not to what extent it may go. Stril my fattW to the extension and even to'the practice of choice were cast. Disunion began as soon I have such faith in this republican system J" 'he Constitution and in the Unionia jutes, to the extension ana .n pra The ju tion it assigned was that Abraham Lincoln ing franchise of the Ameriean people. To save it th ~y would defy the world. Is it anpreh *nded that the new President will usurp despotic powers? No while be is of all men the most unambitious, he is, bv the partial success of those who oppos ed his election subjected to such restraints to the party to who »i his service is due.— that he cannot, without their consent, ap- While prudence and justice would combine p^i"t a minister or even a police agent, n »go- in persuading you to in dify the acts of Con- What, then, is the ground of discontent the laws, carried into slavery, I agree that It is that the disunionists did not accept as all laws of the S'ates, whether free States or could not 1?. Does the Constitution, in letter^ fofrmtv \j|4f-'t'j_"Uiri)t tutional remedy for this ineviteble dissatis i fhclion. Renewed de ate and ultimate re 1 'e Secretary who stands be- ours and on ihis side o. the Atlantic, w ltiiin s V ,\')U o 'a%e. 'J .IL •. I pleased emotion in the excitement, while at fraternal war, waged in a moment of frenzied sai*. ei ia H.K e. ing circumstances, hat is uttered against discontent to overthrow and anniliilatc the a happj andIs itisfatt »n solution of the dif- the Union the eyes of the aged man are suf- same institutions. Do men inded, live only the remaining Territories would be passed in regard to 011 practical grounds. vo dis­ national mind? Let the miner in Calif n nia into operation the machinery of dissolution scmhled in pursuance the institution to take heed its golden wealth will become long ago prepared, and waiting only lor navy and postal steamers withdraw n from the .mmon temto les of the United States, the organic ,aw wlien the trouble and danger i who will even know by name our petty eon- f»r the successful Presidential candidate on delegated by it to the public authorities Nor ancient port in the Mediterranean. All the I by speech or though the press, in the slave most complex one that the mind of man has Salvos of artillery, from forts and shipping I tiuients, and even its temper, have been so framed 1 erfect as it is, it ought to be ex in the harbor, saluted its flag. Princes and i misrepresented as to excite apprehensions pected that it will, at least as oflhn as once princesses and merchants paid it and all the people blessed it as a harbinger gat ions, and aims even at interference with adapt tUo the change of society and alterna of hope for their own ultimate freedom. I slavery an 1 its overthrow by Stat a palmetto tree. Men ask, "Who is this iug to be aggrieved. bile the result of the who shall aid and abet them. stranger that thus steals into our waters?" election brings the Republican party necos- Fdtbly Notwithstanding the arguments Tho answer contemptuously given is, She sarily into the foreground in resisting disun-1 of the gallant_ .Senator fromOregon [(.enera^ comes from one of the obscure republics of 'ion, the prejudices against them which I Lane) I remain of the opinion that physical North America. Let her pass on." have described have deprived them of the Wis, such as highways, radroads. "vera, the estimable and uneqnaled lib rty. and accept I nsider If idea of the withd-awal of helieve that I am as far from having sup g"*- this movement arises in another tary despotism ganization with or without others in a in harmony with chTih?d convictions of Conf derncy as a means of reserving the right to effect subdivisions of them w hen ever necessary int several con venient States but I do not find that such reservations could be constitutionally mad Without thein, the ulterior embarrassments which would result from the hasty incorpo ration of States of such vast extent and vari ous interests and character would outweigh all th* immediate advantages of such a meas ure. But if the measure were practi cable, I should prefer a different course. whatever form that end may come, and the angry excitement of the hour shall have sub sided, and calmness once more shall have re sumed its accustomed sway over the public mind, then, and not until then—one, two. or three years henee—I should cheerfully e election to put! advise a convent'on of the people, to be as oc the prize ol the nation that can command the I '-asion. I n other States there is a soreness amendments of the organic' national law ... I !»-. «i.. R—'ought to I HI mide. A Republican now—as mast iron. Let the borderer take care, for because of the want of sympathy in the free the Indian will again lurk around his dwell- States with the efforts of s ave- I have herctof »re been a member of other in* Let the pioneer come back into our I holders for the recapture of fugitive parties existing niv day—I nevertheless denser settlements for the railroad, the1 alaves fron service. In all the slave hold and the resistance whi. has been so determm- its present form only by the consent of the jtic armies consuming the sub-1 edly made within the last few years, in the governed, an i that it is as necessary as it is free States, to the extension of slavery in wise, to resort to the people ft federacies The American man-of-war is a the ground of that policy, has been allowed, ought the suggestion to i xci e surpne. Q"*-1 §a^.djnjan. The Neapolitan troops were noble spectacle. I have seen it practically, no representation, no utterance eminent in any form is a machine this is the while its policy, principles and sen-, ev^r invented or the hand of man has ever tliat it denies important constitutional obh-• in a century, require some modification to authori- tions of empire. r»i tins or intervention of the rederai Mmnu- i ruunoi,. uvm «... iv, imagine now the same noble vessel entering i ties or intervention of the federal f»overn- I Fourthly. I hold mj self ready now, as al the same haven. The flag of thirty-three ment. Considerable masses even in the free ways hen Ofore to vote for any proper.y, stars and thirteen stripes has been 'hauled States, interested in the success of these niw- guard -d laws which shall be deemed neces down, and in its place a signal has been run representations ai a means of party strategy, sarv to prevent mutual invasions of Slates up, which flaunts the device of alone star or have lent their sympathy to the party civ in- by citizens of other States, and punish tho** Lastly, public liberty, our own peculiar co-ope.ation of many g.»od and patriotic cit- and .-anaIs. are vastly more I^werful for hoi-, liberty, must languish for a time, and then 1 iz ns. On a complex issue between the Re- ding civil communities together, than any I .vearo cease to live. And such a liberty free' publican party and the disnmonists, although mere convenants, thongh written on parch- oand at ooo I 1 and all whod"sire its dis- i unwise execution, with the to us ,titica- of ours, that there it no political «,d whirl, i ^cause my in the wisdom and virtu* I desire that I am not content seek I of be Ameriean people remains unshaken. aceful rms of administration Coolness, If peace. Therefore, sir, so far a the abstract its laws on that subject are supreme that when he has escaped from that State into an other. the Constitution regards him as a bondsman who may not, by any law or reg illation of that State, be discharged from his service, but shall be delivered up, on cluim. abuse of 11 Secondly. E.\[» riei e in public affairs* has confirmed my opinion, that domestic sla very, existing in any Stnt\ is wisely left by the Cons'ituti n ofthe United States exclu sively to the care, management, and disposi tion of thit State and if it were in my. pow er, I would not alter the Constitution in that respect If misapprehension of my po sition needs so strong a remedy, I am willing to vote for an amendment of the Constitu tion, declaring that it shall not, by any fu ture amendment, be so altered as to cenfer on Congress a po.ver to ah dish or interfere with slavery in any Stat ^"on gross sovereign authority to leg the com- Territories, is. determined I voted for enabling .i^on7w' ments of their character. They n,n we 1 consider and decide wh-ther anv and w hat chdisu. as I have always done. principle that this Government exists in The Republican party which cast its vote* of the Mate certainly transcend the p. wers -Placards were posted exhort- for anv MSI- OLD skttTE$, VOL. t*, H:ims--*l,00,l«» AdirfciiceF^ inont or engraved upon ir n. I remain, tcan ther fire. constant lo my purpose to ecui*i' ports around the mouths of the Mississip- what in many respects would have been silvan- mv own. I learned early fr Jefferson* that iii politi "al alFiirs we cann-1 alw-avs do what seems aobso.utely 1 The Convention included the leading Rail road minds of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Northern Illinois, Oh'0, In diana, and Kentucky. An excellent feeling prevailed, and the prospects of eastward business were regarded as encouraging.— All parties seemed earnestly anxious for the! settlement of the National difliculties, and the Crittenden plan, or its equivalent, met with general approval. Members of the Convention have exerted their best efforts with their respective mem bers of Congress and others to seeon ciliation and peace. Foreign Mew* NEW YORK, Jan. "2 b—The steamship ix-j ago brings London patera* of the 9th, and tw82,!00 in specie. GAKT.Y, oth.—The shells thrown by (he Sardinians penetrated the room over that occupied by the King. His ministers insist that he shall remove his quarters. Shells also reach the central hospital. CONSTANTINOIM.E. 2d. Hungarian and" Polish volunteers are arriving at Peru, o»* their way to the Danubian principalities. YIEN.V.O I.—The Emperor proclaims a very comprehensive amn ty for llun^ary, Tran sylvania, Crentia and Slavonia. The general affairs of the Bank of Francc was discouraging. The American panic af fected France equally with England. Amer- irin slci .ks wer Tj duil in England, especially The Citv of Washington sailed from I.iv- oru.po.»lonthe»th, Jn s ccic with nearly half a million- int avrait lhe SrivaJ |ne di .oovo|vd A Gtwn OPIXK»!« MO* A BAP Somica.— The New York Herald. in speaking of tfc« crisis and Mr. Lincoln s Cabinet, says:— "Under the auspices of two 6uch inen as Cameron and Seward, peace may dawn upon the country." The repeal of the personal liberty laws rf Massachusetts, Maine and Rhode Island is being earnestly pressed upon theLeei-la una of those States, now in session, by a largf and influential portion ofthe dominant ir'y.' Mr. Lincoln was called upon at his houw at Springfield on Saturday by an old fanner mil lia .. da_ i best. Those discussi.m mining diff rent views, have the power and have already incidently be-lowcd upon it. ihe rig it of carryu-g teir. into practice. The cas N fTeu-nt. however, in *gaid e must be content to lea wli-n we can, and to fdlow when we cannot lead and if we can-! not. a* anv tim° do our coun'rv all the good that we woul I wish, we must be satisfied arith doing for her all the pood that we can. Having subtni ted my own opinions orf this gr 'at crisis, it remains only to s:.y that I shall ch -erl'iilly lend to the GoveHiihenf mv est sopoort in whatever prudent yet energetic fl" rts it shall make to preserve the publi- pea e, and to n amtain and preserve the Union advising, only, that it practice as far as pos-ihle the utmost moderation tr' earanoe, and conciliation. And row. Mr. President, what are the auspices i the country I know that WO are in the midst of alarms, and somewhat exposed to accidents unavo'dable in masons] the i °f tempestuous passions. We already ive calmness, a-tion. If and resolution, are clo­ ave been temporarily displaced but they are reap-,, pearing. Soon enough, 1 trut, for safety, it will be seen that sedition and violence are I onlv local and •mpor iry, and that loyalty and affection to the Union are the natund sentiments of the whole country. W hatcyef danger there shall be, there will be the de» t' rmiuatu n to meet them whatever sacri-, fices, private or public, shall be needful for the Union, they will be made. I feel sure that the hour has not come for this.greaf na-[ tion to fall. This people, which has been1 stud .-ing to become wiser and better as has grown older, is not perverse or w ickef enough to deserve so dreadful and severe a' punishment ns dissolution. This I nion haul not yet accomplished what good for mankind was manifestly designed by Him who ap points the seasons and prescribes the dutieir of States and empires. No, sir, if it were ca«t down by faction to-day, it would rise^ again and reappear in all its majestic pro portions tomorrow. It is the only Gov*m-( ment that can stsn 1 here. V\ o»-1 woe! to the man that madly lilts his hand against it. It shall continue and endure and men, In after times, shall declare that this genera tion, which saved the Union from such sud den and unlooked-for dangeis, surpassed in magnanimity even that one whi^h laid Ra* foundations in ihe eternal principles of libsi* ty, justice, and humanity. Railroad C'oiaveiili«»H. W ASHINC.TON,Jan. 2o—TheRailroad Cofif-. Vention of the five Eastern and Western' trunk lines has adjourned to meet in New t'oi k en the '_'Oth of February next. A sched ule of rates for freight between ail Ka^tem iiud We:-t rn points was adopted. It restores tfie figures of the St. Ni ho'as Hotel and Siratoga meeting,'with a slight variation kt rtgard pissengers. The first and second sections. of the reement then entered rnto making the ires uniform, and dispensing with runners,' re -a!lii nnd. The fac was develoncd in the course ie dei.ber tio'ns that freights from the SoAth and South W-st. with the exception of oot-" ton, lias gieatly decreased, while the move-, ment of produce from the North west and central west, north of the Ohio river, was' unusually large all the roads rep nt increas ed receipts over those of January, IKfiO, some of them very heavy, and as an instance, it was mentioned that the Baltimore and Ohio, the most southern of the five great lines, and the increase of which is less than, the others, sh ws an enlargement in rev nue on eastward freights of 2.",»HMI dollars for tlV first twenty-two »ys the present month over the similar period of last year. A general fallii off was reported in paM* eng* receipts and westward boundf freight*.' Most ofthe produce inoveimnt is foT Europe.' All the five lines are deriving an increased business from the diversion of the cottm of the *outh westorn States, form the Soutlten}' Atlantic and Gulf ports. i i U I 0f the A depot of arms had befeaf the tioro Api(io IV

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