Newspaper of The Weekly Ottumwa Courier, April 24, 1861, Page 1

Newspaper of The Weekly Ottumwa Courier dated April 24, 1861 Page 1
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"1 It tySW stmts, VOL. NO. I®.* J. w. XOitH IS, Proprietor. tl u i n i i o u i PUBLISHED EVERY WtpptSDAY III *tT*£It07jr»S BLOCK, (THIRD FLOOR) QTTUMWA, WAPELLO CO., IOWA, By JT. W. & G. P. MORRIS. E 8 ^VARIABLY IN ADVANCE One copy, porytar fl,60 fourcopl«i" 6,00. Ten '-...4 12,00. T«rentjr" 44, wf. yt»rjon» wishing to subscribe for it least Imethnr one 7«»r o*n do so by remitting the amount they «l»hto' 10 »pTroprUteJ. In no rate will we enter new uiaraea unless they are accompanied with money. DISSOLVE THE I'*ION! Dissolve the Union Who would part £chchainwas that, binds us heart to heart 11 iiV forced b.v saluted sires Amid tli»* Uevolutlon s firi-s Anil cooled—nh where so lch a flood— lb Warren's and In Sumter's blood. til ssolrethe Union Be like F"*nce hen "Terror" reared her blocd.v lane*, mm became dcstruotlon's child. And woman, in her passion wild, Ifctneel In the lifr-Mnod nf »r QueCB B-side the dreadful guillotine saol^e the Union Roll away e spangled flag of trlory's day Slot out the hUtory ol the brare, J(nd desecrate enrh patriot's irrava 'Ajndtlu-n, above the wreck of yMNt miftCT an eternity of tears. Dlssolvt the Union Can It he That they who rpeak such words art freeT Oreat Ciod Did an.v die to save fiich aordld wretches from the grave— When breast to breast and hand to "hand 0 ur patriot fathers freed the land IjlssolTethe Union Ho Forbear I The sword of Damocles Is there Out but (he hair, and earth shuli know A darker, dendllertale of wop, Sneehistory's ian crimson page has told Nero's car In blood e're rolled. Btssolve the Union 1 Speak, ye hllla, Ye everlasting mountains cry Speak out, ye »tieam« and mingled rills, Anl ocean roar in acony Dead heroep leap from glory's sod And shield the manor «f jour God. My Daushlcr Minnie. A few years ago—well it- is not loss than forty—my little home flock was led in the manner of yea:3 by daughter Minnie—a pretty name, I always thought. Minnie was a good child, and being the first born, was half maternal in her management of the lat tsr comers, even down to little 'Pigeon,' the latest and tinniest of them all. The picture of Minnie is just as fresh in my memory as though the forty years which have simmered x.n evaporated since had been weeks instead. But it is a fathei's eye that looks over tho.se years at Minnie, and the beauty may be tlf fancy—a sort of affectionate illusion.— Those we love are transparent, you know— we who love thcra look through into the tmrt, and then irnagin. it suxface light of which we are thinkitig. This much 1 know Minnie WAS the best, most affectionate, and wildest of daughters one of those spii ited bnt industrious little creatures upoii whose enterprise and tact the greatest and strongest of us will involuntari ly lean. 'Minnie, shall I want five or six breadths in this skirt her mother would say. Looking up with just a little knitting of the forehead, after a moment's thought, Minnie would answer— 'I think five will do, mother,' And five it was. I can hear, even now, the- voice of Min nie's mother—she has been gone twenty years, dear heart 1—calling dtngn from the top of the stairs— •Minnie! Say—MinnbP •What, mother?' •What shall we have for dinner, to-day •Xou arc tired mother let us hatfe a liitle ham and some eggs, with some peas fr.m the garden, and bread.' ThAt settled the till of fare. And so it was through the livelong 'AV for in all the domestic polity, Minnie, though only prima minister, passed for regal power. At this time—this forty years ago—I was of course in the pi itne of life, and fnil of the care* and responsibilities which cluster -2nd cling to ones manhood. I was largely en gaged in active business, received some slight evidence of public confidence, saw a large family coming up about me—from all of which my natural posiiiveness and force •fcharactcr received more or less strength ening. One night, when the last candle had been extinguished, and all was hushed, wife sail', with some anxiety of tone, 'Husband, I feel uneasy about our Min nie.' 'Minnie? site sick i Why, what to .the matter—is 'No, she isn't sick—but—' 'Bat what, wifj 'Why, Minnie is—I mean, she to ba—well, I'm afraid' seems she likes Jemmy Bfun.' 'Jemmy Brun She'd better not.' And 1 leaped to the floor and walked to the win dow. 'Jemmy Brufc «iA «or Minnie! a pretty match 1' *1 was afraid you would bo disturbed, dear but don't take it too much to heart, husband. I daro say we can put a stop to it.' And motherly sobs came from her pil low. 'Put a stop to it: I guess I will. Jemmy Brun and our Minnie! I gues I itill put a stop to it!' And wl 9 was Jemmy Bran? A young man of some two years' residence in the neighborhood, of good habits, so far as I knew, but altogether and diametrically up posed to my taste, to my ideal of manliness. I had alwAys worshiped business tact and enterprise. It had taken me, when A pen niless boy, and brought me up through num berless difficulties to a position of influence. That which was found in my nature when young, was thus nourished and rooted through all the after years of struggle, ripen ing into triumph. The young man was of a literary tarn of f»\ad—taught in an aendamy—was a writer it wis said, for one or two periodicals.— There was an air of sentiment about hiiu, in lug looks, and m-inner-s, which came precise ly within the seep# uf m$ eeatei&yt. I had I a ... known it in others—in strong business men this utter contempt for the lea^t possible manifestation of sentiment—for those un thrifty fellows who have never an eye for business, but hang upon the skirts of thought, clasp imagery and ride upon ry thin. You may see it now every day in commercial houses. It sj^rin^s, I think, from the absolute antagonism of fact and fancy—from the figure* which dot the pages of the ledger and ihose which illume the lines of the poet. "The Muses frowned on me," said a German poet, "for keeping ac count books." Undoubtedly. Nor is the knight of the balance sheet less intolerant to wards those miserable fellows whose entire stock-in-trade can he. stored rn a very little cavity just behind the frontal bone. My wife had a time of it cooling me down and preventing the adoption of most violent meas'ires. Even when I hnd fyimally sur rendered to her superior eli.-cretion, I chafed nt times lkea hear in harness. If wife had not been almost a Rary in tact, I should cer tainly have broken into plunging even soon er than I did. Minnie was taken one day into solemn conference by her mother, with on'y pussy in tne doorway a« auditor. But the child, though she moved about from seat to seat, and b'ushed very much, and tflre price* of paper into bits, dec'ared she was heartwhole yet—"as why shouldn't she be?—for Jem- I my Bi un had not said a word to her which any man migh not have .-aid to ajty maid en!" So wife anrf. I got easy again. But whai should I see one evening, while .sauntering out under my own grove of for est oaks near the house, but two figausflit ting slowly hither and thither among the distant trees. Like a knave as I was, I sat on the ground and watched them—watched them neivously, glaringly till I -aw Jemmy llrun give Minnie a kiss on the lips, and looking'lovingly after her aa she slipped away. I was reclining upon tte sward by" her path. Determined to meet and confront her there, I sat and witched her crming. Cer tainly Minnie's face never were that expres sion before. It was not gleeful, but it was radiant, and her eyes, which were bent on the ground, and hence only visible as she came very near me, had a light and depth which I never saw before. She passed me so uit rly was the child absorbed in her own emoions. 'Minnie 1' I said, in a tone which startled mycelf scarcely le-s than the child. 'Oh 1' and she sprang tu rn the path as though the sound had been a rattle in the grass. I raised myself slow If—I aqa ^erj slow when very angry—and, standing stiffly be fore her, glowed down into her eyes—Min nie's beautiful, living eyes— with a sternness which had never failed to terrify. But the child, though she tnipbkd tike An aspin at first, brought her lather's spirit to the res cue, and, in the strength of love and inno cence, looked into her father's angry fee? at length with perfect composure. I must not repeat the words that followed —they shall never be written—vceuld to God they had never been spoken I Minnie had given him her fce*rt, and would give him her hand. IIow could she help it? even her fathers anger should not prevent hir fulfilling her word—for was not Jemmy Brun worthy, and. w.as not her fath er's anger unreasonable and unjust? All this she said t» me with the deep calmness of a perfect heroine, while I stood there al most as much astonished as :mgry. 'Wife, it's all up with Minnie.' said Atti ding into the setting -room, and breaking in upon a most comfortable afternoon reverie, onlv rtlievfcfiby the solemn ticking of the clock and the busy click of the knitting nee dles. 'Lord what's the matter?' and the dl of yarn rolled across the floor, while a flower pot on the window 11 splitting and crashing on the bricks outside 'there goes the flow pot— tell qtuek—you took as pale as a heet^ "Mir.n'e has promised to marry that scapegrace in spite ol us: she say* she will to me—in the (ace of my absjlute com. uiamls.' '1 hereupon I walked the floor, wifv staring at uie the while. "I'll never forgive her, n#»««\" "Husband, stop and think. He'— "1 won't stop and think. I say I'll never forgive her, and I won't. Call her in.'* Wile left the room in search of Minnie. She was gone a Ion while fr tn which circum stance 1 have always had the suspicion that she spent the time in soothingsand cumlort ings, scarcely to be considered as abutting my view of the case. At length they re turned, both tearful. We sat down together, a constrained group—Minnie very tearful, but very swfet and beautiful. The inter view was short, and these were the closing words "Father, I have Always been A dutiful child—you will do me that justice. But I love this man. You grant me that his char acter is unimpeachable, but you forbid our marriage because you have a prejudice against him. I love and honor you, father. You cannot doubt that but in this case I must follow the dictates of my own heart" "bo s-o if yon will but remember, jrour father will never forgive you." Thus ended the iniei view —wife sobbing distressfully, Mirinie weeping quietly, and 1 sitting glum and angry. 1 did not forbid the house, as most an^ry fathers do hut I told Minnie again that she had lost my love and care. "Jhcn I was no foolish as to see Jemmy 3run. and in a very silly speech in form him that, since he was Liking my daugh ter from her father without his consent, he need expect no gifts or favors now or hence forth. She would not be allowed to share in the family inheritance, nor should I render the least assistance if they 'should coine jrgut.' I fclutll never forget the queer lock the young man gave me—a glance in whi pride seemed vainly struggling with a clus ter of mirth-sparkles. "Very well, sir we willtry and not 'come to want." That was all he said but the cool self possession of his manner made me feel as though I had undertaken to drive a nail and had pounded my fingers. I had alfv#y.s been demonstative toward my children —the elder as well as the young er. Minnie had never lost her right to her father's knee, nor did she ever meet me in the morning or part from *ne at night with out a kiss. This was denied her now. Boor. c! il4.1,i^was the sorest trial of all. Once or twice she clung tearfully to me in my stern ness. and, reaching^ip to clasp my neck with her white arms, tried" to bend my lips to hers. No.' k promised her never a' kiss while I lived. Women are strange creatures. There was wife, who had entirely sympathized with me as I supposed, absolutely giving aid and comfort to our recreant daughter. I verily believe that, long before the wedding day came, she was ns thoroughly interested in the whole affair, as th"Ugh Minnie had been about to marry the best business man in town. Liltla use was it for mc to tighten my purse strings, and direr that the child sh uld have no mairiage outfit of wardrobes, pillow cases, counterpanes, and the thousand and one et, ceteras in whii-h mothers take such pleasure. In spite of me, but surrep titiously, Minnie was well provided fori am sure. I remember that the shopman's bills fcr some ten months after seemed ur.uvjally full, both in number of items and footing of columns and I shrewdly suspected that wiie had arranged with the tradesmen to have ar ticles scattered along through the months. She always was a good financier. The ceremony was performed in church I was present, lpst my absence might give too great notoriety to the family jar. Useless The whole town havipg long sim e leen made acquainted with the state of affaiis— the bride's beauty and the bridegroom's pop ularity—set many eyes upon me with the parkle of criticism in them. "He needn't look so savage-like," muttered a ruff old yeoman behind me 'there ain't a lipdier young fellow anywhere hereabouts than Jemmy Brun an' though Minnie bt purty as a kink, it's a good match—a real bar-'aid —so.' Long, long months went by after the mar riage—tedious, unhappy months to me. 1 knew I was being soured by the self imposed restraint on the affectionate part of my nature Minnie came to her old home sometimes.— Once or twice she she begged for the return of the old love, the oh) hoine-kUs. No. My daughter was happy in her hubar.d, happy in her new home. But I saw very plainly that the bli£» of the old boqad was lest to her. Nearly two years went back into the pas', shadowed in t^Ls ujanner, when a little hu man blossom was laid ir. its cradle. A little struggling, wee thing—another little Minnie. Poor me !. Here was another influence to be stemmed, as boats sUm anothir gust and another wave. But I braced myself and when I had been forced into Minnie's cham ber, stood over the pale child with the li'tle one on her arm, and heard the faint voic add to the sweetly seeching look, 'Do kiss me, father 1' I shook my head and went out. One day a strange change came ove$ the young mother, alarming the experienced, and giving to the physician that ominous :iir ot grave iny*teiy winch strikes into thesoi 1 ol the loving. I muved about full of feat and guilty distress. The sun| toms can.e more and more ahti.ujing—she was sinking 1 was called to her bedside as that of my first dying child. As I bent over the white lace, almost tramlucent with weakness, ilia mined by eyes all undimmed by illness, my Minnie gsive me the old-timed glance of love, and throwing up her hands as to clasp tuy neck. said faintly, but oh so earne.itly— Kiss me, father I bent down to my daughter, my first born, and we'wept long together— the strong lather and the faintly breathing child. What do you think Minnie did Why she got well again, and in two months was as musical as a lark, and as gay, looking af ter the little Minute hke a pretty mother as .she was. However, the ice was fairly broken, and I was my old fatherly self, ever after. Minnie even ventured after a time, to make nvrry at my expense over the fact that not only was Jemmy Brt n the best of husbands, I ut one of the well-known of American writers.' I think I was a very great fool. The Wbiie lloim in 1S61. Tiic Piesident of the Unit Stat is had re tired—So had his wife—8o, too, his Private Secretary. That's so! The night was fearfully dark. The silence in and about the Executive Mansion was Sugg stive of an Eternity of Somnolence.— Big Thing. There was a voice in the Night. "Awake Old Abe! Get up, quick, array thyself in goodly apparel, and in they Council Clum ber sudden come"—so spake his Privy Scrib bler. Bully for him! Abraham arose, dressed, and vamosed his ranch. Entering his Presidential office, he heboid a little fat man—Well, he Dili, Who, rnsl.ii toward him, embrace^ his knees, and said: "Old Ilos, how are you, unv how I voird fryou. I worked for you, anil now I'm here and by the liviiu jinjro, slir I'll not. until you've promised me the Pndunck Post Office." That's on record I fJ course Mr Lincoln grantrd hie reqnest imniediatelv, wh upon the stranger retired and 'O did the President. Distinctively— Tnic KND. Note by the author.! The above narrative is an attempi to com binf modern elegance of language with puri tv of morals. On the Canal street plan. N'ver (Jive In for want of Axin'. Chalk •our own hat. WouM you rise to distinction? Travel on vour cheek—I Vanity J»Wr. O U W A I O W A W E N E S A Y A I 2 4 1 8 6 1 UlacaulayN l*irfiirc of] I'ctcr the Great of Rus«ia. From,the forthcoming ft volume of Lord MACAULAT'S History of England, we take the following graphic account of the visit of Petpr the Great to England, A. D. 1S98..: In the same week in which Whitehall per ished, the Londoners were supRlifd with a new topic of conversation by a royal visit, which of all royal visits, was the least pom pous and ceremonious, and yet the most in teresting and important. On the 10th of January a vessel anchored at Greenwich, and was.welcomed with great respect. Pe ter the First, Czar of l|uscovy, wns on hoard. He took boat with a few attendants, and was rowed up the Thames to Norfolk street, heen prepared for his receptfon. His jojrney is an epoch in the history not only of his own country, but of ours, and of the world. To the polished nations of West ern Europe, the empire which he governed, had tUl then been what Bokhara or Siam is to us. Our ancestors-, therefore, were not a little surpi ised to learn that a young I'-arborian, who l.ad, at sovcntei n years of age bocome the autocrat of the immense region stretch ing from the confines of Sweden to those of China, and whose education had been inferi- or to that of an English farmer or shoj roan. had planned gigantic impnvments had It might have been expected that France would have been the fisst object his curi osity. For the grace and dignity of ihe French King, the splendor of the Frerch court, the discipline of the Frpnch armies, and the genius and learning of the French writers, were then renowned all over the world. But the Czar's mir.d. had early taken •i strange ply which it retained to the last. His empire was of all empires the least capa ble of being made a great naval power. The Swedish provinces lay between his states and the Baltic. 1 he Bosphorus and the Dar danells lay between his states and the Mad" t.'iranean. He had access to the ocean only n a latitude in which navigation is, during a gnat part of the year, perifotis and difficult. On the ocean he had, only a single port. Archangel and the whole shipping of Arch angel was foreign. There did not exist a Russian vessel, larger than a fishing boat. Yet, from some cause which can not no^{ b$. raced, he had a taste for maritime pursuits which amounted to a passion, indeed almost to a monomania. His imagination was full of sails, yard-arais and rudders. That lar^»e mind, equal to t&e highest,duties of the gen eral and the statesman, contracted itself to he most minute d' tails of naval architecture md naval discipline. The chief ambition of

i he grtat conquererand legislator xas to be good boatswain and a god ship's carpen ter. Holland and England, therefore, had lor him an attraction whurh was wanting to the galleries and terraces of Versailles. He repaired to Amsteulam, took a lodging in the dock-yard, assumed the (jarb of a pilot, put lown his nnme on the list of workmen w el led with his own hand the calking-iton and the mallet, fixed the pumps, and twist el the ropes. Embasad rs who came to pay their respects to hiirv were forced, much against their wil\, u clamber up thd rigging of a man of-'war, and found him enthroned on the cross-trees. Such was the prince whom the populace of London now croivded to behold. His stately form, his intellectual forehead, his piercing black eyes, his Tartar nose and mouth, his gracious unite, his frown black with all the stormy rage and hate of a bar barian tyrant, an&! above ill, a strange ner vous convulsion which sometimes transform ed his countenance, during a few moments, into an object on wh^ch U vraa. impossible to look without terror, the immense quantities of meat which he devoured, the pints of brandy which he swallowed, and which, it was said, he bad carefully distilled with his own hands, the fool who jabbered at his feet the monkey which grinne^ at the back of his chair, were, during some weeks, popular topics of conversation. He nn anwh le shin ned the public gaze with a haughty shyness which imflamcd curiosity. He went to a plav but, as soon as he perceived that pit, boxes, and galleries were staring, not at the stage, hut at hiin, he retired to a bark bench, where he was screened from observation by his attendants. He was desirous to see a sitting of the House of Lords but, as he was determined not to be seen, he was forced to climb up to the leads, and to peep thro lgh a small window. Ue heard with great in. terest the royal assent given to a bill for raisjnt fifteen hundred th usand pounds by land tax, and learned with amazement that this sum, thou larger l?y one half than the whole revenue which he could wring from the population of the immeose empire of which he was nb'solute master, was but a email part of what tho Common# of England voluntarily granted every'year tg» their bdn stitutional king. William judiciously humored the whims of his illustrious guest, and stole to Norfolk street s» quietly, th nobody in the neigh borl.ood recognised his ni«jes!y io the thih gentleman who got out of the modest look in£ coach at the Czar's lodgings. The Czar wturn the visit with the same precautions, r,f where a house overlooking the rtrer, had!'*7 Englishman of.rank i* whose society he learned enough of some languages of Western |ihc Europe to enable him to mn.unic-.te with i with able adventurers froo) various parts of the world, had sent many of his young sub jects to study languages, arts and sciences in foreign cities, and, finally, had determined to travel as a private man, and to discover by personal observation, thq secret of the immense prosperity and power enjoyed by somccomir.uniticswhose whole territory was far less than the one-hundredth part o^bis dominions. and was admitted into Ken-ington house by Its merit consists of the reduction of the pro a back-door. It WAS afterward known that portion of metal between the muzzle and the .fee took no notice of the fine pictures with trunnions, which is found in guns of the wlrch th® palace was adorned. But over common pattern largely in CJCCAKS. The Ok chimney the roynl fitting room wos a plate which, by an ingenious machinery, in dicated the direction of the wind, and with this plate he was in raptures. He soon became weary of his residence.— He found that he was too far from the. ob jects of his curiosity, and,too near to the crowds to which tie was himself an object of cariosity. *He accordingly removed to Dept ford, and was there' lodged in the hQ4se of John Evelyn, a house which had long \cen a favorite resort of men of letters, men of taste, and men of science. Here Peter gave himself up to his favorite pursuits. He nav igated a yatch every day up and down the river. His apartment was crowded with models of threc-dcckers and two-deckers, fjigates, "Sloops, and'.fire shijj^ 'The on- seatned to take much pleasure was the eccen tric Caermathen, whose passion for the sea bore some resetnblancc to his own, and who was very competent to give an opinion about every part of A ship, from the stem to the stern. Caermarthe.i, indeed, became so great a favorite that he prcvail^d-on the Czar to consent to ilie admission of a limited quantity of tobacco into Russia. There was reason to apprehend the Rusian clergy would cry out against any relaxation of the ancipnt i iile, and vould strenr.uajy^ maintain that the practice of smoking was condvmned thftt whi* decUr™ nnt lhflt but by of civilized men, had begun to sum und himself i deputation «f merchants who were admit- de- *0' those things which enter in at mouth. those which i4- F°«*d out This apprehension was expressed by ted to an audjence of the Czar, but they were re-assured by the air with wllich he told them that he knew how to keep priests in order. He was, indeed, so free from any bigoted attachment to the religion in which he had been brought up, that Ijotu Papists and Prot estants hoped at different times to make him a proselyte. Burnet, commissioned by his brethren, and impelled, no doubt, by his Own restless'curiosity and love of m'eddling, repaired to Deptford, and, was honored with semral audiences. The Czar could not be persuaded to exhibit himself at St. Paul's, but he was induced to visit Lambeth palace. There he saw the cer emony of ordination performed, and ex pressed w arm approbation of the Anglican ritual. Not^Lag iu Engl^.d astonished him so much as the archiepiscopal library. It was the first good collection of books that he had keen, ajid ho declared thai Lc had never imagined that, the^e were so many printed volumes in the world. The impression which he made on Burnet was not favorable. The good bishop oould* not uhdcrstaitd that a mind, whtdi seemed to be occupied will}, questions about the best place for a capstan and the best way to rig a jury mast, might be capable, not merely of ruling an empire, buj of qre^ting a natioA.— He comp'ained that he had gone to see a treat prince, and found only an industrious shipwright. Nor does Evelyn seem to have formed a much'more favorable opinion of his august tenant. 'It was, indeed, net 1 fin the character of t^tiant that the Csor was likely to gain the good word of civilized men. With all the high qualities which were peculiar to himself, he had all the filthy habUs which were then common among his countrymen. To the end of his life, while disciplining ar mies, founding sehouls, framing codes, or ganizing tribunals, building cities in deserts, joining distant seas by artificial rivers, he lived in las palace like a hag in a stv and, when he was entertained by other sovereigns, never failed to leave on their tapestried walls and velvet state-beds, unequivocal proofs ihat a savage had been there. Evelyn's house was in such a state that the treasury quietcd his complaints with a cops«dVi'able sum of money. Toward the close of March, the Czar visit ed Portsmouth, saw a sham-sea fight at Spit head, watched every movement of the con tending fleets with intense intere.st, and ex pressed in warm terms his gratitude to the hospitable government which bed provided so delightful a spectacle for his aaasement and instruction After passing more than three months in England, he departed in high good humor. War material. COM^IBIAD GOV. The Columbiod is a recently invented gun of great range, combining the essential qual ities of the ordinary se.i coast gun, howitzer and mortar. They are of eight juid ten iuch callibre, and arc capable of projecting a solid shot or shell with a largb elk:go of powder at an angle of fru) 5 dcg. below to o'J deg. above the horizon. In outer appearance, the Columbiad Ls ^iindar to the ordiuaiy sea coast cannon, but its internal shape more like the LIowitz.r. Its full &nge is about two utiles with an extra range of three miles. The ei-ht inch weighs about 1),OOU lbs, and the charge of powder used is 10 lbs. The weight of the solid shot is 10 lbs, the tdieil 68 lbs. The ten-inch gun weighs 15.U00 lbs, and the charge used is 15 lbs of powder —the golicl shjt weighing 128 lbs, and the she'd lOOlbiS.f W 18SA* khere were 2,519 eight and ten inch Columpiads and sea coast howitzers in use in our fortifications, ot which over 700 were Columbians^ an we are informed by an oflicer of the ordinance, that, up to th« present time, there were over 1,000 ^n tisi, and new ones being manufac tured daily. Most of our heavy fortifications, from Maine to Florida, hart ia ostf these ter rible guns/ 1 tUZ DAM.GRSCM GUM. {sased for ship se vice and naval batteries, and is the most perfect naval gun ever con structed. It was invented by Commander Jotin A. Pahlgrcen of the United States Navy, to be used either for shell of solid shot, greater pnrt ^fin^t*1 at tb«* br^icb of a pur instead of the muzzle, not only gives greater strength at the part where the danger of bursting is the greatest, but also tends to di minish the force of the recoil, The Dahl green guns ire 3 and 10 inch in calihre in the ship guns, and the b^at guns are 24 and 12 lbs calibre, and are used for firing shells, schrapnell and cannister shot. So satisfied i have been the fyard of Ordinance with the Dahlgreen 8 nnd 10 inch iun?, that ail our new pteam sloop and gun boats, have been armod with them. They are similar to the Columbiads, and their weight, rpnge, charge and weight of shot are nearly similar. They have stood severe tests of trial and proof, and are undoubtedly the best naval guns used in the world. Rifled cannon for field service are now attracting much attention among military men. About three years since a new model gun was tested at Ames' manufactory in Cabot? ille, Mass., called •0F.TA RS. Mortars are a? ancient as cannon, and were employed to thraw red hot iron and Rtones before the invention cf shells. The first shi lis used were in 1885 when Naples was heseiged by Charles VIIf. at which seige they were said to have made terrible havoc among the enemy. They are manu f«ctured ot iron and brass. The iron are 8, 10 and 13 inch in calibre, and the brass and 4 2 and 5 inch in bore. The 13 inch i iron require lJ inch 4 lbs, and the 8 inch 2 lbs. The largest mortar in the world was cast by M. Mallet, for the British Government, to carry a shell weighing over 16 tons, but it praved a fail ure. It, was 3Q ineh bur^. Mortars are very little used at the present time, having given placftto bewttzer* and the nqw rifled guns. HOWITZER!. Howitzers are pieces of ordinance of me dium length" between the cannon and the mortars, used for throwing shells or large balls at point blank range, erat a small ele vation. I They are usually made of brass. The first howitzer was said to have been in vented by Belidor, ir) Germany, and was used at the seize of Ath, ia 1 Howit zers range as 32, 24,12 and 0 pounders the latter size being used for lijght batteries in field service. A 82 pound howitser requires 3} pounds of powder for a charge a 24 pound howitzer 2£ pounds a 12 pound howitzer IJ pounds, and a pounder 8 or 10 ouaces tp a charge. Howitzers are used mere for firing shell than the mortar, and the United States army are provided with a large number olseige howit aers, A very heavy gun. CARBOSADAS. Carronades are short howitzers, first cast at the Carron works from Which they first derived their names. Workmen were fjrst employed on these guns about the year 1779. They are mostly used on ship board and are now abandoned for guns of more recent con struction. The carronades used in the British Navy are from four to five feet in length and of the calibre of from 8 to 10 inches. MoSst 6f Otir service vessels aro armed with carronadcs which are dai'v being displaced by the teirible Columbiada And the formidable Dahlgreen guns. Election of Post masters by People. Our rdvices from all paits of the State art to the ff ct that the wheat crop is entire' nnininred by the frosts, nnd that every where f'-r ners are s-mguineo' another sbur. I .i)»nt Vvvvros —f Mich Advertiser. i 11 7 ff' I an lbs to the chorge the 10 OLD 8ERIE8, VOL. 18, NO. T. TERMS—*1,50,in 4 the The iFEAof designation candidates for post masters by popular vote, or the tote of the dominant party in caucas, has been a favor ite one with some presses, and has been adopted to a considerable extent lately.— Some members of Congress have favored it. quite as much to relieve themselves "of res ponsibility in the matter as with any view to get a fuller expression of the choice of the people. The system has obvious advanta ges, but it may well be doubted whether on the whole it will work satisfactorily. The candMatc selected in this way is quite as likely t'- carry his maj rity of votes on the ground of general pcional popularity as of special fitness for the position. In some places the interest in the selection would be so Umited that but a small minority of the people would engage in the canvass, and S" the most induti ious canvasser get the nom ination, when perhaps his appointment would be obnoxious to the larger portion of the people. In fact ncminotions have b«en thus made which were o'yv.ously unfit to be made and candidates destitute of buMness capaci ty and moral character have carried the cau cus majority. The buiness men of a place have of course tbt largest interest ir^the ap pointment of a proper pastmasUr, while hall" of tho?e who gst together in an ordinary caucus have little er no interest in it, and no means of judging AS to tho comparative fitness of candidates. It is rather running the democratic idea into the ground to refer executive appointments in this way to a cau cus vote. Tlie pot office department neeus advice on the subject, but it should obtain it from those qualified io give it, and they are clearly the public men and business men having the largest i iterest in the faithful per formance of le duties of th« office. The members of Congress have, next to the pee ple of each town or city, the best general acquaintance with the public men of their p.'.rticular distiicts, ^nd are'thus qualified to advise in many cases where the appointing officers are in doubt between rival candi dates. But if the appointments should e made ns"?t g«neral thing on the Strength of caucus nominations alone, we are inclined to think the crop of postmasters would average quite as poor as if they were drawn by lot, like jurymen. We presume, howeve, hat caucus nominations will not by any means be eronsidered decisive at Washington, but. while they will ha^ their influence, as they should, other considerat ons will l6 taken into accout i'in making the final decision.— Sprinofiehl RfpuflUan. mm AdTanct. Treason of the meanest Ofe. The Des Muncs Journal, the Locofoco or gan at the Capitol, is diead.uliy exercised in view of the fact that this Government about, to assert its authority, maintain it* integrity, and vfndicnte the national flag from the insults and ignominy heaped upon it by traitors. As patriots ar. friends of the coun try and the Constitution have control of the governments of the North, and have qvct whelming majorities cf the paople, the Jour nal does not deem it prudent'to counsel re bellion or revolution. But it counsels a re sort baser and more cowardly means to aid, kpd abet the traitors of the Cotton Confed eracy. The Democracy ctn't 6atede by States, and, therefore, ns the next best thing, tho Capital or^an advises the Democratic members of Congress to secede and leave that body without a quorum to do business. Speaking cn Friday last of Mr. Lincoln'.! determination to send a force down for t|ie relief of Fort Sumter, that paj er saj'S: "If he has determined to send troops South to provoke a conflict, and then cabling kn.' extra session of Congress throw himself upon it for support and aid, the Democracy of the Noith must act promptly in the premises.— They hold the balance of power in that body, and have only to absent themselves to leave' the Republican members without a totally incapable of transacting business. Le them resign and go before the people on tho question of I'eace or War, and they wilU be returned by majorities unprecedented in liiston." Such is the counsel of a dastardly traitor, too cowardly to enlist in the Cenfederat*' army, and too mean to conceal his cowardice and treason at home. Cull For Troo|*0l Washington, April 13. The following id a formal call on tho respective State Governors for troops, issued' through the War Department to-day iir.—Under the Act of Congress for call ing out the militia to execute the laws of tjie Union td suppress insurrection, repel inva sion, Ac., approved February 28, 1795, I have the honor to request your Excellency to cause to be immediately detached from the militia of your State, the quota designa ted in the quota below, to serve as infantiy or lifiemen for a period of three months', or sooner if discharged. Your Excellency will ple&>2 communicate to mo the time about which your quota will be op cted at its rendezvous ns it will be met as scon as possible by an officer or officers to muster it into the service and pay of the Uniteef Slates. At the same time the oath of fideli ty to the United S]J\tes w ill be administered to every officer and man. The mustering officer will be instructed to receive no man under the rank of Commissioned Officer who is in years apparently over 45 or under 18. or who is not in physical strength and vigo*. The quota to each State is as follows Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, Arkansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota, 1 Regiment each Massachusetts, North Carolina, Ten nessee, 2 Regts. each New York, 17 Regts Pennsylvania, li Regts. Ohio, 13 Regts.-/ New Jersey, Maryland, Kentucky and Mis souri, 4 Regts. each Illinois and Indiana, 0 Regts. each Virginia, 4 Regts. It i£ Qir dercd that each Regiment shall consist of an aggregate of officers and men of 1780. The total thus to be called out is 73.391. Tho remainder 75,000 men under the President's Proclamation will be composed of tjroojpA ia the Bi»£rict of Columbia. Early Potatoes. ttTc are several methods of hastening the maturity of Potatoes. A favorite methoit with the German gardeners is, to bring the seed potatoes in barrels into a warm room, about the first of March. The eyes start rapidly, and in about two or three week3 they are ready to plant. Another method," which we have practiced, for some years, is to ttart the potatoes in a gentle hot-be $ about the middle of Ma:eli. The tu bers are cut in halves, and laid flat side down, upon the bed as thick as they can be placed. They are then covcred with alout 1?m in ches of garden mould, and the sashes are put over them. As soon as they are up twO or three inches they are ready to transplant' They should be removed carefully, separa ting the roots with as little breaking as pos sible, and putin diills where they are to,£C0W. As they do not yield a fuH crop under this tr ?alment, they can be planted closer than in common field culture, say in drills thirty in ches apart, putting the hills twelve inchcs apart in the drill. A warm sandy loatn, sloping to the south or southeast, should be selected for this crop.' It should be well manured with horse dung, about half of it applied in the drills. Somo manure their ground fcr early potatoes in the fall, and th.£ itf, we think, a good plan for broadcast. Fresh horse dung in the drills raises the temperature of the-soil and hastens their growth. We will add (hat we havo succeeded well on a small scale thus: Two or three weeks fore the time when it w ill probably do plant out, take pieces of turf or sod, say four or five inches square, and put a piece of po tato in each. These are set closely together where they can be watered at need, and can he exposed to sunsbkifc. Whenever there fs a cold night, or "cold snap," straw v* put cn to keep them from freezing. They sprout and fill tho turf with roots. At the proper time tho pieces are set 1n the of en ground, one piece in a hi'tl, and the ™rcwth is hardly checked. The turf itself also acts as a ms aura to aid the growth. In this way two or or three weeks ra*y be gained.—AgriemU'tt. Does Jeff. Davis belong to the neccssi' o oarty VN'o th c*--i. n {.Arty belongs to im.— I ouinitle Jou-nal. ft would be haid to convince A mAgr«'.fe »ed!c th* a vv1ston« isnot tbemostdfrstw ting thing in tho worid k