Newspaper of The Washington Standard, March 15, 1862, Page 1

Newspaper of The Washington Standard dated March 15, 1862 Page 1
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tWaslitigtai Sp gfailari VOL. 11. tie milium st.iii.iib —lO IMriP ITIBT IITTBMT «OB*I*« »T — J MB* niLLEB JfItBPBBY, Editor ami Proprietor. KabwrlpliM Bales: Per Annum - $3 #0 " Six Mi.nili- 2 U'J IX YA MA HI. Y IX A b l .t XCS. «>• Miertliilav Rates: On* Sqnare. one insertion, - $-1 00 Ka. Ii additional insertion - lon l!u-inos- funis, JMT quarter, ■' 00 \ liberal deduction will tie uiade in furor of those who advertise four squares, or upwards, by the year. BrtT Notice* of births, marriages and deaths in serted free. fry Blanks, Hill Heads, Cards, Hills of Fare. Circulars. Catalogues. Pamphlets, &c.. executed at reasonable rates. Par All communications, whether on business or for publication should lie addressed to the cdi itor of the WASHINGTON STASHAIID. OFFICE—In Barnes's building, eorncr of Main nud First streets, near the steamboat landing. D. PHILLIPS !>• I" PHILLIPS. D. PHILLIPS & SON, MEUfHANTS AND (iENERAL DEALERS, Olympia, W. T. OFFER for sale a new stock of— Dry Goods, Groceries, Clothing, Hoots & Shoes, Hals and Caps, Crockery and Glassware, Cutlery, Jr., J-c. TERMS —Cash or Country Product. Olymiiia, September 14th, 1801. 44:tf GEO. L. KENNY, HAVING wlthdrnn from the firm of H. 11. Han croft & Co., has this dav associated himself with .Mr. J. I>. ALC\A\Ui:K, and will continue the BOOK m STATHEMY MM, In All Its Branches, At 606 and 60S Montgomery Street, SHERMANS BUILDING, Opposite the old stand, under the name of KENNY k ALEXANDER. San Francisco, May 20, 1801. 2!*:m3 GEO. L. KKXNY J. 1). ALKXA.VUKIL (Late of 11. 11. Bancroft & Co.) BOOKS AUD STATIONERY*. QAA VOLS. LAW HOOKS. (JvJv/ 10,000 Vols. Miscellaneous Rooks. 100,000 Vols. School liooks. 1,000 " Medical Rooks. 2,000 Reams Letter Paper. 600 Reams Cap Paper. (too Reams Legal Cap, and 800 Reams Note Paper. 500,000 Envelopes, assorted. For sale at the lowest rates t>v KENNY 4 ALEXANDER, COG and COB Montgomery Street. San Francisco, June 3, 1861. 33:m6 HENRY M. M'CILL, [LATE SECRETARY OF THE TERRITORY.] Attomey-at-Ijaw, Commissioner of the Court of Claims of U. S. —AND— Commissiocr of Deeds for Oregon nnd Washington. WILL devote special attention to the prepara tion of the necessary papers to accompany claims under the act of March 2d. lti6l,forthe payment of the war debt, aud to business before the U. S. Land Offices. Owes —On Main St., Olvmpia, W. T. [4l] WASHINGTON HOTEL, SILAS CALLIHER, Pro. CORNER OF SECOND AND MAIN STREETS, Olympia, \V. T. Board par week.... $5 00 OLYMPIA, SIR 23, IMO. '•!» OLYMPIA WAOOV MANUFACTORY Stuart St Hlarkslx-nr, WOl'Lhiufortn tbrriiiirsi of Oltib- CJK J»i» sad Ikr -urruußliog , ..uniri that iWt «t ana aaaahrturinir *» A<;i»>S.«'AK UAtiO aa4 Rl'(i<>l£S of ail <Jr«rrtf»ii<»a« fr**a> th brotof iaifortr4 ailirnl. b» tiprrM-arrd aurk- fur •hkkW'UEAT a till* ukn ian< lua«r Mnm4 ti ikf Traaalrr ailb. i>lhf runrr M —4 fbianfc Mitrti t*J»»Ha. *. IMA 4tf im.fUMß.nnmsoßAXniAL ISS*. CAIU> flin i) 4, laa. 11l aatf lUda> Mmt ftaa fmnin Jaaaarj iifc, l M ] |« CLOnUNC EMPORIUM, 17H Clay St.. ami 107 MontKomon- St., Sou Fniuciiico, ** ■■4«(aai, lew lark. / - k—4 tkei^t V »»*« «*Ta«jtr a««*uarat «f aa .j ft, ~ ' ." «!«• h-4- rttri t: .ii •»1! wll Mian tfcaa aar utktr Hou*r. ■•fiaai ficato' CMMac — r^T •• •«*•«. UK Sfooo, twkLL * co. Js-aaarr. |» ia«l. ja ; !r Tk» be t panftrr o{lar I ~k 1 u Uaii « <* r . ••panita lifMt of the litwUry of tki IITJ. At tb« special M-aaionof ConptM. the Rec retary presented enlarged rftimalva of expen diture far three different linee nf naval opera tions: lot, for clotting the insurant ports along nearly 3,000 mile* of sea-coast line and occupying the Potomac from its moutli to the Capital; 2d. for organizing expeditions against various points of the coast; and 3d, lor pursuing piratical cruisers. Congn-ss having given the authority, pur chases were made aiid cliarter* hastily execu ted for the exigency, and orders |iereuiptorily issued to forthwith equip and prepare for ser vice the public vessels that were dismantled and in ordinary at the several navy yards. The force thus hastily gathered was placed along the coast and divided into two M|und rons, one of which, designated as the " Atlan tic Blockading Squadron," had for its field of O]H'ration the whole coast, extending from the eastern-most line of Virginia to Cai>e Florida, and was under the command of Flag-ofticer Silas H. Stringliam. The other, or "Gulf Squadron," operating from Cape Florida westward to the Rio Grande, was commanded by Flag-officer William Mervine. The duties imposed upon the flag-officers were soon found too extensive for execution by any two commanders. While the subject of dividing the squadrons was under considera tion, Flag-officer Stringliam (unaware of the fact) proposed to relinquish his command, which was acceded to, and two squadrons were organized on the Atlantic coast —Cant. I.ouis M. Goldsborough raising his flag on the Minnesota, Sept. 23d, commanded that which guarded the Virginia and North Carolina coasts; Capt. Samuel F. Dupont, with the Wabash as his flag-sliip, watched the South Carolina, Georgia and 1 lorida coasts to Flor ida. This blockading service, the Secretary thinks, is but a dull business for those en gaged in it—the rebels have not commerce or uavv enough to make it attractive. Tlio " Stone Fleet" was sent to obstruct the channels of Charleston hurbor and Savan nah river. Since the blockade was instituted. 143 ves sels sailing under vurious flags, have been captured, most of them in the very act of al ternating to violate it. A board consisting of Captains Samuel F. Dupont and Charlcß 11. Davis, of the Navy, Major John G. Barnard, of the Army, and Professor Alexander Haclie, of the coast sur vey, was convened, and to it a thorough in vestigation of the coast and Harbors, their ac cess and defences, was committed. From this board came the data that satisfied the Gov ernment that the old " Port ltoynl Enterprise," of DeUow's Review was practicable and that there was an opening for fame through Hnt teras Inlet, which hitherto lias had no place on our maps. The Secretary then briefly narrates the story of the Hattcras Inlet Expe dition, under Flag-officer Stringliam and Ma jor General Butler, and as briefly the story of the expedition of forty-eight sail, which, un der Capt. Dupont, after encountering the se verest storm of the season, stormed and took the well-built and thoroughly armed forts Beauregard and Walker, that commanded Port Royal entrance. The Secretary notices tlio demonstration on Tybec Island, at the mouth of the Savannah river. He Bays that the dispatch of Flag officer Dupont communicates the additional fact that the rebels themselves have, in antic ipation of our action, placed obstructions in tne river at Fort Pulaski. Speaking of privateers,the Secretary says: " Such of them as elpded the blockade and capture were soon wrecked beached or sunk, with the exception of one, the steamer Sum ter, which, by some fatality, was permitted to pass the Brooklyn, then blockading one of the passes of the Mississippi, and after n brief and feeble chase by the latter, was al lowed to proceed on her piratical voyage. An investigation of this wholo occurrence war or dered by the department." On the 4th of March last our Navy, all told, nuinliered 42 vessels, carrying 555 guns and about 7,600 men. The Home Squadron con sisted of 12 vessels, of which only four were in Northern ports and available for service. Now we have a total of 2C4 vessels, of 21*,- 016 too*, carrying SW67 guns and 22,000 men. Whrn tbe viwth n«»w liuiltlinp ind pnr rkMnl of rvfrr rim, are amx-d. and rradr for aerriee. tbe rooditk>u ui the Xarv will be aa follows ; •L» S ATT. .VnaVr »f YnmU. Gwu. JV» tagt «> Shi|a-o(-LiM.....„ :>»t ||,«4 7 Frigate* S~.A 12. lot IT Sloop* ,M 3 |B.«.T!i ! Brig*. - IJ Ml 3 Siomkip 7 341 t ftiyt, tc I (Mi <>'.34« 4 Srm Fripm 222 ]|,4«n C l<t-rlaMßrrr«B!Mfi |u9 U.»U 4 l<t-rlaaa »4«-«M4a 44 ».mi3 • 24-riaaa acrew Sleep* . 41 «..V»3 5 .14 cha I* UN 3 34-r la** tMt-akwl Slo.>p* a I .mn 3 Suaai Trudrrt 4 74 1.7 M ltt\»7 rsaaau rririut*. (Jmmt. r«u. ■V. *t<ir-ahrr! Utaatrt- |M 24.C34 43 x-rrv Ham 179 2».4U3 13 chip* 5J ».»«•* 24 H-IHMMMn 44 5,324 ia t>ark» 74 4,43S 1 trig* 4 400 134 »|a 41,449 TUIIU rossrarrTKP. fl-m Ton, 14 >m» iloap* 9* 14.747 23 raa >■*> 91 11,441 12 ii4r-tM ><»*■!r»- 44 1.4U0 :t iroa-cUd ttmmtm ... It 4,<>Uo it 154 41,444 OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY, MARCH 15, 1862. Total 264 vessels, 3,557 fuat, >18,016 tons. Congress at its summer suasion approved the action of the Government in ordering .'<l light-draught steamer* built, and ordered more of from 1.000 to 1,400 tons each. Many of these are in commission to-day. When all are completed that have been ordered since the 4th of March, including three iron clad now on the stocks, we will have steamers pe culiarly adapted, as the old Navy was not, to the blockade or coast guard service. It is a sign of the times that not a sailing vessel has been ordered. The purchase of vessels was not made di rectly through the Department for fear of its being swindled, nor through boards of officers lest the ship-brokers shave them. " The se lection and rejection of all vessels was exclu sively committee to boarda consisting each of an experienced naval constructor and engin eer and nn ordnance officer, stationed at New York and other principal cities. The making of the bargain was placed in the hands of a mercantile agency of a high and established character for integrity, experience and capaci ty," but his name does not appear. The Board (consisting of Commodoreß Stringliam and lnman, Cant. Dorrin, Chief Engineer Stevens and Prof. Henry) appointed to examine Stevens' battery, which has been building, and on which Congress has been spending mints of money during the whole of the past generation, and to say whether it can be of any service, has not yet reported. The Secretary now comes to his recommen dations. He proposes tho following perma nent organization for the uavy: Flag officer—to command squadrons. Commodore, 1 Commander, To command single ships, Lieut, commander, J Lieutenant, Master, Passed Midshipman, Midshipman, Cadet. So graduate the pay that there will be no aggregate increase; advance no one beyond the grade of Passed Midshipman except ou the nomination of the President confirmed by the Senate, after examination by a Board of officers; let line officers be retired on liberal pay after forty-five years in the navy, unless specially called into active service by the Pres ident. There is no naval depot on the great lakes—to make our rights secure there, one should be established. We close our abstract of Secretary Welles able, clear, out-spoken and satisfactory report with two extracts—tho first on the slavery ?ttcstiou and th • second on the finances of the >epartment: " In tli«» coast wise and blockading duties of tho navy it has been not unfrequeiit that fugi tives from insurrectionary places have sought our ships for refuge and protection, and our naval commanders have applied to me for in structions as to the dispositioiiG which should be made of such refugees. My answer has been that if insurgents they should be handed over to the custody of the Government; but if, on the contrary, tney were free from any vol untary participation in the rebellion, and sought the shelter nnd protection of our flag, then they should be cared for and employed in some useful manner, and might be enlisted to serve in our public vessels or in our navy yards, receiving wages for their labor. If such employment could not be furnished to all by tho navy, they might be referred to the army, and if no employment could be found for them in tho public service, they should bo allowed to proceed freely and peaceably with out restraint to seek a livlihood in any loyal portion of tho country. This I have consid ered to bo tho whole required duty, in the premises of our naval officers." "The amount appropriated at tho last reg ular session of Congress for the naval service for the coming year was $13,108,075 BG. To this was added at tho special session in July last 830,446,875 91—making for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1862, an aggregate of $43,615,551 77. There will be required to pay for vessels purchased, and for necessary alterations incurred in fittiug them for naval purposes, the sum of #2,530,000; for the pur chase of additional vessels, 82,000,000 ; and for the construction and completion of twenty iron-clad vessela sl2,ooo,ooo—making a total of $16,530,000. This is independent of the estimates submitted for the next fiscal year, and being required for current expenses as well as for objects of immediate impor tance. it is desirable should receive early at tention fr»m Congress. The estimates submitted by thia Depart ment for the fiscal rear ending June 30th, 1*63. amount to $44.625.66502, via.: For thr aarj proper 13 For ikf marine ror|i< 1,1 n£.t>.S4 77 For «»y yant«. b„-f>itaU. Mapt ziara aa<i UlM r|lanrou« uhjtfii...., 3.4Z3,47S 00 I'tlL. btkElV KL4M<I BKCK.' —Tlir follow in? fin is from one of bis (pevckii: " Hijrbi and doty an always najmiic HIML Tln-v uiarrb u aii inviaibl • guard in the van •if all true pragma. They aniiutf the lofti tt* spirits in tlh) public MimUiit; they KTVP the ana of tbe warrior; they kiudle tbe soul <if tbe tiatetunan, and UM imagination of llw port ; tbev awwtn crwy reward, tbry console dvwr defeat. Tbey are of lliwrlvw aii itMliawtluLle chain wbicb bind* feeble, er ring humanity to tbe throoe of God." YW The following is a verbatim copy of the certificate attached to tbe return of a'prist master in Shawnee county, Missouri. Arte mas Ward may as well sbut up shop at once, "i here by certify that the four goin A count is as near Right as i no bow to make it if there is any mis take it is not Dim a Purpus." Bepwt of the Secretary of the Treasury. This document affords the most flattering evidence* of the success of the system of ap |N-al to the patriotism of the people for funas to cany an the war in In-half of the Govern ment of the country. Notwithstanding the

falling off in the receipts for Customs, caused by the falling off in exports occasioned by the war, the finances of the nation, owing to the success of the popular loan, are in a remarka bly flourishing condition. A very note worthy portion of the Secretary's report is thaWjp relation to the paper currency of the country. His recommendations under thlp head are calculated to prove a great benefit to the people. The Secretaty says: " It has been woll questioned by the most eminent Statesmen whether a currency of bank notes, issued by local institutions under State laws, is not, in fuct, prohibited by the national Constitution. Sueh emissions cer tainly falls within the spirit, if not within the letter, of the Constitutional prohibition of the emission of bills of credit by the States, and of the milking by them of anything except gold nnil silver eoin a legal tender in payment of debts. I lowever this may be, it is too clear to be reasonably disputed that Congress, un der its Constitutional powers to lay taxes, to regulate commerce, and to regulate the value of coin, possesses ample authority to control the credit circulation which enters so largely into the transactions of commerce and afl'ects in so many ways the value of coin. In the judgement of the Secretary the time hns ar rived when Congress should exercise this au thoritv. The value of the existing bank note circulation depends on the laws of thirty-four States and the character of some sixteen hun dred private corporations. It is usually furn ished in the greatest proportions by institu tions of least actual capital. Circulation, com monly, is in tlio inverse ratio of solvency. Well founded institutions, of large and solid capital, have, in general, comparatively little circulation; while weak corporations almost invariably'seek to sustain themselves by obtain ing from the people tho largest possible credit in this form. Under such a system, or rather lack of system, great fluctuations, und heavy losses in discounts and exchanges, nre inevit able ; and not unfrequeiitly, through failures of the issuing institutions, considerable por tions of the circulation becotno suddenly worthless in the hands of the people. The recent experience of several States in the val ley of the Mississippi painfully illustrates the justice of these observations, and enforces, by the most cogent practical arguments, the duty of protecting commerce and industry against the recurrence of such disorders." Under tlio operations of n system of curren cy founded on (hi* plan, it appears certain that the people in their ordinary business would find the advantages Of uniformity in currency; of uniformity iu security; of effec tual safeguard, if effectual safeguard is possi ble, against depreciation; and protection from losses in discounts and exchanges; while, in the operations of the Government, the people would find the further advantage«of a largo demand for Government securities, of in creased facilities for obtaining the loans re quired by tho war, and of some alleviation of tho burthens on industry through a diminu tion in the rate of interest, or a participation in the profit of circulation, without risking the perils of a great money monopoly. The Sec retary justly urges tliut under this system a further and importnntyid vantage to the people limy be reasonably expected iu tho increased security of the Union, springing from the com mon inrurest in its preservation, created by tho distribution of its stocks to associations throughout tho country as tho basis of their circulation. Further than this, the whole circulation of the country, except a limited nmonnt of foreign coin, would, after the lapse of two or three years, bear the impress of the nation, whether in coin or notes; while the amount of the latter, always easily ascertaina ble, and, of course, always generally known, wouU not be likely to be increased beyond the real wants of business. This financial plau, if put into legal operation, would do away with the entire horue of " Wild Gal" banks which now curse the people of the East ern States; would relieve the people of Ore gon of the Heavy taxes they are now obliged to pay iu the shape of premiums for exchange, lu, and, would, iu fact, establish a paper cur rency of uuifonn value, throughout the United State*, for the solvency of which the United States Government would be responsible. The people would be relieved from paying premi- Bins on exchange. and would have at all times • currency which would bear the same value in Portland and oilier parts of < tregoa, aa in New York ; and ihus would aave to Oregon yearly, a very larp- expenditure. Tin- Keport is of great length, and does Mr. Chase distinguished credit as a financial doc ument. at The Louisville Journal says: We still liear the cry of " peace." Under the cir cumsianefs that now exist, it is a cry of infa my. The argument peace in the preaence of embattled boats, when ibe invaders are ap proaching upon us. means, as adistiuguiabed statesmen says, nothing but humiliation, the end of the Republic. the beginning of theseorn and contempt of the world, the setting of the last hope of tin* oppressed people of the Earth. ■ • »s> !«■■■■■ —— A SAD MISTAKK. —A cotemnorary says that a female recruit was detected at Koch a ter. New York, by trying to put her pants on over her head. f3T A clergyman consoling a young wid ow on the death of her busbaud, remarked that she could not find his equal. " I*ll bet I will," replied the sobbing fair one. LATH nOl THE ATI OTIC BIDS. MM to Febraary M. WASHINGTON, Feb. 26.—The leading fea turea of the Treasury Note Bill which passed yesterday, are the issue and funding of 950,- 000,000 of Treasury Notes, which may be made a legal tender for private and public dues, except for the payment of interest on the public debt, and duties, which are to-he paid in e coiu. The 50,000,000 Demand Notes, issued under the Act of Julv last, and the 910,000,000 under the act of tfiis month, may, however, be received in payment of duties on imports. The notes are to be issued for not leaa than 850, convertible into bonds bearing 6 per cent, interest, redeemable in five years. The Secretary of the Treasury is author ised to issue registered bonds to the extent of $50,000,000, redeemable at pleasure, after five years, for the purpose of funding the Treasu ry Notes and the floating debt. The Act provides fer the deposit of notes not less than 30 days, at 5 per cent, interest. CAIRO, Feb. 25. —C01. Webster arrived to day, from Clarksville, Tenn. He says that Gen. Pillow fled from Fort Donelson to Clarksville, pillaging aud destroying as he went. NKW YORK, Feb. 26.—8y the arrival of tho Constitution, we learn that the British steamer Lebanon was taken as a prize on the Rio Grande by the sloop-of-war Portsmouth. She had hulf a cargo of cotton aboard; had previously landed a cargo of blankets aud ordnance at Matamoras. The President has approved tho Treasury Note bill. NEW YORK, Feb. 24.—The U. S. Treasury Notes are at 30 per cent, premium at Rich mond, Va. CAIRO, Feb. 26.—Gen. Grant has declared martial law over Western Tennessee. The Wilmington (N. C.) Journal says that five or six Federal gunboats have entered Roanoke river. BALTIMORB, Feb. 26.—Kdiafo Island was occupied by Sherman's forces on the 18th, thus making advance toward Charleston. McDougall, from the Special Committee, reported a bill yesterday for the establish ment of a railroad and telegraph line front tho Missouri river to the Pacific. KANSAS CITY, Feb. 26.—A skirmish oc curred at Independence lately, between a de tachment of Ohio cavalry and a band rebels. The latter routed; three killed, several wound ed "and several taken prisoners. A quantity of aims were also captured. The Federal loss was one killed. Santa Fe mail dates to the 10th of Febru ary, represent the Union sentimeut as over whelming in spite of Sibley. Advices from Fort Craig to the 7th say that tho Texans undo - fci iley were at Fort Towne, 50 miles from Fort Craig, advancing on the latter place. WASHINGTON, Feb. 26.—Hie Senate have passed a bill fixing the number of members in tho House at 241. CHICAGO, Feb. 27, 3:10 p. M. —Stark of Orego, is admitted to a seat in the U. S. Sen ate, by • vote of 26 to 19. WASHINGTON, Feb. 27. —The amendments to the Apportionment Bill, of one additional member for the States of Vermont, Rhode Isl and, Ohio, Kentucky nnd Minnesota, in con sequence of the large fraction of population in those States not represented by the law us first passed. ST. LOUIS, Feb. 27. Col. Wood's cavalry has driven the enemy out of Dent, Texas and llowall counties, and takon sixty rebel pris oners. A Cairo dispatch says that heavy rumbling explosions were heard yesterday in the direc tion of Columbus. Tlio enemy, it is supposed, were blowing np their entrenchments. WASHINGTON, Feb. 27.—The military pos session of the telegraph, taken by order of the President, will make no change whatever with social and commercial business by tele graph. The linee and business remain in the hands of the telegraph officers. NEW YORK, Feb. 27th.—The actual num ber of prisoner! taken at ltoanoke Island was 2,488. The Navy Department has received a dis- Ktch from Commodore Goldsborough, dated ih. 80. Re had the official accounts of cur veasels to Edenton and Currituck Caual. The names of the vessels destroyed by our ahipa since the fleet reached flattens Inlet, are the Sea Bird, flag steamer; the Cmrirtr. mil Fauay. The schooner IllticL Warrior and the schooacr Eli* w ere captured. A new gunboat aa the stocks at Elisabeth City, was destroyed. Each of them was remarka bly wall arased at gunboats. All c.f them, i Hurting the CWirr. were destroyed or cap tared ia the attack on Elizabeth City. Aa oar form took undisturbed tmas«*»iou of Edsaton, part of a flying artillery regi meat, variously estimated at from 150 to 300, fled precipitately without firing a slioi, nnd many of the inhabitant* also left. 1 Binag the results of the expedition are the detraction of eight canuuu, and one schooner aa the stocks at Edenton, and two arbooaere captured in the Sound. forty-two nflirtn and men ot the FiAli Missouri Cavalry were poisoned at Mud town, by eating poiaoued fluid which the rebels had left Capt. Donnald has since died from the effects of the poison. St. Lot'im Feb. 28.— Gen. Malleck has re ceived dispatches from Gen. Curtis, who is now ia pussies inn of Fayetteville. Arkansas, lie has captured that city with a large num ber of priaoaers belonging to Price s aruiy, and quantities of baggage. A fire has occurred in lloaton consuming a miiliou of dollars worth of property, one-half of which was insured. Tho importance of a Division of Washing ton Territory. The tinif has come when the tuUifla of thin coast require that Washington Twritorjr should be divided, and a new Territory or* Eiied oat of the district east of the Cascade attains. Washington, aa now constituted, contains about 200,000 square miles, being one-third larger than California, as large aa any three contiguous States east of the Mis sissippi, and twice as large as all the KtV England States together. This awois area ia too large, politically, for one State. There should be more than* six States west of the Rocky Mountains, so that we may hare a stronger representation in the Federal Sen ate. '1 rue, Washington is not yot ready to demand an admission as a State but we do not know how soon she may be ready. It is impossible to foresee, the importance of the Clearwater, (Svz Perees) ana Salmon rirer mines; but if one-third of the statement;— uniformly favorable—made by persons at tho mines—persons well known and considered trustworthy in Oregon, should prove true, the gold produce and the population there, will, within a year or two, render that the third or fourth gold district in the world. Tho timev therefore, has come for considering the mat ter. Not only 08 a matter of intereßt to tli<> const, but as a matter of importance to the different portions of Washington, is a division necessa ry. Tlio Territory is 800 hundred miles long, from northwest to southeast, and 600 miles long from east to west. Its northern bounda is the 40th pararllel; its eastern, the summit of the ltocky Mountains, from 49° to 42° ; its southern, the 42d parallel from the Rocky Mountains, to a point south of the mouth of the Owhyheo river; thence it runs due north to the Snake river, whose waters it follows to latitude 46° ; thence it inns due west to the Columbia, which it follows to the ocean, the tho western boundary of the Territory, which is shaped like an elbow. Washington forms the entire eastern and northern boundary of Oregon. The Territory is not ouly too large, but it consists of two districts which are entirely dissimilar in all their resources and wants, and should therefore be politically separate. The Cascade Mountains form the dividing line, as the Sierra Nevada part of the same chain does farther south. The western divis ion of Washington Territory has the finest navigable inland waters, and the most valua ble forests for lumber in the world, and the best fisheries—though the fisherman are lack ing—on tlie Pacific. We comprehend the full force of these assertions, and make them deliberately, after having visited the waters of Puget Sound, and knowing something of all the considerations suggested by what we say. In addition to these advantages, tho ba sin of Puget Sound has a fertile soil and large beds of coal. The climate is mild and favorable to agiiculture, but very wet. Ex treme heat and cold are alike rare. The streams aro never frozen over, and snow rare ly lies on more than a day or two. Cross the Cascade Mountains and you are in a new world. There are no deßse forests of conifers, where every tree is over 200 feet high. There are no thickets of underbrush. The land is bare, barren and rocky. There is no opportunity for catching any fish, Rare salmon. There is little to attract the fanner. All those occupation which will thrive in the basin of Pnget Sound, are impossible in the basin of the Upper Columbia. The herds man and the gold miner will occupy the latter district—shipowners, the farmers, lumbermen aud fisherman will abound in the former. Not only should the two districts be separ ate because of the dissimilarity of all their resources, but also of the great remoteness of their chief centres of population from each other. The settlements of the two districts are at the opposite ends of the Territory, sep arated by a distance of 400 miles of almost unoccupied territory, and by a range of mount ains, the comb of which reaches nearly to ths line of perpetual snow, and is almost ha passa ble to travellers during a considerable portioa of the year. What convenience can their be in having a mining population at the loot of the Bocky Mountains tied np under the aamo territorial organization with the lunbmm und fanners on the shores of the Pacific J It would be like tying the miners at Pike's Peak to the whalers of New Bedford. Bah a union — st rwlt in rswftwins and dim aid; a separation will be bearAcial Is both, and cannot possibly do any ham to aaybody. It was a great error that ( tirgcs was admitted as a State with three-fifths of her Terri'sry east of the Cascade Montana. The difte eoce betweea • the two districts Is as gnat nuking the saw lit of the chain a IMM of po litical division nearly as strong. The wish of the representation from Oregon was al lowed to govern in that instance, hot hereaf ter every Congnsauaa from this coast ikaM give his attention to tho mattu*. and ha liwtrd aa an interested party, at Washington It may be that far • lew years ths pspnlarisa in the newly discovered placers wm greatly outnumber that aa the shonaaf Papst BsHM. bat that the latter district is diatiaai Is ha far man* populous and wealthy in m rssasis tune; and it will prove so important to Cali fornia that we ehoald not look with fedM neas upon any coarse which wfll alaw Its ia tetreei to be sacrificed.—AUa Quern Victoria anr nigM «var 174* 000,000 of peopl<>. OftliM uunber BriM liulialuw 105,000,000, LV Mr. HowUt Uwriting*hitwyofflpfa* itualiaou, wlitcb bo »ill vutiiie "tileaiuags In th** Cornfield* of Bphi:naH»m." NO. 18.

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