imt frm f) NOT THE GLORY OP C23SAR DVT THE WELFARE OF ROME VOL. XVI. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MAY 20, isa No. 51 ADDRESS Delivered batorc the lturllnston Mediants' Institute, ly antncr? i. M.vitstt, and rrsiwiED nv nsqurnr or me Institute. UlltlllL. I.j In .rr-.tiu nf f arU of ' riekmak- ing, mi 1 st'iiie-cult iig, I lu.e bcc.i insensibly led 1 1 Jv'vi iti' from the chronological order rr posed, and to anticipite some observations pro. perly belonging to another division of the sub. ject, but the art of m vsomiv, to wliic.li. I refer, is so closely connected witli those of brickmiking and stonc-culting, tint il is impossible to give a tolerably complete skctck of the history of one, without interweaving some notices of the ntliTs, iind thorp is an obvious propriety in treating of them in connection. The art of masonry attained to a high perfec tion at a very early "period, as is attested by the Pyramid of Egypt, the ruins of Bibylon, the Cyclopean walls) 'of Greece and Italy, and other ancient structures, of whose builders no certain historical account has survived. The oldest known structures in masonry are without lime. cement, or other binding material. The first cement seems to have been clay intermingled with reeds, and native bitumen was used in re mote ages. This is probably the substance which is called slime, in the scriptural account of the building of the tower of (label, and the bricks in some of the ruins of Habylnn are bound to gether by this cement. This bituminous mortar is of such tcnacily, tint it Ins been found whol ly impracticable tit separate the bricks cemented by it iu a pile of ruins at Jlabylon, which is sup posed by some to be the remains of the lower of Babel. The use u" lime, and oilier minerals which possess the property of selling, as it is termedf is much later, though still ancient. The Greek and (Ionian cements were of very great excellenee, and were employed in inisonry to a nmrli .rn-nier I'vtent than at present. Cement was used, not only as a limning material, uui ' "- vnwiquaiic 01 i.-a. 1 lie tower, including arched roof and ceilings of considerable breadth Ike spire by which il is surmounted, is little less of span were olten constructed almost wholly of. than .1110 feet in total height, At the fool of lli.j this material, sparingly strengthened by pumice, spire U.'jO fret from the ground, is a stone cis stone. The ancicnls laid stone and brick in all , tern for collecting the rain mid melting snow, the diflerrn4 bonds now employed, though the , which drip from the tpiie. The water in Ibis Flemish bnn l, consisting of headers and stretch- cistern, then standing three feet below the mar ers alternately, was preferred. Uriel; were some- g'n, was thrown out by the earthquake, and times c ipnci'iu-ly hid In'rring.hone wi- t, a style , struck the ground eighteen feet from the base of in which th? strength of the structure depends j the tower. The spires waved and quivered like wholly u;ion the goodness of the mortar, there . reeds, but not a stone fell, nor was a crack pro beinii'iii prup-r bond. duccd in the sirneture. Ofs:inilar, but perhaps Hie arch, one ol the most impartant features in niQil'-rn masonry, was rirely used in Greece, tliougn frequent in Unman architecture. J here lias hern much diseitssinn nuiniig antiquaries ill relttim to the origin of the aich, and both the rnunit nn t niintrd were -onernllv Mltt- poscd to be iinpirativrly modern, bill recent . investigations in Egypt hive conclusively shewn, tnnt imin me circular anil poinuii or Imeet areli were in f.mi lnr use in tli.it country, at least 1 530 years before the ChrUli in era. 1 am not aware, lint any very ancient specimens ci ine horse-shoe arch, a characteristic featun of Sir ii enie. architecture, have been f mud. ,, this form of the arch, tile curves diverire, from the sjvtng, and the opening is therefore consid erably wider above the spring, th in at the im post. The ngyplian arch is in general in all respects similar iu principle to the modern, but in some buildings of great anliquitr, aiches of, a more primitive form orctir lu lliose, the arch stones or voiissoir-, as they are technically call ed, instead rtf radiating from one fir more cen tres, are li':d horizontally, each cour:-e from the impost upward on both sides nf the opening pro jecting a little over the ur-xt lower, and so on until they meet at the crown. The lower cor ners of the projecting stones being then cut Ion regular curve, the interior would present the appearance of a common arch. A curious instance of constructive skill, in applying the self supporting principle to the foriua'tion of a perfectly 11 it or leiel arch, occurs in an Ilnglish cathedral. The visitor sees whit at a shnrfdis tance appears to lie a massive beam, exlendiii" across a wide space from wall to wall, hut whi b upon a closer examination, is fuund to be com posed of many sep irate stones nr vnussoirs of trapezoid il frm, suppnrtid iu their places, up. on the same principle as tho-e of the arch. The strength of this beam is such, that it will bear the weight of many persons, though it tremble and vibrates to the tread of a siiiL'lr individual. The mode of its, construction is familiarly illns- trated by the (lit arches often thrown across the openings nl windows ill buck houses. The strength of the dune d-p.-nds upon the same principle, ami it miy I onsidered as an liemis- pher cal arch, with this difference however, that the lateral support enables it to dis se with a I hijsione, an i il liny oe nn, indeed usually is left ouen a' t!i ton. Th" nrl.-ihlr of domes in 1.1 is l.'ai .' i Home ,- Ir-it' "" V"m ' J i -God, n .- . ,t ;uu . over tin- whole bu.ldill". nnd 1 .ii.tner .1 : 'il ii a!! lit-' I' f iu ...of includ.ng tin- thickness of the walls, is 107 feet in diameter, wilh a circular opening of 27 feet nttlie summit. The firmness of this structure is such, lint, ex cept the depredations upon it perpetrated or suffered by the pops, it has stood entire and nearly uninjured for about twenty centuries. Scarcely less celebrated is the dome of St. Pe ter's at Home, which is a few feel greater in diameter than the Pantheon. This dome was erected by Michael Angela about the year I.I.IU. It rests upon an an octagonal base, supported by arches springing from four pillars seventy feet square, and Kit) in height. The dome is double, with a flight of stairs between the inner and outer arch, Much admired as this work is, it exhibits less constructive skill than some other architectural structures, inasmuch as several cracks have been discovered both in the dome and its octagonal base. The dome was origin ally strengthened by two massive iron hoops, but it has been found necessary to secure it by six additional hoops, five of which, applied in the year 17411, weighed not less than twelve tons each. The dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore nt Florence, erected by Ilrunel. leschi early in the fifteenth century, though less elevated, and of smaller dimensions, is consid ered as surpassing in lightness and grandeur of style, not only llie dome ol ht, I'eter s, hut every other similar work. Ilesides these struc tures, may be mentioned the domes of St. Paul at London, St. Genevieve at Paris, Santa So. phio, originally a Christian church, but now a mahnmetan mosque, at Constantinople, and that of Hi inmb of Theodnric at Itavenna, which is remarkable fr its RiZP, , ing but little more than thirty feet 1. diameter, but because it con sists of a single .onCl hollowed out like a bowl. In the middle nges, si.n0 wns extensively used for roofing, being suppsrted by arches. The mnt remirUnhlc work of n.:6 ,,) ;s t. rnof of King's Ci'llege Chapel nt C.inhrid"e in England, in the tintliic style, which h . always commanded tho highest admiration of inteHiirent architects ' The ancient builders possessed wonderful skill In flip nrnrticil .1 rmlici linn nf nieplisn',.,1 ...... ' ' I. .1 - .... - . . ..!. .' r - cipirn win"- niovoii; iniii nin.u i immense iiius,ib ,, 'i.-nr. I ii'ivr Miir.io, iio-uii'OM-M ine almost mountainous masses employed at Halbr and oilier of greater dimensions were carried vast distances, and raised to great heights, by the Egyptians. The obelisks at I Irlinpnli, the shafts of which are each ofa single ilone weigh ing more than 2')!) tnn, were transported fi'lll miles. A colossal statue at Thebes, weighing 000 tnn, was carried 133 miles, nnd we have accounts of a temple hpvvn nit of n single rock, and tiansported lo a great ilistnurp, which must have weighed nl lenst fiOOO tons, The only mod ern vement which can be compared wi'.h these is the moving ol Ihe i"iies'nl lortlieeques ics'ni lortheeques- Yter-lmrgh, whi h ' ig 1200 tons, bull fteen miles, The trian statue or I'eter I nl fat I ) a rock of granite vvelghin Ibis wns moved only about fifteen r.Sypiiii on er nnci em . imnue.s not muy transported these huge blocks to great d.s- lances, buth by land and water, but they raised r- j ... , with facility to immense lipights. The I 1 Lgyptian pyramid is about j')0 feet in largest J,!v Minn nvratmil is ntiolit (' (eel in height, ami many of the stones employed in the uigiirr pans are m iinniensi' volume. ln ine ins arc known In modern builders, by which such y 1st masses could be raised, and unfortunately this is one of the few points nn which the p tint na in the tnuihs, so f ir as yet observed, give n information ,My hunts will not allow ine to enter upon the discussion of the various expl.i. nations which have been suggested, anil I will Miiy unserve inai tney are nil unsatisfactory. The pyramids are worthy of special notice ill many other respects. The sides correspond to the four cardinal points, with a precision which impbes a very considerable knowledge of the higher branches of mathematical science. The stones are cut and laid with great skill, and the foundation was so well prepared, thai the hea viest and loftiest pile, which the art of man h is ever erected upon earth's bosom, appears neither to have cracked nor settled in the slightest degree. Hut the most remarkable feature in these structures is the immense mass of mate rials employed in their construction. The great pyramid is about CO feet square at the base, and as I have before observed, nbout as much in height. It is not indeed solid, but the hollow part bears but a trifling proportion to the mass, and the quantity of stone contained in this py ramid, including the substructions of the foun dation, catuint be less than one hundred million cubic feet, which would suffice for the erection of a wall live feet in height, one foot in thick ness, nnd Ii-00 miles in length. Perhaps the boldest examples nf enlislrnrlive skill are the erections of the Gothic architects of the middle ages. To the eye, these groups of slender towers and soarini? ninn icles audi spires seem as siigiu and trail as icicles, but i nninl nf r.nl.,.,1 fir. ..., .. ... ... the solid pyramids. A reniarkable proof of the I - . . . interior excellence t masonry, are the stone bridges of the Unmans, and arched aquedii. ts by which they conveyed water for the siionlv of their cities from ciinsideruhlo distances, ami 'fro- qui nily over villi.-s ol fjreat depth. A stone b idge built by the Unmans at Rrimide n Fr.an-r. 01 M s "gle arch, hiv jet standing. Still r spin of 1 fVet, is more rem rkalile is the Punt iht Card, an ancient aqueduct near Nisiues in FY nice, w hich conducts a stream of water over a deep valley, upon three tiers of arches, one above the oilier, nnd Constantinople is in part supplied with water by aourducls constructed uni long alter Hie l.lirislian era. 1 am not aware that the moderns have made any very important improvements in the art of! masonry, Hioul'Ii there does not seem lo he anv I good reason, why machinery, the extensive use' of which Hie characteristic of modern art, I linuhl not be emnloviil to lorbtmi H... t,i.nr. .,r ,!ie the mason, . as well 'as many other artiz ins. A '"'e '"'I'1''" prevalent even iu Sjpain, that Hie art mode of raising stones now often practised, and 1 f lempering these blades is lol, appears lo be a slid to have been recently introduced 'from the I vulgar prejudice. Tint most entertaining trav-l.a-t, may perliaps drM'rve a passin.f notice. A 'lll'r George Harrow, visited the manufactory hole is drilled a little on one side of the centre, ' at Toledo two or three y ears since, and was there or at the centre in an oblique direction, anil an ! requested to try the point ofa new rapier blade, iron ring-bolt, barely large enough to fill it, with-1 aK'li'i"t the wall. lit- thrust it against the solid out being driven, is insirled. The bolt is at- Utnne, with Ihe utmost force of a strong arm, but lacked lo a rope and pulley, and the friction of ,l,c l""nt was not at all blunted, and it is well the stone, occasioned by its hanging obliquely, known, lint the Tnledn small swords may, wilh confines il to the bolt, so that it" may be raised "t risk of breakage, be bent until the hilt and without danger. point meet, or into the circumference nf a peck The most remarkable and important works of J'asure, and are as hard as they are el., tic. modern times in masonry are the can il locks and 1 ''ll0 workmen pretend, that the excellenee of nqupducts, and rail road bridges, which are due ' lo the perfection of the science of en" and the stone bridges for ordinary travel across ' Pred, but it is more prob ibly due to tin-skill of broad rivers. The most magnificent of these sn"lter, refiner, and forgeman, or to some se latter structures is the Waterloo lirid, jc across 1 crL' prnct-Ks in iL'inpi'ring, whicli the workmen the Thames at London. : find it for their interest to conceal. 1 . at an exnense of more Hmn i;,.n dollars. The arches are each 12 ) feet in span, Ike artl.cd causeway at each end, Ts about 300J feet. "' vuoie lengl I o lllc iridn-p. mrln.lm Hie fMdystono light-house erected between ,!''" to 1 "ill by Smeaton, on a sunken rock in 'the Knglish channel, has been oflen cited as a I remarkable instance of inventive contrivance and constructive skill. The dangerous position , "I the reel on whirb it stand, renders it n mat- ier o great importance to navigation, but as the rtrlt is covered at hii Il water, and exposed In a I '""'ni swell, it was a prohleni ol extreme i d '.. Ity to erect a structure of such solidity as to b.d deli nice to the waves. This problem 'was accomplished by Sinraton in a truly admirable imniu'r. The whole height, including the base, is about I'JO feet, nnd thu violence of I In- waves to which it is exposed is such, tint in rough weather the spray is dashed far above the lantern nt the summit, nnd it is sometimes impossible to approach nr leave it, for many weeks in suc cession. It is stUI standing, though extensive repairs were found necessary in 1.-150. No work in masonry of ihe present century Ins excited mme attention than the tunnel under the Thames, which has been prosecuted under great difficul ties nnd discouragements, and which, after being suspended for some years, has been re sinned, and is now so far completed, as to be open for foot passengers. It consists of a double passage, arched with brick, thirty feet below the ben of Ihe river, and is about I (II II I feet in lon.nl, A style of masonry employed in some parts of ..... v..Uiiuj micro quarry stone is rare 13 per naps ueserving ol mention. In this mode of o inning, ir.auics open nt top and bottom, with plank sides, and ends, as lonir as thu soace tin. tween two doors, windows, or oilier openings, and of a width corresponding to the intended thickness orthe wall, are loosely filled vv ilh round pebbles, and mortar in a nearly fluid state is poured in and worked in among the pebbles. hen the mortar has set, the frame i.i removed raised and filled again, and so on to the top of the wall, The effect of this style is not unpleas ing to the eye, and walls thus constructed are nam 10 ue little inferior 111 strength to those ofi uricK. The most active causes nf the decay and ruin of structures of masonry are frost in cold climates, am vegetation iu warm. In the former, the rain and melting snows find their way into cracks acci cidentaly left in building, or occasioned by the shrinking of the mortar, or Ihe alternate contrac tion nndexpin.ion of the stones, and then freez ing rend and throw down the strongest walls, by the irresistible cxpinsive power of frost. Iu warm chm-ite,, tle tc-mlril and rootlets of creep ing and parasitin plants insinuate themselves in to the minutest fi.surcs, and by their growth loosen and seiar.ate the stones, nnd thus the soft "' luiruws n wall, tint the rev " ' v""' "veruirovvs n wall, tint the ii ni-i m nn empire scarci I y sufficed to raise on'l in irolll i ns ml lndn,.in.l other hot cliiiiales.Unt tl.t- most so ,.i srinri... . u ... i . : resist tins leenip hut netive power but' om.nl r -u", aim nienegieeteii ,s ,C(. ,,r " nl emperor H s -mi reduced to nn unsightly heap or ruins by the silent and invlsb hie action of 0t. of ,a. t.a!e9l frcl.s of or I7.nl nature. " We will now return to the chronological order, from winch we have departed, nnd devote n few ...... i ,i I "" emperor H s -mi reuui ed to nn ...mi nt, v nn art which y atilors l0,u as the most primitive. n o.;.!..t.. .i ' .... . Imiiorlmi I - (. .'. ., "r""""V i"e mosi in nseii reauy lor Ihp In.i , seated i in- ' In n u et I . " "f S'" -r!elf mi a chair, and defied his rival to'dohis worst, i. i ,i; 1 ' . ' rV,'""1 rf"."t I'"' aril Vnulundr stepped behind ,i,, gave him a blow ""ruing in menu cannot agree, Hint this aril" ancient ns those of Ihe potrernnd stniie.cut.' u ler Hy a mile people, sinithery could only'be'ei prnetised, wliere nulirr nielal, or metals nalu-ltl '--It.. . I - . .. . '." " , ' uuo iiiiuiiieo.nr eianonteil Ironi Ihe ore by volcanic heat, or other process of natural chem- '"try, so as lo be fit for the forge without smclt - ing, arc found. But the metals occurring in that stale are few, nnd sparingly diffused. Irnn the most valuable of all, is found native so rare ly, anil then in such a peculiar form, that some mineralogists, though probably ti poll Insufficient ground, believe all native iron to bo meteoric, notwithstanding the vast bulk of the masses which have been met with. There is some rea son to believe, that such iron was forged at a re mote period, and the curious lledouin romance, A ill nr, describes its hero, a warrior of the desert, as arineu wiiii a sworn wrongiit ironi a mass of iron hurled to the ground by u thundeibolt. The metal which wj first subdued to the uc of man was undiubtedly cupper. This occurs in the native form in many countries, but inas much as it cannot be shaped by culling or chip, ping, so easily as stone, it must have lain unem ployed, until chance disclosed to the vvnndcriii" savage, that it was at once flexible, ductile, haiil and tough. There properties being known, it would of course come into immediate use. The earliest implements of this metal were doubtless beaten cold upon a stone nnvil.anit with hammers of the same material, and indeed we have histori cal evidence, that stone anvils continued in use long alter iron began to bo forged. Pure copper being too sofl for many purposes, it was at a very early neriod hardened bv a llli.vtltrn nf tin. and long afterwards of zinc, the former nlloy be ing the mixed metal called bronze, Jhc latter, common brass. In some countries, not only copper, but even the precious metals, whicli nre not unfrequrntly found native, were used for ve ry common purposes, before the employment of iron. The Egyptians, the most ancient people, of whom copious remains have comedown to us, appear to have made very little use of iron nnd steel, and it is certain, that both among them end the Greeks and llounns, bronze was used even "- , "j!'. m5lruillenlsi '""S after the art of i ni mil ni I , i.iri , n tin tmitn m I .n ......... . r Acuity of extracting iron from the ore, and fitting it for the smithy, but there is good reason to believe, that many ancient nations possessed an art now lost of tempering bronze, so as to render it scarcely inferior in baldness and toughness to iron or even to steel. Some, of the "Egyptian bronze swords and d iggers possess a very con sidrrahlc degree of elasticity, and I have already alluded to the speculations of antiquaries on the use of bronze implements by that people in cut ting the hardest rocks. In Europe, iron was smelted and converted in to steel, at a period at least co-eval with nur ear liest historical records. Uy what process this conversion was accomplished, we are ifnnr.itit. .i pnpm ir nciici in inose countries, winch re ceived their slccl from abnad, was, that steel was Hi it portion of iron which remained, after the seller parts had been decomposed by Ion" exposure to the moisture nf the earth. In' some European countries, :i in Gaul, steel was not know ii until a cninpar.il. vely late period, for in the second Punic war, the 'swords of the Gauls are said to have been so badly tempered, that they required to he straightened alter every blow. 4 . . . . i . . i i ... . . : I lie most ancient huropeaii forges are believed tnlnvebeen those of Spain and Suedeii.cniinlries Ptl" famous for the excellence of their iron and "teel. The ir n of Spain was widely celebrated in v,'rJ' "ncient times, and the sword-blades of I oledo lonir eninved an unrivalled renoifiiinn U'PS0 ls "ing to the peculiar qualities of , the water of the Tngus in which they arc tent. The smelting of iron in the North of Kurope is believed to have commenced with the Finns or lipl inders, the original inhabitants of Sc indim via, who then occupied the localities where the best ores are still found. The diminutive stature of these people compared wilh lhatof their Goth ic iuvaders.lheir skill in penetrating the bowels of the earth in search of ores, the smoke nf their col-. lienes.llie name and thunder ol their furnaces and forges, and above all the excellent temper of the vve.ap-uu wrought by them, all these ennsnired it" render them obieets of superstitious wonder tu th" Gothi. The legend try chronicles of tint people are accordingly filled Willi strange tales concerning the , .rthern ilvvarls, who lived in the solid rock, and possessed nngic skill in nil tin- various arts of the smith. One nf these e gends may be worth citing, and Ihe rather, be cause it relates to Vaiilundr nr Velent, the Scan dinavian Vulcan, of whom many traditions are vet extint even in F.ngland, wliere he is styled Wayland Smith. At the age of thirteen, Van lundr was apprenticed by his father the giant Vade lo two of the dwarfs, who dvvlt in the in terior ofa mountain, and applied himself with such assiduity to their instructions, that in two years he equalled his masters, in knowledge of all the artsnf smithery. both black and while. Ueing at the court of King Nidiing, wliere his dexterity as a smith was accidentally discovered, a rivalship arose between him anil Amili is, prin cipal smith lo the king. Amilias challenged Vaiilundr to a trial of skill, upon condition that the life of the vanquished should be at the dis posal of the victor. The terms proposed were that Vaiilundr should forge a sword, and Amilias n helmet, cuirass, and other defensive armour, and a twelvemonth was allowed for preparation. If the sword of Vnulundr penetrated the armour of Amiliaj, the former was to be declared the vic tor, if otherwise, his life was forfeited to his ri val, Amilias spent the whole year at his task, but Vaiilundr did not commence his labours un til two months before the trial, lie now, after seven days labour, exhibited to the kiiva sword of great beauty and exrellent temper, hut too heavy for use. I!y way of testing its edge, he took a cushion stuffed with wool a foot in thick ness, threw it mtn a river, and let it float with the current against the edge of the sword, which cut il fairly iu two. The king thought this a suf. fieient proof, bul Vaiilundr was not satisfied. He took Hie sword to his smithy, filed it quite lo dust, and after subjecting the filings lo an odd process of animal chemistry, he forged from them another sword of somewhat smaller size than the first, though still ralher heavy. Upon testing this sword in the same manner as before, it readily divided a cushion two feet in thickness, nnd the king thought it the nt p'us ultra nf weap on!, but Vaiilundr said it should ho half as good again, before he had done with it. It was now reduced to filings, whicli were treated as in the former instance, and in three weeks Vaiilundr produced a sword of convenient size, inliiil with gom, aim w-iin an nrinmenleii hill, all or Ihe highest finish and beauty, Tho kin" and the smith went again to the river, with a cushion thrro feet in thickness, which was thrown into the water anil driven again-1 Ihe blade ns before, The sword divided the cushion ns easily ns the water, and v itlmut even checking its progress, ns il floated with the current, nnd king Nidiing declared that its fellow was not to he found upon earlh. At the appointed dav, Amilias puton his armour, nil i f which was o'f double plates, mid upon uie uei if i, nun nKel him ,f le felt the edge. " I felt as if cold water were mm,;.,,. I "' '-"" V I" ' " " '"' 1 "" ' eimKO VOlir- iiirniign me, repiieu Amilias. ...a '. n..l.n.l A ... T 1 . . . seir," said Vnulundr. His tllal did so and fell asunder, the sword having cloven him to the l chine. Weapons nnd armour forged by skilful smiths were the most valuable of the possessions nf the warriors of the North, and the swords of distin guished champions were often even more cele brated than their owners, nnd were known by names derived from some peculiarity in their construction, ns Gold-hilt, or from some remark able feat achieved wilh them, as Leg-htter, the name of a sword which had severed a limb at a blow. Other names were figurative, as Tizona, or Fire-brand, the sword of the famous Cid, and jithers again seem to have been puiely arbitrary nt- warrior s sworn, neiniei, and hreasl-plale were often bur ed with him, and as both these and the other treasures deposited in the funeral mound were objects highly prized by kindred spirits, the sanctity of the lonib was frequently violated, by those who dared to brave the superstitions, which protected the last resting place nf the dead against desecration by timid or vulgar hands. The vio lation of a tomb being supposed lo be attended with fearful terrors, it was considered the highest proof of manhood, to enter Hie mound of some old hero, by night, alone or attended by but asin g!e companion, and lo wrest from the resisting grasp of the grim corpse the sword which it had so gloriously wielded in life. For the deail were believed lo be jealous of the sacrcdncss of their rights, and strong in defending lliein, and we read of many a desperate struggle, between the dead warrior, and the living invader of the fune ral barrow. The art of refining and tempering steel is of great antiquity iu the East, and has attained to a high perfection in those countries. According Jo Pliny, the oriental steel was the best, known in his time, and the Fast Indian sleel called Wnotz is thought superior to any of European iiiaiiuf.icture. The iron and steel of Hnrnco par ticlarly are supposed to be the best in the world. A sword of the steel (f llornen has been seen lo mil an English iniisket fairly through, at the thickest part, at n single blow, without turning the edge, and even to sever an European sworif. blade, without producing a flaw. The steel of Damascus has long been celebrated, not only for its temper, but fiir the curious waved appearance of its surface. Whether this is produced by nn artificial process has been disputed. It was for merly supposed to be simply inlaid with steel of a different kind, and Ihe practice of inlaying, though a very ancient one, has been generally called lamaskcering, because the Damascus blades were supposed lobe the most perfect spec linens or this style of work. It is now certain that this steel is not inlaid, for the texture to which it owes its peculiar appearance extends through the whole substance. It has been sup posed to be effected by welding together a great number of thin alternate layer of steel and iron, or or different kinds of steel, and then repeated y doubling, twisting, and re-forgin" the mass, but recent investigations are thought to have proved, that the constituent parts of these blades are in leality east steel and cast iron, naturally produced iu the course of the process of cemen tation. We find then, that the arts of smeltin" iron, and refining and tempering sleel, have been car ried to the highest pitch, not only in remote an tiquity, but among rude nnd even barbarous na tions. Many savage tribes of the present day shew much ingenuity iu iu innficturiii" imple incuts from these metals, but they generally de rive thu raw material from civilized nations. The
I.sqtiimaux possess considerable skill in wnrkiii" iron nnd steel on a small scale, tlinu.rh they are incapable of smelting the ore, but, Inving only seen metals in small pieces, such as knives, fish, bonks, needles, and the spikes which they find in drift timber, they are so ignorant of their weight, that they repeatedly attempted to steal a heavy anvil from one nf the English discovery ships, and were much surprised at finding a block of iron containing li tlf n cubic foot too ponde rous to be concealed under a loose dress, and carried off without exciting observation. Nev ertheless, they forge and repair their iron and sleel implements, with much neatness, and nre even able to drill new eye-holes in broken nee dles. The skill of the European smiths of the mid dle nges is to be ascribed chiefly to the practice or wearing defensive armour in war. When the opponent was cased in iron, it was a matter of no small importance to possess weapons of such temper, ns to sever or pierce the plates, which covered the entire person of the enemy, nnd on the other hand, the armourer had every induce inent to perlect himself in the nrt of for.'iti" plates impenetrable lo the heaviest blows. There was thus a perpetual rivalry between the artiz nns in offensive nnd defensive arms, and both at tamed to the highest degree of excellence. The weapons iu common use were the lance nr spear, the sword both single, and two-handed, the d.i" ger and the battle-axe ; hut in order to be provi ded against the contin"enev enemy, whose armour was proof against these, the knight or mounted soldier . jrried nt his sad dle bow a mace or club of in.,, This was son,,.. times a r..d or stall', wilh a heavy ball attached to . ne end by a short chain, and frequently armed with short spikes, but the more common mace was a staff nbout two and a h ilfor three feet in length, one end armed with five or six plates of iron three or four inches in width, and riiiiuiii" nine or ten inches up the staff, A well directed blow front this weapon upon the helmet could scarcely fiul to stun nn opponent, ir indeed it did not crush both the helmet mid the skull of its wearer. Notvv itlistnnding the common opinion to Ihe contrary, il is settled that the ancients did not wear plait- arn.oiir. The trunk nnd some times the limbs were protected by thick leather or quilted cloth, lo which were frequently at tached thm scales of metal lapping over each oth er, like the scales of fishes, and shirts of mail, composed of nall jmn rings, interlocked like those of a steel purse, were employed bv the Greeks nnd Unmans, as well as iu the middle nges. The helmets orthe ancients however, and their greaves and gorgets, were or plate iron, liku thnso or Inter ages. A complete suit of plate armour protected the entire person, from the crown to the foot. The weight of such a suit was not far from sixty pounds, the helmet weighing eight or ten. The only part possessing much thickness was the breastplate, which in the strongest part was a quarter of an inch oi even three eighths thick. The globular shape of the helmet admitted of thinner plates, because n blow would ordinarily glance off. In the best fin ished helmets, the part protecting the face was usually in two parts moving on pivots, the upper of which called the vW, from a word signify ingru r, because it had a longitudinal silt, or sometimes two separate openings, opposite the eyes, could be thrown up, nnd the lower, called the htacer, from a word signifying to drink.cnuld be let down, or iu some helmets raised above the visor, to enable the wearer to cat and drink. Some helmets however were without Ihe beaver, some without the visor, and many, especially tltose Tor the men at arms or footmen, had neith er. The breast and back plates were separate, connected at the sides by straps and buckles, or buttons nnd loops, and over the shoulders by thp gorget, which protected the neck and throat, and served also to sustain a part of the weight of the helmet. The curved plates protecting the arms and legs were ennnecled at Ihe knees a"nd elbows by thin bent plates sliding over r ich other on pivots. These vverc so skilfully fuhioned, that the limbs could be moved ill all directions, wilh great freedom, and without exposing Hi's joint The armour was sometimes highly polished.snme times dark, and often inlaid with gold and silver. Even the hands ahd feet were shielded by plates nfsteel attached to buff leather, and a full armed knight was so well sheltered, that we read ojfrin obstinate bit.le in the fourteenth century ,'be. tween the armies of Iwo Italian cities, whicli l.ii. ed a whole diy, nnd terminated in the defeat of! i A ' " ... ..'--.,.. ,.,,j. ,i, iii-aiiu iiir one party, with tf loss of a single man who vvW-air employed for blowing the furnace, before it linbanoilv siiiother.,! In n .111,1, 1:D n.1...1iin.l .l!rAnil.. in it... n-,. -. -i- unhappily smothered in a ditch. I lie invention ol gunpowder soon ruined the I craft tf Ihe armourer, for no plate could resist a , cannon shot.or even a musket ball fired at a mod. erate distance, and the ingenuity nf the military I smiths was now turned in another direction. The first cannon were of bars of iron hooped to gether, but cast guns soon came into use. They were at first of enormous weight and size, and guns are still to he seen in Turkey carrying a stone ball (if)O nounds in vvehrht. Mnatieta n,nl other light fire arms furiiisheif an abundant field I lor the ingenuity of smiths, and thair varieties are almost infinite. A favourite mnterinl Tor gun b.anels was, and perliaps still Is, old stubs or horse shoe nails. A great number of these being confined by a hoop, the whole mass is welded to gether by a strong heat, and then beaten into long thin platei, which nre forged and welded around a rod, nnd afterwards bored smooth. There are also twisted barrels, shewing a spiral grain pro duced hy twisting Ihe barrel when red hot. Wire barrels, or very thin barrels wound with iron wire, the coils being soldered down, and the out- er surface dressed smooth, were at one time much in vngue. 1 he rifle, the most effective of light firearms, is claimed as a German invention. It was certainly known before the year 1501), and according to some writers a century earlier. The introduction of cannon occasioned great improvements in the art of caslinir iron, and in- deed the iron-foundries of Europe may he said to owe their existence to the invention of gunpow der, for though the art of casting iron was known before that period, yet it was practised but on a very small scale. War therefore, the scourge and disgrace of humanity, has, in this, as in ma ny inner instances, in some measure compensa ted for its enormous evil.', by giving rise to me chanical improvements or the highest practical value. (lasting in bronze was known and much practised at a very remote period. It was applied j mi. miiy to uie i.iuricaiinii oi noiiow ware, and , other ordinary purposes, but statues of great size were cast in this material. These were hol low, as are the bronze works of modern statua ries, and were L'euerallv cast in tnrts. which were united by soldering, dove-tailing or rivet- use yet made of this improvement is in gildim ing, but there are extant some ancient bronze land silvering, which is thus performed. The st tines, believed to have been cast entire, and object to be gilt or plated, which must be metal displaying singular skill in the founder as well ! lie, or have received a metallic surface by coat- as in ine sculptor. 1 hey are incredibly thin, I many of the full size of life not exceeding one . tenth of an inch in thickness of metal, and even 1 the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius at Uome , is saiu scarcely to lie ol greater thickness. In refining the precious metals, the ancient while-smitlu were not inferior to the moderns. so far as llie means for judging now exist. Few m'ss of" whis'li tliearti.it can regulate. This pro of their works in the iine arts in these metals . cos;f ka' keen seized upon by false-coiners, nnd have survived the cunidilv nf twentv centuries, and we must judge of their skill in refiniu" and woriiing gold and silver, chiefly from their coin- age. 'I he ancient coins are believed to have been struck by the hammer and punch. This is inferred from the character of the impression, and the texture of the metal, which are said to differ somewhat from the effects of the pressure of a die, from the irregular disposition oftheclnr- acters and figures, and from the fact that no two strictly similar coins arc ever fuund. The stylo or execution bv such means must or necessity in ......i i... i .....I. ..i . . ... .. gi-iii-i.ii nt- ruue, wiiii wu.iiever skiii me punches might be designed or cut. but there are some coins of great beauty both of tlesi"ii and imnres. ainit. The coins ol Sicily in particular are re- ' "J1" original engraved plate, and the most markable for purity of design, boldness or relief, practised eye cannot distinguish the smallest and sharpness of impressiun. Among the re- difference in impressions printed from them. markable antiques in the precious metals may ' original plate may thus be preserved as a be mentioned two golden Inrn, probably drink-1 niodel, from which an unlimited number of per ing vessels, fijund in Denmark, one iu the year feet copies can be taken. Engravings nn wood IC.i'J, and the other, within a few feet of the same , aru nmlliplied in the same way, the' blocks first spot.in ITiil, These horns were about four inches receiving a metallic surface. This process also in diameter nt the mouth, and nearly tluee feet in furnishes a means of obtaining metals in greater length, . V. vveigbedaboutseven poun'dseach. Tliey purity than by any other known mode, forcer were sculptured with unknown characters and ,,''.'n acids which dissolve gold, silver, or copper mysterious symbols, and the gold of which they I u i" not lale up those metals with which they are were wrnuglil was of such fineness, that the best ' ?"n.ved, and thus a perfect chemical separation refiners in Copenhagen, who were employed to j 's effected. supply a defective part to one of these horns, The mechanical improvements in the working were unable after repealed trials, to produce nf" 'netals are so numerous, that a very .small metal nf equal purity. j portion of them can be noticed. The most im- The art of gilding metals, marble, and other I'?'11. are those by which metals are shaped, substances, was known and iniieh practised by !Mll"'l! Inl" finished utensils, or into more conven the ancients, bronze statues and other work., in "L"1 ,U'n"? f'r subsequent working. The chief the fine arts being often beautified in this way.1?,' ""'".' Is Vie rolling mill iu all its varieties They are believid to have gilded metals by , ! n,'""S '"" and other metals are drawn into amalgamation, but the thickness of the irildin,' "l"1"". round, grooved, not only with on some st Hues, and other objects, which could cc"Uomy and dispatch, lint with a precision not be exposed to the necessary decree of heat I "mttainahlp by the hammer. Uy the sjine seems to imply that the metal was applied in the "v!,'', '"rials are reduced to sheets or any de form ofa thin plate, rather than iu tint uf lead f'"1''1' thickness, from the heavy plates for steam or amalgamated gold. 1 1'0.1'1'!'"' tllc l,lin sheets employed for tinning. The Chinese wen. skilful in ,vnrt,in,, n. als in a very early age. There is extent an old Chinese work on vases, illustrated bv many hun dred engravings of ancient vases of gold and oth er metals, among which are some of very curious rorms, and bearing inscriptions, which refi-r their date to the leigtt or monarclis, who flour ished LIDO years before our era. Notwithstanding the excellence of the ancient smiths and founders, it is not to be denied, lint the modernshave made important improvements iu the working nnd use of metals. These im provements are partly metallurgical, partly me- .,...,. uim paruy consist 111 ine application ,. met i s to new purposes. To begin then with the men mu new purposes. I o begin then with the metallurgical, which term I shall employ in a sense somewhat extended, and more in accor - dance with its etymological meaning, than com - moil usige will perhaps lustily. The modern processes for the extraction of metals frnm their ores, and for refining them, nre much more sim pie, economical, expeditions, and effectual than those employed by the ancients, though, as has been already intimated, we have not surpassed them iu the quility of the metal produced. The nncient modes of converting iron to steel are not well understood, i he process of cementation, by which that conversion is now effected, is said to be of English origin. Cementation consists in exposing bars of iron, in layers alternating with powdered charcoal, in confined boxes, to a red heat fiir many days. This steel is distin guished by the bubbles or blisters on its surface, and is called VisUrrd stcil. If the bars are bro ken in pieces, welded, and drawn out again, a variety is produced called G rman or shear slccl, a name alo given tn a kind produced from cast iron, nr directly frnm iron ore. Cast steel is pre pared from cemented steel exposed to a longer heat than usual, broken up, fused in a crucible, and cast into short thick bars, which are after wards drawn nut into longer ones. The castiti" nfsteel was invented in IT.'tO in England, and Hip metal thus refined is the best manufactured in Europe. Most of it is prepared from the iron oflhe celebrated mines of Danneinnra in Sweden, the whole produce of which is monopolised by a single English house. Casc-hardeninf which the surface oT forged iron work is converted into steel is a modern invention. It is performed in various ways. Tke best is said to be by envel oping the article to ho casehardened iu a paste composed of fine shavings or raspings of horn, hoots, bones, nr hair. The whole mais is then wrapped in clay, dried, and exposed to a low heat fur a short time, which completes the pro cess. The moderns have formed alloys of steel with various metals, and two of theso are imnnr tant in the arts. The alloy of steel and plati num in equal parts takes a very high polish, does not tarnish, and is one of the best materials fur the specula of reflecting telescopes. An alloy of sleel with one five hundredth paitofsilver pro duces a compound called silvered steel, superior in toughness .ami fineness of edge to any other European intal, and much employed for rasors, surgical instruments, and pen-knives The man ufacture of what is commonly called shret-tin is also modern. Sheet tin js prepared by plunging thin plates nf rolled iron into melted tin. The fluid metal adheres to the surface of the iron when withdrawn, and coats it with a pellicle of tin. A highly important recent economical improve ment, which is probably capable of more exten sive application than it has yet received is the lint-blast. This consists simply in heatln the is admitted directly to the fire. The savin" of coal effected in this way is very great. In the art nf casting, many improvements have been ' made. Most of these are rather mechanical limn metallurgical, consisting in the contrivance of means for facilitating the execution of callings of immense bulk and weight, such as cylinders, shafts, and other heavy parts of steam engines, but some nf a more properly metallurgical "char acter deserve notice. One of these is the improve ment by which iron is made capable of casting into the lightest and most delicate objects, nos'. aessing thu thinness of sheet iron, .anil the sharp ness and smoothness- nf castings in brnnz" or'iie liner metals. The process was discovered at llerlin, and thu articles cast in this way are know n by the name of llerlin iron, l.i connex ion with tliip, 1 may mention the process invented hy thu sculptor Chantry for casting small and slender objects, such as twigs or trees with all their leaves. His mode, omitting some mi nor details, was this. The object is suspended in an empty cylinder, and the finest silt, mixed with waler to the consistence orcreartj, is very gradually poured in, until the cylinder is filleil, and the object covered The whole being al lowed to dry, the object remains imbedded in Ihe silt, and a perfi-cl mould is left if the object can be removed. This is accomplished iu the following way. Hefore the object is suspended in the cylinder, numerous fine wires are slight ly attached to the extremities of the principal leaves or buds. After the mould is dry, these wires arc withdrawn, and the mould being ex posed to a red heat, streams orairare directed to the holes left by the wire. The consequence is that the branch is consumed, nnd all the solid matter nf which it was composed being carried ofi", the mould is left ready to receive the'inelled me tal, which is poured in while the mould is red hot T ho only remaining improvements, which I shall mention under this bead, are the discovery oi amoiieot rendering cast iron tough nnd mat leahle, winch is now exlenstvelv emolnved .mil Ihe recent application of electro-nnglielism to metallurgical processes. Some or these I shall notice more mrlicnl-irU- Tim ,n0i ..v, mg with black Ie.id,or some other simple process, is placed iu a solution ofa salt of gold or silver! By means of electro-magnetism, the metallic salt in solution is made to re-assume its metallic form, and is deposited on the surface of the oh- ject, which thus becomes permanently coated I "'i'1 a film or leaf of uold or silver, the thick- great quantities of false money trilt or silvered i I,lis means are in circulation. The false gold ' ls v.rry uniicuii ol detection, lor platinum, from j wnicii the coins are struck, is ol so nearly the ?llnu specific gravity as gold, that the difference ,s hardly perceptible, and the false coin can only ,le detected by cutting The same art has also keen applied lo the multiplication nf engraved plfl'"', lly a. similar process, with this difference, 1 t',:,t tl,i; deposited metal must be of considerable thickness, and as it takes from the engraved I'lflea cast with lines in relief corresponding to ,1... :.,i..i: r .1... .i . . . . . " "" " me piuie, ine process must lie re- ' peated, and a new cast taken from the first in the I s:une manner. This is found a perfect fao-simile I ' ,M.,.,a ,r"" s". remarkable lor its hard and polished surface is however nroilneeil In different, and, as is said, secret process, and lead cannot be reduced by rolling to thu thinness nf nm wiiii wincli the Chinese tea chests are lined. The chine.se method is said to be by pourine melted lead alloyed wilh tin on a smooth marble I slab, and letting a similar slab fall upon the met al as it begins to cool. The trip-hammer, by which heavy nnchors, nnd even shafts many fi'ct in length .and sometimes eighteen inches in di ameter, are forged, is modern, as are the vari. oii3 machines for manufacturing nails, spikes horseshoes' pins, screws and other articles of nil. bent, stamped, or twisted metal. Perhaps H,e most ingenious and beautiful iu ichines of tlii most ingenious and beautiful iinchin description aru those employed in ' Most of the contrivances employed in 1 pean mints are due to the enitis or coinage in the Euro. pean mints are due to the genius of Watt, the great improver of the steam engine. The ma- chines invented by him were capable nf stamp ing 21U0 pieces in an hour, a single stroke per- forinimr the ivlint,, nnnrnlln,. TI... ...'... n Philadelphia is admirably conducted, and is the most interesting mechanical spectacle of which 'our country can boast. The art of gold beatine- though not perhaps a modern invention, is com paratively recent in some of its details, and is probably carried to greater perfection than it was by the ancients. The process is this. A plate of fine gold beaten thin by the hammer, six or eh'tit incites in lenetli. three fiiurtlid nf nn inch wide, nnd weifrhimr nlinut I,,.,, mtn... ; I passed between rollers until reduced to the thinness of paper, and extended into a ribbon about ten feet ill length, without increase in width. This is cut into about 150 square pie ces each of which is separately forged on an an vil, until is about an inch square, and one eight hundredth part of an inch in thickness. The whole l.'O squares are now interlaid with pieces of fine vellum four inches square, and Hie pack et is enveloped in parchment, and beaten with a heavy hammer, on .a marble block, until the gold is extended to nearly the size of the vellum. The packet is then opened, and each leaf of gold is divided into four. These are interlaid with pieces or animal membrane called gold beater's skin, oflhe same dimension! ns the ve. j lum. 1 he packet is now beaten until the leaves arc extended ns before, after which they are quartered, and the process is again repeated until the leaves are once more brought to the extent of nearly four inches. In this way two ounces nf gold are made to cover a surface of more than 2.10 square fret, and the process may be continued even beyond this. Of Hie numerous new uses of the metals, I can mention but few. An important one is the construction nf bridges supported by an arched frame work of cast iron, which have been in mo more than hslf a cpntury. Of these bridges the most celebrated ii lhatof Southwark at London. Thii crosses the Thames by three arches, Hip span nf the largest of which is 210 feet, and there are other iron bridges of nearly cqucl di mensions. Iron Ins been for some tunc applied to the construction of roofs, both the covering and frame work being sometimes or that metal, and more lately dwelling houses have been built of considerable dimensions, with walls of double plates or cast iron. Cait iron light. house tow ers oT great elevation have been const! unted, and as wood grows scarce nnd dear, and the process nf smelting is more improved, there is every reason to believe lint cast iron will enter much more largely into architecture than at present. The pipes for tho conveyance of laree streams nf water for the supply of cities, and of gas for lighting are now almost uniformly of tins metal, ine new applications' nt wrought iron are also very numerous and important. Among these, I may nolice the fabrication of chain catties, mora ing most important iccurlty to ves sels anchored on rocky bottoms, and othervvisu in many respects superior to the best hempen cables, and the construction nf suspension or chain bridges, the first nf which on a grand scale was finished by Mr. Telford in 1B25 This bridge, which crosses the straight or Menai, connects the is' .n.l nf Anglesrato the mainland, and is MO in length bet.'.een its points of sus pension, nnd 100 above the water, thus allowing large vctsrlslo passunder it. It is composed of four iron ropes, each consisting of four chain strands, with a road way between each pair of ropes. The ends of the chai.is pass over rollers on towers or considerable height, and are secur ed to iron bars buried under an immense mass or masonry, As chains of such weight could not be stie tched level, they hang in an inverted arch, and the roadway is suspended to them by iron rods shortest at the centre, and increasing in length towards the ends, so that the passage is perfectly level. Another quite recent use of wrought iron is for the construction of ships having their hulls entirely nf rolled iron plates. The iron steam ship building al Uristol iu Eng land, and now nearly ready for sea will be this largest vessel afloat, her clear burthen exceeding DODO tons. She h is been so often described in the public papers, that it would be superfluous to enter into the details or her construction. Several vessels rff iron have been some years in use, but their qualities can hardly be considered as fully tested. Their supposed advantages are greater strength, durability, incombustibility, freedom from vermin, increased space fur stow nge, uniformity of temperature and lightness, the actual weight of a 1 irge iron ship being hun dreds nf tons less than that of a wooden one of Ihe same dimensions. With regard to the com parative strength of iron and wooden ships, some recent occurrences seem to have shewn that the supposed superiority of the former in this respect, upon the present plan of construc tion, is at least doubtful. The extended use of quicksilver in the mod ern arts is so important, lint it ought not to pass unnoticed. Its employment in the form of an amalgam for silvering mirrors is familiar, but its most important uses are in gilding, and in the extraction of the precious metals. The most re markable property of this metal is its power of uniting with other metals in the form called amalg.i'n, and then separating from them by heat, which drives off the mercury in vapour, at a temperature of between six and seven hun dred degrees. In gilding metals, the amalgam of gold and quicksilver is applied, and adheres to the surrace of the object, which is then ex posed to the proper heat, and the quicksilver v.tponrizes, leaving the gold in the form or a thin film firmly attached to the metal. The ex traction of the precious metal from their ores hy quicksilver depends upon the same property. The levigated ore is mingled with quicksilver, which amalgamates with tho metal, leaving the various mineral substances, with which it is nat urally combined, and the metal is separated fiom the quicksilver by hcat,or sometimes by pressure in a leathern bag, the quicksilver escaping through the pores of the leather. This property of mercury, and its resemblance to melted silver, from which its name is derived, quicl.silrrr sig nifying living silver, early attracted the attention or the .alchemists, nnd sanguine hopes were long entertained of discovering a process for so lidfying the fluid metal, nr fixing it as it was termed, and thus producing true silver. Hut thu alchemists did not limit their nspirations to the fixing of mercury They believed gold to be the true base of all metals, and expected to be able to recover it by means nf an universal solvent, and this was for a very long period the principal object of chemical research. These dreams busied the alchemists of Europe forma nycentnries, and the hope of accomplishing the Irinsiuutation of metals was not abandoned un til about the close of the seventeenth century. To tho misguided labours of the altliemists modern chemistry owes much, but it was a mere groping empiricism, until higher aims guided its researches, and rai-ed it to the rank of a lib eral science. Chemistry has revealed the existence of nu merous metals unknown to former ages, and they are found lo enter largely into the compo sition of almost every known substance. Most of these metals assume a visible existence only in iu the I ib'irator,' of the chemist, but one of them is already of considerable use iu the arts, and prnmises lo become yet more valuable. 1 allude to platinum, first found only in South America, but lately more abundantly in Siberia, which now furnishes the principal supply to com merce. Platinum is nearly as heavy as gold, but harder nnd much more difficult of fusion. It forms an excellent material for crucibles and boil ers for some chemical purposes, and as I have already noticed, Tor relleciing specula, The loss oT the precious metals in coin by abrasion or wear has led t-t the employment of platinum in coinage by the Uiiss. an Government. If this inetil could he ub la i nr d in rufiieient quantity, it might be advantageously substituted for other mrlals as a circulating medium, but while gold s Iver, and coppercontinue lobe coined, the ad dition of platinum money, by miking the stand ard of value quadruplicate, must increase the serious inconveniences already resulting from the fluctuating value of gold. and silver. The wastage of the precious metals by abra s on, and their consumption and loss in the va rious pmposes to which they are applied in a ta'e of minute division, have lately been the su'iect of much investigation. What processes may be going on in nature's vast laboratory to repTr this loss, we are ignorant, but the known sources of supply are by no means sufficient for tin- increasing demand, which of course is atten ded with increasing wastage and consumption. fun t'.deiablo quantities of gold, silver and pla tinum are consumed in various chemical opera tions, and large quantities of the two former m"t lis are irrecoverably lost in gilding and sil vering. Hut the principal source of loss is from abrasion. Every one must have observed that old coin are lighter than new, and tint by long circulation the impression becomes first worn, nnd finally obliterated. The loss upon gold com is much less than that upon silver, and the dif ference, which is in the ratio of one to four, is chiefly owing to the greater care taken of the former, and the more rapid circulation of the lat ter, especially in small coin, which wear much faster than larger ones, Jacobs estimates the an. nual average loss of gold and silver coin by abra sion at the rate of one part in fuur hundred andtvventy and th? total amount of less bo tween lc09 and ls'.'.lat about ninety millions of dollars. Gold and silver are very largely used also for watch cases, personal ornaments, and va rious small articles of convenience, and the use of silver for spoons, forks, nnd other table furniture has been lately much augmented. The same au thor supposes that gold and silver were with drawn from circulation, and converted into uten sils and ornaments, to the amount of about twenty-eight millions of dollars during the some pe riod. All these articles, and especially those of silver, arc exposed to a greater degree of wear than even coin, and of course the loss by abrasion is greater in proportion. Concluded next week, Wo confess I hat Mr. Clay is more nf a man than wo had conceived him to be, .and begin to think it not impossible, th.at ho may bo elected President. Vermont Patriot. McAsrsisr. Mrsic. A would-be-wag, green in the trade, went inlo a tailor's shop ycslerdiy, where a solemn looking Yankee youth was eiitiiugoiil rlolhcs. "Have you anv jew&harps 1" 6aid iho new fledged lsnirnnt to nit, 'No replied llie Yankee tailor boy, "bul wo cart lake llie measure of your tniulh, and make j cm one V "Jubilee Trumpet" is tho title of a new Mil. ler paper, lately started at Pittsburgh. After short blnv ovi it will probably Mom up.