4 Ocak 1867 Tarihli The Chicago Tribune Gazetesi Sayfa 2

4 Ocak 1867 tarihli The Chicago Tribune Gazetesi Sayfa 2
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klficagtf tribune. I O.Y, TRI-WEEKLY AVI) WEEKLY. * °. FFICE * Jio * 51 CLAttK-ST. ire are three editions of the Teibvnb issued. Ist. y morning. for circulation by comers, newsmen he man*. 24. The Tei-Weekut, Mondays. Wed '.y« and Fridays, ;or th • malls only; sad the xlt, on Thursday*, forth malls and sale at our 1 ter and by l imra. Terms of tbs Chicace.Trlbnuo: y delivered in the city (per week) 8 25 V. to mail subscribers (p^aimam^sya' rln advance) •Vwkiy.fper actum, payable In advance) tf'.OO k!y. (per annum, payable laadvance) 2.00 Fractional parts of the year al the same rates. *“ Persons remitting and ordering nve or more - sof either the Tri-Weekly or Weekly editions, retain ten per cent of the subscription price as a minion. >TirE to snscumtEs.—lu ordering the address m : papers rtiaorrd,to prevent delay, he sure and ify what edition yon take—Weekly. Tri-Weekly, ■iily. Also, iriveyonrPEESESTandfatare aildress. j* - M.v ry, by i>raft, Exp'-Cf.*. Mcavy orders, or la l.ct-rul letters, mny besentat our nsk. Address . TIUHI NE Ctl., Chlmao. 111. FRIDAY, JANUARY 4, ISG7. n.TiissioMjn wells’ uepout. I 1.0 report of the Special Commissioner of Revenue, tbc principal portion of which | publish this morning, is unquestionably f most important document submitted to bgress this year, It will engage a large uc I'f the public attention during the A two months, and we believe it will be 1 :he main endorsed and sustained by the ;ntry. It is by far the most painstaking ..miration of the subject of National taxa u that has ever been laid before us in an -cial form, and it bears the impressofa ifcietri ms aud courageous mind* ;Lo extreme length of the document (109 ■ avo pages) comj-els us to postpone a largo ire of the argumentative portion -of the ht*, and to publish as a first Installment, t specific recommendations and general •as. in which the public arc more immsdi »‘ly interested. ' a the matter of the taxon distilled spirits '• Commissioner shows that, by reason of [■ heavy excise, frauds upon the revenue c been committed to the enormous •cut of five gallons of illicit distilla n to every three gaUons that paid -• tax. lie 4 recommends, therefore, U the tax be reduced to one do!- = per gaiJon,-as a measure in the inter i mny • f the revenue but of public morals. • reei-mmeuds that the taxon raw cotton fixed temporarily, or experimentally, at -kv c» tits per pound ; that the petty taxes wnteius, plate, etc., be removed entirely; u that the demand for increased duties on i orts. made by various class interests, on -T' :.t;d »•! excessive Internal taxation, ri d by removing the interna! taxes mphti: eu of. This is certainly a states n'iki proposition, arid it wi.l bring those .lamoring fora*, increase of the lu :•> th. u->t of belief in their own : rm t ! hit.-. If they arc honest, in their a«e:..t-iconcerning the onerous nature of e d tv rv..d mx-s, they will be much better h d ’>> ictnoval of tho.-e l;iX'*s, which .1 I**; a burden ofi’the whole co.mlry, than ur j;.<Tease ofihe tnriif, which will mere a id a nor burden to one already too •ivy to he earily borne. A taritf, as Mr. •U- .its-’lv «-h.-erves, is taxation of the :t.;; > i-y duties on its imports. To cure 0 evil. f ore tax by adding another to it, -imply multiplying the burdens of the u.tiy without benefitting anybody. 1 hi I; .lu-nhil condition of the country is ,;u.ii«.l by Mr. Wells at considerable utli urd with much minuteness. The tragr iutTr.iM- of prices of commodities,* d< I n.ni-. .-hown to be equal to ninety : ei nt us « ,mj*arcd with the average scale ■ Vii:im,' in the four years !S*»tMs2. The ■■■*'■■* «•; labor show an average increase of !y ,-ixty.iwo ]>er cent. The effect of the a-ti-hm- of ]irices has been extraordinary, ::d hi -fine resj ccis alarming. As isalmost ways the case, the first effect of such In : case is a diminution of production -.d cc.nstmiption. Thus it has happened ’■at there has been a decrease of eleven per vat in the number of hands employed in anufacturing industry in Massachusetts as uupnu-d with the year 1555, and a decrease f three and one-half per cent in the value f manufactured products as compared with ho same year, Iu some branches of raanu u tut*- the decrease has been very remark bk—in ci/tton manufactures the diminution i the number of hands employed being ■■irf./-c.,v j er cent, and in the value ol goods .anufaciurcdj//f>/-«iz percent. It is shown !:•>, that during the past six years (here has 'inn-, increase in the manufacturing in urtry of Pittsburgh, although the larilf n the articles principally produced □ Pittsburgh has been enormously :.crca.-ed—the extreme high prices hiv t g nullified any advantage which 'itt:bur_h might have been exacted lo de lve li-uia the larilf. The capita? invested in ijai.uku-tnres during this period has in rea-.d at the rate of only one-tilth of the rei.ira] increase of population and canitai in h. country, This, Mr. Wells thinks’ must •v rt-i';:n!.(l a= retrogression. Our # cxports •ave likewise largely diminished. * In ISOO vc exported nine million dollars worth of ot:uji manufactures. In IS(W they hid alien to «.lc million. Onr copper and brass xjorts Lave fallen from to and our wooden wates from Ato sT*io,ois. Our trade with South ntrica Las diminished to one-sixth it.- .former magnitude. while that tir-. at Uritain with South America has in •a- d three-fold iu the same lime. Final- •‘♦it is show n that flour has been imported •..in F r:.i;c*o, and starch from England to '-•v Vorh ‘-v it bin a year, ami sold at a profit. The Increase of prices which has made all tLinus possible is attributed by Mr.' ’• L-i’- thr-e things Ist, a scarcity of labor; I. :.n irr< .locTr.ablc and ilucluutltg paper .:t- la y : t‘d, excessive and unprecedented ;.x..;i*-n it: the form of internal and external links. As to the first difllculty no remedy an be provided by’legislation, except, •erha: in the way of encouraging inmiuratica. As to tbe secoud 2 L'lauuul return to a specie .standard is •••«•<•!.iuic; d«,d; and as to the third and most iup • he remarks that it is entirely the control of the legislative depart irvi;* of the tiovermneut, ami that the only , ;.i s/.eu is n* what manner, and to what ex e:i»; a reduction of existing taxes he .«■ n.:.Je. compatible with the (1 ilu Ticasury. The while amount of revenue by internal taction tliirh's the fiscal year endin'? June was s.>lo.!inu t o'%4 currency, ami from t u-u,:i s duties §170,010,1510 gold. Kcdncinj? the ci;?‘«.ins duties to currency, the total kin .'mu ll of revenue drawn from the country n. the vari'-n* forms of taxation f«ir lljc year na.» which is equivalent to a tux oi cl*'••0-1 currency per capita, or $11.(VI iiU'l, in a population of thirty-live millions. r i he / mjut'i tax iu Great Britain Is §10.02, and in France $7.07. The national debt per tiii- Visited Biatcs is §74.18, in Great Brit;.in SPJ.I.OO, and in France§-73.00. "Il.'-v-xi-d question of the tariff on wool MU' Wl 'll manufactures is discussed at t'>r >iii‘ Iditrlli and with marked impar* *alnm* , «s. The conclusion ar- hat ii' the demands of the wool £r<*wi.-r.i .11.4 woidlcu manuficlurcrs were cvinpiicd with, ilie result would lie an aggra vation of I!mj evils iiicy now ecmj.lain of, and an mi.rii'iiS'aUe harden uj-on the consumers of wo.-Ilcii <r<‘ods, who eon>tUule, in fac 1 the entire i'cojde of the United Stales We r-1*:» 1 rlvol ;.l ’jl'Hmi Hit* remainder of the I*e port, v. Mel. *c have brkfly sketched in this silicic, i:. tiunii-M ss-ue. TZlh: srPKh.flK i-OlitT. Tl.c ilcel-i' n ofthc Supremo Court of tbe United Males In ibe Milligan case, basal l:.-t l(<-i. promulgated in un authentic though not ollicial form, together with the frjs.ratc opinion of the Chief .Justice and three o‘ li ; p associates. Wc have heretofore remark'd ll.tl it was impossible to form any int* l Igcut estimate of the points really de tcrmii id m.til such a complete report should a- p- ar, uml Ilie correctness of this remark is fi.i.y vindicated by the result. With the two opinion* before us, we And that Ih" derision will bear no such construe lion a- ha- b* en put upon ii by the rebel and topi *i head, and even some portion of the 11c pul henu press. If Milliwatt has been re lied on either to overthrow the of i onur. .- , or to declare the rebel Stales to be ir.-ide of the Union, or to break In pieces the F:. oilmen's Bureau, or upset tlieCivil Bights Bill, then have the believers in Milligan l>ecn egregiously deceived. He has not done and cannot do either, all, or any of these things. It is always advisable to understand what < nc wrilvs-about, and it Is especially desira ble to read a Supreme Court decision before -condemning it. This maxim Js remarkably enforced by the casein hand. On the J*d of March, 18011, Congress passed an act authorizing the President of the United Slates, during the existence of the rebellion, to suspend the writ of habeas curj.us “throughout the United States or any part thereof.” The second section of the act required the Secretary of State and the Secretary ol War, as soon as practicable, to furnish to the Judges of the United States, “a list of the names of all per “ sons, cbizena of Slates in which the “ adtpnlslralion of the laws ha#continued u unimpaired In the said Federal Courts, ‘ who are now or may hereafter be held “ ns prisoners of tbe United States, by order «. or authority of the President of the United ** Slates, or either of said Secretaries, In any “ j or j arsenal or other place, as State or po litical prisoners, or otherwise than as pris “oners of war; the said list to - contain the •‘names of all those who reside in there, “-pcctive jurisdictions of said judges, or “ who mav be deemed by ihesaid Secretaries, “or either of them, to have violated ary “law of the United States in any of tald ju “risdiclions, and also the date of each ar “ rest.” That Is to say, if the President or Secretary of War, had found It neces sary, during the existence of the rebellion, and after the passage of the Act, to arrest ten persons, more or less in the city of Chicago, and to com mit them ns political prisoners, it would have been the duty of the Secretary, under the portion of the law just quoted, to for ward to the United States Judges of this Cir cuit and District, a list of such prisoner*, with the date of their arrest. The law then provides that. “in all eases where a graml “jury, having attended any of said Courts “having jurisdiction in the premises, after “the passage of this Act, and after the fur “ nisbiug of said list, as aforesaid, bos tprmi “nated its session without finding an indict* “ ment or presentment, or other proceeding “ against any such person, it shall be “the duty of the Judge of said “ Court forthwith to make an order that any “such prisoner desiring a* discharge from “said imprisonment be brought before him “to be discharged; and every officer “of thev United States having custody “of such prisoner, is hereby directed imme “ diately to obey and execute such judge's “ order.” But to secure still further the rights of the citizen, and provide against the carelessness or wilful neglect of either of the Secretaries named, the third section of the act, after declaring that such prisoners may be admitted to ball, goes on to provide that in case the said Score tarios 44 shall for any reason refuse 4i or omit to furnish the said list 44 of perrons held as prisoners as aforesaid * 4 at the time of the passage of this act, with- “ in twenty days thereafter, and of such per* “* sons as hereafter may be arrested within ‘‘twenty days from the time of the arrest, •‘any citizen may, after a Grand Jury shall “have terminated its session without finding “ au indictment or presentment, as provided “ In the second section of this act, by a p> *• lition alleging the facts aforesaid touching “any of the persons so as aforesaid iiupris “oned, supported tty the oath of such pell “ turner, or any other creditable per.-ou, oh “ tain and be entitled to have the said “Judge’s order to discharge such prisoner.” It will be seen that in all this there is no such thing contemplated as a trial of cili* -ens in the loyal States by a military tribu* t al. On the contrary, while it authorized the suspension ol the writ of habeas eorpus, it required the Secretaries to furnish* to the civil tribunals a list of all prisoners com mitted or held by military power, within twenty days after their arrest; aud if the next Grand Jury that should meet within the jurisdiction ot such tribunal should ad journ without indicting or presenting such prisoner, the Judge was then found to discharge him. And if the Secretaries should fail to furnish such u list, the prisoner was . entitled , to be discharged on petition to the Judge, af ter a Grand Jury should have adjourned with out his indictment or prAcntmeut. The object of the act, plainly was, by a suspen j-ton of the writ of habeas corpus, Id enable : hc President or one ol the Secretaries to ar :est and detain dangerous persons summa rily, and. In due lime, to turn them over to •he civil authorities for trial. This Is the language of the act, and all the Judges of the Supreme Court are agreed in so couslru iog It. The case of Milligan was this: on the otb of October, he was arrested as a dan gerous character, charged with participation in an alarmingund wide-spread conspiracy to raise an Insurrection in Indiana, and to give aid and comfort to the rebels. On the 21st of the same month he was brought before a Military Commission at Indianapolis, by order of General Uovcy, commander of the District, tried, convict' d and sentenced to be hanged on the 19th of May following. President Lincoln had the case under advise ment, and had come to no decision at the lime of his assassination. President John son, on the 2d of May, ISOS, approved the sentence of the Court Martial, and Milligan would perhaps have suf fered death but for- his appeal to the civil courts. On the 10th of May he presented a petition to the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Ind’aua, praying to be released from unlawful im prisomnent, claiming his right to be tried by a civil court or discharged, according to the terms of the act we have above explained. The opinions of the two Judges were op posed, and a certificate of division was sent to the Supreme Court, asking its decision on , three questions: first. On the facts slated in the said peti tion and exhibits, ought a writ of A-j&cas cor 2>us to be issued? Stcoud. On the facts stated in said peti tion and exhibits, ought the said Milligan to be discharged from custody os iu said pe tit ioif prayed ? Third. Whether upon the facts staled in said petition and exhibits, tbc Military Com mission mentioned therein had jurisdiction legally to try and sentence said Milligan, in manner and form as In said petitiuu and ex hibit is stated? were the questions which the Su preme Court has decided, aud they are unanimous in answering the first two iu the afilnnativc and the last iu the negative. The grounds of the decision are perhaps made snllicicntly clear b% the recital of the act of Congress above mentioned. That the decision is cor* reel, there can he no doubt. Milligan was entitled cither to be tried by the United •States Court of Indiana, or to be discharged in case a trrand jury should hold a session during his imprisonment without finding an indictment or presenting him. As these were the only questions before the court, they arc the only ones that could be decided or settled, since a court, cannot ad judicate a thing not ollieially before it. All e’scls mere dictum, outside of the case, and determining nothing. For instance, when the learned Judge, in approaching his case, said, “During the late rebellion the temper of the times did nut allow that calmness in deliberation and discussion so necessary to a coirect conclusion of a purely judicial no one would claim that to be ret aOjudicnta. And so the question as to whether, if Congress had au thorized the trial of Milligan, ly a military tribunal, it would have been a constitutional law, is entirely outside the case, ard a point in no manner involved; since the only question was, whether Con gress had authorized such a trial, and it was found it Aad not, and never attempted such •« tiling. Yet lire ouly difference between the .Indies Is precisely on this point, whether <i low that Congrew. did not enact would have •en constitutional if it had really been enacted, •ledge Davis and four others think it would not have been ; Chief Justice Chose and three others think it would have been, while all agree that Milligan was entitled to his half as eorjAt* and his discharge from Ira* l-iisomnent, and that the Military Court ;hat tiled him had no jurisdiction. The whole ease, therefore, simply establishes that a court-martial cannot deprive u man of the rlulits which the act of March 3d, !St5J, has declared that he shall enjoy. That is all; and our Copperhead contempo raries bad better read the decision before they rely upon it for a gen eral overthrow of the Republican parly ami the discomfiture of Congress. It disturbs neither the Civil Rights or the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, cveu by implies- lion. It declares no law of Congress uncon- Mtintional. It unsettles nothing. Hence jll the hullabaloo raised about it comes to an end. Andrew Johnson is the only man • n whom the decision is really severe. “This nation/’ said Judge Davis, ‘*as ex perience has proved, cannot always re ■'mam at peace, a*ui has no right to •* expect that U will always have wl.-o ••and humane rulers, sincerely attached •to the principled of the Conetitulwn. •• U'iti-.cd m*n, ambitious ol power, with 'hatred of liberty and contempt of law, "may 1-il the jdaee occupied by Waritingion •and Lincoln. Considering the fact that Mi. Johnson, tmor-u the acts of bn ad- Niini.-jiiiijon, approvi-d the imprisonment ol Mill!::;.:. In the »jbio penitentiary, under a -entei.ce bud by U.e court to be wholly illc cal, this Is by no m< an* complimentary to A. J., and makes one suspect that lu the mind of the court be must have been looked upon one ol tbe wicked men, ambitious of potv* r, who is lining the place occupied by Wa>!iir;:ton and Lincoln. There is perhaps a sequence to the obiter i.ictn of tbb court of some magnitude. •>ntre;-s has provided by law for tbe in demnibcation of officers who have acted in uood faish, trying and detaining civilians in the loyal States, under circumstances simi lar to those of Milligan. If such a law Is pronounced unconstitutional it is, in the •ye of jurisprudence, expunged from the statute book, and cannot be appealed to. Hence it might be supposed that all these officers are now liable to prosecution. Bui it must be borne in mind that this is merely an inference from an Inference, and that when such a case shall come before the court other principles of law may intervene to protect the person so prosecuted. More over, it is quite certain that the people In tend that no harm shall come to any soldier, or public servant, for his conduct during the war, if he can show that he acted in good faith. with patriotic Intent, and that he guided his footsteps by the best lights obtainable. Wc concur with Judge Chase in the opinion that Congress can authorize, though it has not authorized, the trial ot civilians, in time of war ami public danger, by military com mission, in States which are not the imme diate theatre of war. But that, as we have already shown, is outside of the record. Atnor.fr the literary gentlemen bavins positions Id the New York Cos om House arc Mr. K. U. Suddard, Mr. Barry Gray, Mr. Charles K. Uns/gr, Mr. Gaylord Clarke, Mr. Jtbu Savage and Mr. Herman Melville. TIEE REVENUE. annual Report of Commissioner Wells. INTERNAL REVENUE AND TARIFF. PROPOSED SEDUCTION OP THE wszsnsT TAS TO $l.O J PS a GALLON. COTTON TAX THREE CENTS PER POUND. HO GENERAL INCREASE OF THE TARIFF. Elaborate Discussion of (lie Wool Question. Important Rccommcudaiious of kite CoimubMiuuer. Etc., Etc.) Treasury Department, i Office Special Commissioner op Revenue, > Wasiu.soton, December, iHiG. | 1o the 1/onoraOl* Hugh McCulloch, Secretary of • ifir J'r<aturu : Sm: In&ccoidAucc with tbo Act of July 13, creating the olllcc of Special Commiasiom-r of ti e Revenue, which provider that “the said “ Special Commissioner shall, from time to time, “ report through the Secretary of tbc t reasury, to *• Cougrees. cither In the lorra of a bill, or other* “ wise, such modiflcatlons of the rates of taxa -44 tion, orol the methods of collecting the Revo “ nm*f, and such other facts pertaining to the “ trade, industry, commcicc or taxation of the “ country, as he may find, oy actual observation 44 of the operation of the law, to be conducive to 44 the public interest,” ihe undersigned his the honor to submit the follOA-ing report, aud would request that the same, if approved, be submitted to Coi cre-s; INTERNAL REVENUE. Tbc exhaustive teport of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, already presented, obviates the necessity of any extended reference by the Special Coiciulssloner, to the working and de tails ot tldi department ot the National Iteveimo System; but to a lew points he would further di tectutteutiuu. Uy the Act of July J 3, ISO 6, an abatement or re peat of internal taxation on various articles to the extent of about fifty rollllous of dollars, was pro vided for, and this legislation, as was antici pated, h«» not failed *o give sensible and timely relief to many branches of domestic industry; more especially, as respects ciudu petroleum, domestic buears, clothing, bouts mid shoes, books, cotdagc. railroad freights, and t:.c muuntaclurcs of tleel. iro j chains, caoles, etc. Tt-c Conimlesioxicr is not, however, able to re port any general reduction in the prices of the allie s rellcv-.d, corresponding to the reduction of taxation; but, on Inc contrary, in some in stance. owing, probably, to tsc tact, that heavy taxation bad previously diminished production to u ] oint below the absolutely necessary sapplr, the niiccr. wuutd seem to have increased, concur rently with the abatement of the taxes. Such a jesull must, however, he but temporary. Tax on Duokcd’a Sales. —One of the most »uc ce*tf.*l znontflca'iona erected by the Act of July Kt, Idt'ti, ha* been that which substituted in place of a general taxon the *a!c.- of stockbrokers of ouc-twemietb of one per cent, payably monlhlv, a tax oi one ouc-’-undrcdth of one per cent, payable by means cf sumps alllxcd to the bill or memoran dum of each sale; a heavy penalty being pro vided for the d* livery or reception ol any bill or memorandum of such sal'-without the necessary stamps alllxcd. The law, as it formerly stood, was a source uf constant trouble, vexation and litigation between the Government and the h;o --kers, while the lax, in itself, was so oppressive us to induce a very general evasion o( it, and con sequent loss to the revenue The Commissioner is now happy 50 report that the operation of the present law la most satisfactory; that Us pro vision-are all hut. universally complied with; wUle the indications are that although the tax bin- been ieduced from oue-twcutlelh lu one-hun diedihof one per cent, the revenue from this source, so farfiom being diminished, is likely to be constdershlj increased. * Stamp Tax on the Sals op Fermented lus trous.—The report ofihe Revemt- Commission, submitted February, 1660, established almost bo yosd a doubt, li e tact that the Government was defrauded lu the collection of Us legitimate rev enue from fermcutcu liquors to the extent of aupiit tony per cent, involving au absolute an nua. !0.-a of about two millions font hundred 0 ou.-ji } dollars. t o least y ibis, the Act of July 13th provided, that in addition to an obligation imposed on tbc Ineivt-i. to make o mou»h!y return of tbc products ot liiL inuiMjctme, l!ie tax itself thouid be paid by die -'. xiugofau udhe-ive paper bUmp to each ham-1 sold and removed from the place of maun fuctnre, witli an additional requirement that the stamj) should he cancelled by me retailer or con sumer. The adoption of this plan by Congress was recommci aed by the Revenue Commission with no iittlo he.-ituiion ; for, while the then existing law reemedto nc entirely inadequate to protect the Government aud tuc honest coaler against fraud, the adoption of the stamp system for the first time in respect to an article of this character, old not appear to be wholly free from difficulties. The -tiunibsioncr is, however, able to report that the plan, eo far as has yet been tested, stantially, a success, and needs only the general adoption, on the part of the brewers, ol a proper adhesive material for affixing the stamps to the bairci, and a selection of inspectors more capable and homa-t than many now holding office, to make it entirely so. So far as can be judged from the return of beer stamps, printed and delivered to the Departni 1 nt, f.om August SO to November 15—viz: 5,1!Ki,5-h, bogsht-au, barrel, and fractional stamps, oi a total value of 855—the .revenue from this source, for the present fiscal year, is likely to bo very ma terially Increased.* Distilled BnuiTS.— A careful revision of the law regulating the maim'aciuro and sate of dis till'd spirits, and the collection oi the tax there on. «a- maoc by Congress at its last session—the system recomm -nded by thu Revenue Commission being substantially adopted. A leading feature of this system, was the placing of each iliitUh ry turner the surveillance of a Cov er- invuL inspector; it being assumed that, as the Government ha-, an intere.-t, under the present tax (two dollars per gallon) of ninety per cent in (he value of ail spirit: uirtilied. It would be an object, ou its pa:t, to subject the bnrincs* car* tul supcrvNion. ft was, however, for seen by Uig Itevenue Commission, that the estab lishment of some check upon the Inspectors themselves, would be most expedient, in order lo counteract, to a certain extent, the powerful Inducements to a dereliction of dmy, which the dishonest distillers are able to oiler; and the form ot a supple mentary bill was accc.idiitgly reported, authoriz ing (be appointment of district officers, to be Inima ** Mipcni-ors of the Revenue,” whose duty, coupled with lhat of a general supervision of all revenue officers, was particularly to sec that iu.-pectors ol distilleries, breweries and to bacco tnunuiacioncs, as well as local weighers and giuii.cn>, were transferred or “rotated ” from time to ;ime, from one establishment or one dis trict to another. The consideration of this bill was very generally protested agnln-t by revenue officers—and more especially by those from the southern districts of New \ork—and no action vres taken in reference to it hv Congress. The cxpivuT.ee of the Inst four months, in tbo working ot the spirit and tobacco laws, nave, however, ib mon.-iratcd the necessity and Importance of the enactment of some such provision ns wap con tained in the bill in question, -and the Special Ci.mmitfioner unites with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue In earnestly recommending to Congr. ss an early consideration of the subject. With this omission supplied, the existing law regulating the manufacture and sale of distilled splriis. will piobablv bo found as complete hi its essential tealuresas it is practicable to make it; but, as matters now stand, neither this nor any other la's for flic collection of the revenue on spirit.-, can be other than a comparative failure. In proof of this, the following statements are snbmhted: The consumption of distilled spirits in the United Matos was shown by the investiga tions oi the itevenue U;'miiuJ-loU. in 13*53, to be about forty millions ot gallons per annum; »rom vv hich, with a tax of two dollars pet gallon, there should accrue an annual revenue of eighty mil lions of dollars. The result, however, oi the last fiscal year shows that the entire revenue which the (iove.-nmentactuallyreceivcdfron»his source was less than thirty millions of dollars (Si'kllH,- T.,!*); or, in other words, for every three gallons that paid the lax, five evaded its payment. As the average ruling price ot spirits in the market during the year was, moreover, not much short of lla- average cost of mauniactnn.-, pins the lax. it is also evident that almost the entire lax imposed by law was paid by the people, although the Uov einmeiil fatn-d lo receive it. •nils circumstance should also be noted, namely, that, no:n iihstaud'ng the more perfect organiza tion and working ot the Internal Revenue system, the Government received, lor the fiscal year ending JuncSO, istid, *itb a tax of two dollars pcrptool gallon on dirtlllcd spirits, only s7t>6,7Si) more than it did lor the fiscal year ending Juno 70, when ihc tax was from twenty to six y cents per gallon—the aggregate for ISGfi being fiLU;-5,375, and tor 1-W, f The failure, 11111-* demonstrated, i-j due mainly to two causes: fits:,the cxlremly high rale of (lie Ihx; and,-econdiy, to certain radical evils con nected *'l.h the ad ministration of the law. In regard to the first cause, the Commissioner wcnld call attention to the fact, that, assuming *hc average cost ol the macniactnrv of nrool spirits as t*>my cents per gallon, a las oft-vo dollar* pcrgalhm is equivalent to ataxotono thorn-arid per cent. Granting ibis, U may be as* mined a- an axiom In ttie economy or taxation, that vilu tever n lax equivalent to one hundred Percent of the average cost of an article is im* poM-d upon it, a limit has been attained when tb j cty provisions ol the law are sufficient to its execution, in proportion a* this limit U depart ed from, the cuachuent or extraomlnarv laws to M-niic the tax becomes necessary; nntll, finally, apoic* i* leached wlicio tho inducement to evade or resist ae law becomes too powerful to admit of restraint. Ail experience, therefore, shows that evuy excessively high las contains within itself the clcmcnte or itsown animlmcnt; and the lacfetbai have been died relative to the tax nn tier consideration, as'ord one of the most UUn-tisdotu* on tvcoid of tbetratbof thlspnu cmV. Thc Commissioner, thcrcfoiv.can but re-express I lie oj.ir.iot, of (be late Kcvrnue Commission, that a speedy reduction by Congress of the taxon dts- Uilid sj.mis. io urn* dollar per pallon. as a maxi ini.m. Mould result m bcncib, not only to the rev enue, tm al.-o to the moral-* ofthc coaulry. imt the crU Mbi«h militates most seriously aguitiM the prodnctivencss of the tax on dUlillex -S'ltitr, is Hint Mblch arises from theaiopiion, many years since, ou the part of the tJovcmment, of n national policy which makes *be appoint ineni, and ret* nilon of revenue otttcere, depend viii upon o»Jilt cticunirunccs than those of com petency ana a ishhlol discharge of duty. So long •as this policy prevails—a policy entirely ignored by all tue lead ng States of Europe, especially as to tlie excise department, and never adopted by any piivaie firm or corporation bavins a one re gard to their own iircrests— a thorongaly efficient »:.d economical administration of uic revenue, .ouj lcii will, the education of a competent corps of oli-ria].-, cannot reasonably be expected. ihe lo gos wliich have accrued, and a»c now ac- cmine to the revenue through the failure to col lect the tax on disUlb-d spirits, tobacco, and a few other articles, are of an amount almost to exceed belief—the lostcs or. tobacco alone, in a single section of tbe conntiy, being reported to the Commissioner by a most competent authority, as in probable ex cos of twenty thousand dollars dally. Taat a very large pr r centag** of these losses Is duo to the Incoiupeteacv, neglect, or complicity of official!*, no one who has had any experience In th* super vision of oor revenue system can for a moment doubt, and the whole subject, of devising romc dial mca-nros, require’* and deserves the Imme diate and harmonious action of both tbe legisla tive and executive departments of tbe Govern ,USofaoi gas the nation was likely to be troubled by asurnln!, rather than by a deficient reveunc, taxability in tbe tenure of office was a ci.xnm stance of comparatively little moment, but, n .der the present condition of the national finances, tbe care i< far diCcient; and it onght now to be clear ly understood that every dollar of legitimate and neces-nry revenue diverted from the national Treasury, by band, neglect, or tacompetcacy, must be snpplcmentcd t>y another, wrung from the bard earnings of labor, or the interest ot capi tal. Srir.iT Metres.—The Invention of a meter which, when attached to the tail of the still, shall accurately nglstcr, beyond tbo control of the distiller, noth the volume and the strength of the tplrlis distilled, has long been a desideratum in the revenue systems of Europe,- but thus far ail devices brought forward fur this purpose, have nniiotmly prov.fl tail arcs Tbe attention of American Inventors daring the part year having, however, been directed to till* subject, a number of new metres have been •Tl c followlnc table shows the denomination of stamps supplied from August 20 to November 15, ISM, amt ttlso the qu-iutitu* in wnloh fermented liquors inter into the market for cot sumpUon: houbcad *uis p». v 4K7,<4W barrel *• ... mtlf-oarrel ** ota-quartcr barrel stamps <>;4.9'(JODc-rial!i ** “ . ote-tltbUi •* “ eiamps.ol tbe total ralnc ot *.si,S9o£S bronchi to the aneMli.c of Ibe Commissioner; anil, at Ida requrhi, their examination and touting have ucen r- tirr. d by the Secretary of the Treas ury, to a cornnhtce of three gentlemen of emi nent Fclcntiiic qual'tleatlors, viz.: Professor Jo seph Henry, ot tne Smithson an Institute ; Profes sor J. K. liilcaid, Acting Supcrintendcct of the I’onsl Surrey ; jtul .Major General ilcigs*. United Slates Army. AlUunirhihc exammonons of this committee have not been concluded, the ir.dlc.vlons arc, that a practical and tUvoiivo metre bos, at last been In vented ; and t!.c Commissioner recommends that authority be given to the Socetaiy of the I'reaa my to require it* adoption osanaajanel of every distillery-, in care ho may deem it expedient. Should the resu.t expected be realized, the system ol Inspection of distilleries ca» be greatly simpli fied, and a large Increase of tlie revenue may be conlUlcr.llA mllripalcil. IlYDUoiii.Ttiiß.—ln the report of the Revenue ('ouunhaion, made in February, iron, attention was rolled to the fret, that at the time no standard hydiometcr had been mluptcj and prcFciihfd for me unde: the tn'ornal Kevvnnc. or ascejtatulng the strength of liquors preparatory to assessing tl.o taxon the same, and tnnt in consequence of this omission, a wry large am.mil loi* r»t revenue was inevitable. The mailer having thus been brought to the attention of tho Secretary of the Treasury, It was referred by him to tbe scientific ciinmittev abovenamed; on whoso recommenda tion a modification of the Tralles byclrombter ha) been Rdopkd by the Department, and prescribed as (he standard tnitrumcm for the nae of all of ficer* of the Internal Revenue. These Instruments are now In course of distri bution, with anew book of tables, prepared in the office and under the direction of the Superintend ent of the Coast Sunny. TLc hydrometer In ques tion, Is graduated to snow true per cen’ of proof spirit* al a staudaid temperature according to exact experimental data, and is of a very conve nient pattern while the tables give the true values when the spirit la proved at any other than the standard temperature, and also the allowances necessary to Lc made fur changes in volume. Tax on Raw Cotton.—The Increase, by Con gress at its la-l session, of the tax on raw co’ton from two to three rents per pound, and the fur* (her continuance of mo tax, bas called forth many and strong remonstrances; and has been particularly protested against by the Executives of several of the Southern Stales, and also by the Kav Yoik Chamber of Commerce. In the views piescnlcd by these parlies, the ConupUstouer can not concur. In the report upon this question, submitted at the iusl session or Congress, a tax at the rate of live cents per pound was recommended, but when U became evident that such a (ax could not lie imposed in season to reach any considerable quantity ot (lie old cotton on hand at the cud of the war, and that whatever tax was imposed would apply only to new crops, the imposition of a tax not exceeding three cents was advocated. At this late. the Commissioner believes, that the lax may be collected tor one or two years, or until »hc aggregate crop of the world shall yield a surplus ot cotton, with 1«-m injury to tbc produc tion of cotton in tire United States, than the col lection uf an equal amount of revenae womd cause if imposed upon other branches of Indus* t y. That n lax of three cents per pound upon raw cotton, In common with all other taxes upon the products oi ordinary Industry, n a burden. Is not to be qurefioi cd: but i* rbonld not fall to bo re* mvmbeied, that tbc tax under consideration is col lected in a section ot the country, from which bat a smallp-oportion ofrevenuo can be collected at proem, in any other manner; and If the tax on cottou be now abated, burdens far more grievous to be borne must still bo continued on other In dllbtneP. No evidence, moreover, as yet presented, can. in Uic opinion of (be Commissioner, substantiate ibe position that a tax of three cents per uonnd upon cotton, wul cansc Its planting in the United States to bo appreciably diminished eo long as the aggregate supply of cotton warrants a price of twenty-five cents per pound and upwards for middling cotrnn. • Whenever the lime arrives, when Ibe tax on cot* ton shall evidently become a serious impediment fo its production, there can be Utile donbt lhat it maybe entirely repealed without rendering the imposition of any additional tax necessary in or* dcr to provide for the loss of revenue caused there by ; Inasmuch as at such lime, even If it come so soon as the crop oi l-ti7-t», shall be ascirlalned. the increased revenue which will surety follow a better enforcement of the revenue laws.' will allow the abatement of this, as well os oi many other less objcrtiuT able taxes. The chief cotton producing countries, other than the United Mates, arc Egypt. Brazil and India. The two former produce a variety of long stapled, hl;iik-eccd cotton, somewhat like our Sta island variety, and better trac onr New Or leans or Upland. Within the last three veaw machinery has been perfected, both in England and in the United States, for combining these cottons to prej are them for spinning, instead of the former method of carding them; and by such process a much stronger and more uniform thread has In cn produced, and their use grc.vly extend ed. Tola of itself will, for some time, give a stimulus to ’be cultivation of cotton In Egypt and Brazil, entirely independent of any stimulus dne to the Imposition of a tax on cotton in the United states. In view ot these facts, measures have been recently taken by the Commissioner of Agriculture to Import a considerable quantity of the seed of Egyptian cotton in order to see if it will not Oder to the American planter a long stapled variety, which can be raised upou the common cotton lacds of this country, and, not like onr Sea island variety, be confined to a small section, producing small ciops alike to the band and to the acre. ’ibe only remaining competitor of any moment to the American cotton Interest, Is India, and although many impiov* mentis have been made for spinning the poor staple of that country, all ex pel ieete has proved, that the value of American cotton for the manufacturing of all except the coarsest varieties of labrics, is more than three cents per pound above the Hast India or Surat cottons. So tong, therefore, as the lax in question represents less than the iliflerencc of value of these respective cottons, it cannot he claimed that it gives a dangerous stimulus to the product of India ou the one hand, or checks essentially the production of our own country, on the other. Eor these reasons, and purriy ns a temporary revenue measure, while the aggregate product of cotton in the world is In anahnormal condition, and to save the imposition or continuance of more in jurious taxes, the Commusiouer recommends, that the tax of ihrco cents per ponnd on cotton be allowed to stand, looking to the scssidn of Con gress to he held in ISt.T-iS.tor its abatement or tepiai, if circumstances ehait then render it ne cessary. Taxes ok Watches, Plate. Etc.—The taxes w hich yet continue to he imposed on carriages, watches, and plate, although laid mainly ou articles ot luxury- arc inqui.-itotial in Ihelr char acter, and arc productive of more annoyance to ti c people, ano trouble and expense to the Gov ernment, than is commensurate with nuy reverue derivable from them. Their repeal is therefore rcccwmeuded. Pi.ostciTioK orEuAuns ukdzb the Revekce.— 'J tic Commissioner rfiiews the recommendation of the licit rue Commission for die vstablMiment of sum- judicial tribunal for the preliminary trial on !<e iringol case-in ising under the revenue laws, ether than me exis'ing District or Circuit Court* ot the Unit, d Matoa. Befoi o the establishment of the present Internal lievcnuu system, these latter coni is were ctooded with business to such an cx t-udiat great delays were often unavoidable: but row the cases arrisiug under the Internal licveune la ■» s bid fair to exceed m number those originating from all other sources. 11 a court of loner grade, ut der tire jurisdiction ot Commis sioners to be appointed by the Supr me Court oi the United Mates, could bo established—somc ihii g analogous fo the nial Justice courts exist ing in many of the Stales—taking cognizance omy of violations of the Revenue laws, the Com missioner is of opinion that nut one cose iu ten would be earned to a higher tribunal; thus ob viating great expense and delay in litigation, and rcndeiUg the administration of the law more prompt and efficient. Aggregate akd Specific Receipts of Ik- TEitxAL Revenue.—Tte aggregate receipts of Jiitcir.al Revenue tor the several years since the commencement of the system (ISM, IS6I, isss. and isr-fi); the amount denvcd irom the principal specific sources : and the percentage ratio of the amount dertv«d from each specific source to the who!. , lor each of the above-named periods, arc presented in a table in the appendix to this report, marked A. HEVISIOK OP THE TAIUFF. In-accordance with instructions received from the bcc'clary ot the Treasury, under date of Sep* temner Hi, HsG,nnd in accordance, aNo, with in* sanctions fnfortna ly received from the Chairman ol the 0001011111*6 of Finance on the port of the Senate, and the Cbairrvan of the Committee of Ways and Means on the part of the House of Rep* mentatives, the attention of the Commissioner, since the close of the last session of Congress, has been chielly given to a consideration of a revision of the laws imposing dal' on the importation ol foreign merchandise; and especially of the bill (No *IS) adopted by Inc House cl Representatives Ptlhc firstseaslon of the Thirty-ninth Congress, but subsequently postponed by the Senate for futnrcaclion. 3.coking at tbc (arilTsolcly and exclusively from n revenue point of view, few or no reasons can be adduced in support ol a demand fornny extensive change in its existing rates and provisions: inas much as the revenue derived trom the (arid; since its tevision In ItOi, has reached a point much larger than was ever anticipated; ami beyond which no material increase can probable bo oh. fair.ed under any other condition save that of a laigc increase ol Importations—a condition which is neither Ocsiioblc nor likely to immediately oc cur. In confirmation of this view, the following ta ble, elumii k the 'aim* of Importations, and the amount received from Imports on the same, for the several fiscal years from 1553 to lerlG, inclusive, l» presented: Valne of Doties re- Fiscal year. Imports. coived. IM9 fS3S,«lCi'lso *t'.Uli-.S-il isco 3v2.i«3,:m ausr.sis ISCI Sai.TT.sS.'B 53,553,X50 ISC2 • 205,513,5C3 . iVVST.MI ’(9,05'J,C13 8i8.5U.5M .1(2,31(1,153 211,184,167 437,1x58,906 KECCiaHE-SDATIOSS FOR XIEDCCTIOS OP IKTERN'AX. Ibc Commissioner, in view of the probable surplus of revenue likely to accrue, ereu under the present adrotmrtnttive condition of the law und the prospective large payment'* on account of bounlic?-, would recommend tbc following specific reductions of taxation. I'nteT. A i<(iuc>ifitt of (h*pretext otneral tax of fv* }'tr cent on thfptoducts and silts of manu factutivg Industry, to thusjurciti’%cnda corns porowu rtcucfton in syeiifc taxes Su'd on anal ogous Starches of industry. The amount of such reduction, as reckoned on the basis ol receipts from this source for the last fiscal year, woalubc abcui Uilriy-ono millions of dollars. As. however, a redaction of at least Cfty millions ol dollars was made iuthis department of the revenue, by the amended law of «lniy 13, ISCO, which has already been allowed for in the esli males presented. and as, in the opinion of the commissioner, a portion of this tax is already etaded, through a locli* g, on the part ol the man* nlncmrer-, that it is excessive, unjust. and that its evasion is justifiable, the tailing otf flora the re* dnrtion in question will not, probably, result tn as large a diminution ol Ibe receipts a« asnperfl c'al examination wonld appear to Indicate; more cspecia’lv when the stimulus which manufactur ing Industry Is likely to receive from tax abate ment ol the tax, is also tak* n Into consideration. fctcosDLT.—An entire removal of all direct in ternal taxes now levied upon the production of bar, plate and sheet Iron, end of such additional taxes as are yet levied upon the elements of the manufacture of tp'cl. The amount of each reduction, computed on the basis of receipts from this somccfor the last fiscal year would bo about one million eight hundred thousand dollars. It seems almost unnecessary to assert, so self-evident is the proposition, that the country requires, that all tools— including In that word all machinery, engines, rail roads, and implements of every bled—should be iuit übed at (he low est possible cost. In order that tbc largest amount of machinery or implements be applied to increase the value of our products, with the least outlay of capital or earnings. As iron and steel arc, moreover, tbc essential compo nents ofnearly every form of machinery and im plement, it is (or the Interest of the whole conn try that this production should bo as free from the burden of taxation as possible. A certain and limited amount of capital or earning* can be in vented each year in factories, railroads, machine shops, or machines and Implements for the culti vation of the soli, and ft is certainly desirable that this limited amount of capital sbonld give the largest result, cither in miles of railroad, number of spindles, or in mowers, reapers, ploughs, or implement* In general. The entire removal of the tar. then, from these articles, in stead of favoring, as it may at first appear, any special business or section of the country.is really legislation in favor of every producing in terest, and all consumers. Tuiudlt.—A reduction of the tax of two and a half per emt on the gross receipts ol sugar re finers to one and a half or one per cent. u utis tu uuv nuu ct um «* »■•• —— Oit lug more to improvements re cently Ttilioduced into tbe maooiactnre of raw sucars. the present tax of two and a half per cent on the refiners’ sales is equivalent to a direct pro tection to ibe foreign producer, and threatens to sctlottslv impair II not dcstioy, the prosperity of tbe great Industry of refining sugar fu the United Mates. This abatement would amount to aoout one million two hundred thousand dollars com puted on the basis of the receipts of the last fiscal year. Poirmnw.—An entire removal of the internal revenue duty on sulphuric acid, and on the mining and manufacture ol emery. Tbe reasons which lead to the recommendation In respect to tbe first atlLlo are, that it is an es sential element in the manufacturing of many other articles w hich are subjected to taxation in their nnished condition: and in respect to emery, tor the reason that it is rowan exception to the legislation adopted in regard to all other ernde oics. as wriltoccconrage the development of an entire!] new branch of industry m Ibe country. Fittult.—Tbo entire removal ot the internal revenue tax upon tbe manufacture ot sail, Tbe amount ol revenue obtained from this source for tbe last fiscal year (iSoa-ofl) was four Value. . 451.0D0 . su.m . . 104,163 . VM'S hundred and fifty-six thousand one hundred dol- ihe total amount or the rcdnc'.inn of revenue consequent upon the Brtop'lon of th • above recom mendations, taking tbc receipts of the last fiscal year as the nasls of calculation. may be estimated at about S£>,U)C,(OO, leaving a surplus available for other purposes of about 5*.“U hoo,o*>. Dt’TlEfl OK HAW HATSntALS. In the Department of the Tariff, the Commis sioner further rccomm-.-ude the distinct recognition ui.d adoption, as the basis of nroent and future legislation, the principle of cba f ing Hit duty on taxffniaferlaiefot/n lowest jwlnt consistent tdfh Hie rfouirtuunts of Hie revenue; and cf placing vponthe Jrtc list sveh i-air material*, the product mainly ot tropical eoun*nt* % a% are -essential ele ments in gna' hading brand* $ industry* and do nor eomt in comjieiition ici’/i any proiit'Cfs. Of these latter, dye woods, errdo dye stuffs. India-rubber, gutta-percha, bam boos and latans, tnlphn/, enmac,raw eilU and ivoiy may he cited as illunratJons. This principle, as tnus annunciated, and which is almost emhely disregarded under the existing Janti, eID ouch of late years engrafted on the com mercial policy of almost every other civilized stale, has been truly defined as the very “essence of pri-uctlou,* and its adoption is believed >o be eesc-nthJ lo (be prosperity of the manufac turing industry of the United Slates: Give to the manufacturer his taw materials cheap, and you enable him to manufacture cheap and fell cheap ; and all experience, and oil the laws of political economy, teach that with every reduc tion in the price of manufactured commodities In ordinary use. consumption and production In crease in a far greater ratio. the tbce ruoTEcnc.v or Tin avziucak agbi- cn.ru hist. If this principle should seem to militate against iheaciicnUuial interest, which in pointof tmm- Icis encaged and capital invested is the great In terest of the country, and a* such, has a right to pcccd'wce in protective legislation, we reply, that oi.r whole national experience proves that there can be no practical protection to the American manufactures. Oat of the one hundred million pounds of wool now grown annually in the United States, not one single ponnd, under ordinary cir cumstance?, can he sold at a profit in any foreign market, while thestalisilcs of prices for the thirty years prior to ISU2, show, **eyond a question, Uial ti’c periods when the wooi-growcra of the United States and of Fiance alike received tic maximum price for their products, have been coincident with tho c in which the manufacturers of both countries have neen least interfered with in the selection of their raw materials. Flax, in the flax-cron in? districts of New York, was for mcrly ol slow sale at a low price; when flax manu factories came to he established in these same dis tricts, the price, with quick demand, rose nearly 100 per cent although me tariff; during the same period or. imported llax was not material!valtered Again, the grower and ernaner of linseed, grow anoctush their products solely to supply the de nmnds cf the American palmcr.aud the manufac ture!-or oil and enamelled cloths, of enamelled leather, oil silk, prlu' Ink and varni«h;and if, by the Incicase in e prices of these cum mooiues, their coneump.ion is restricted or anni hilated, the restriction or annihilation come* home as sui ely to the grower and crusher as to the manufacturer. Fuifnoimore, the renewing of high or prohibit oiy rales of duty on pork, beef, lumber, wool and vegetables ofthe British Provinces, con*quest til on the termination of the Beclpr city Treaty have injured and rot benefited the American agucnluuift. Canadian lumber we must have, and have taken it as before, paving ours dvea the duty of twenty per cent, and some percentage ad ditional. The exclusion of Canadian “combing woole’ hag rendered unproductive, capital and machinery invested in tho worsted manufacture to the extent of some eight millions ot dollars, depriving the American wool-grower on the one hand 01 a market fora certain proportion ol bis product *of “clothiu" woolI'* 1 '* to It*, mixed with Canada worsted wool*, and the American grain-grower on the other baud, of a market for the agricultural produce required to feed the operatives of the now Idle and silent woistcd factories. The oat.* of Prince Edward’s Island, which formerly found a market in New England and New York, and were paid for In domestic manufactures produce by operatives who consumed Western agricultural produce, are now exported to England, and arc paid for m British manufactures, produced by operatives who con sume British or Contimntal produce. No less heef and pork are now produced, or will be pro duced, in the British Provinces t>y rcason,of tneir exclusion from American markets, hut every bar rel thus excluded will uml to supplant an equal quantity ot tie American product in a foreign market, and at the same time, deprive the Amerl' can shipowner of any profit that may be likely to accrue to him from the possession of "the carrying trade. And finally, if any benefit can t>e irnpmuo to any agilcuUnral interest by the imposition of a duty of twenty cents per bushel on Indian corn (as piovidid lor In House Bill, No. 71>). when the United States, in the year ISM, exported to Canada a million <u>d tixfy-fico /Aou tui.ti bnsbels, and imported less than four thou sand bushels—mainly from Western France and the Sandwich Islamist-tho Commissioner la en tirely unable to perceive it. As a further illustration of the principle which we have laid down, that the true and only protec tion of the American agriculturist is to be found in the existence and extension of American man ufactures, vve pteseut the following statements: 1 he wheat crop of the United States in 1805, ac cording to the estimates of the Agricultural Bureau wa* 148,5*32,627 bushels, end the corn crop ■504.427,553 bushels. Ol this quantity there were exported to Great ihitain ami entered for British consumption cwL bushels), as compared vvi.h 19,’.>r<5,451 cut. (;57,150,51S bushels) import* d into Great Britain from all other coun tries; while ol 3,K3.7&$ cwt. of wheat Hour Im ported into Great Britain, only 202,370 cwt. were received from the United States. On the other band, New England and 3>ew York alone, in required twenty-six millions of bushels of wheat-in audition to their own produc tion, to mat eup their consumption; while of the value of the whole agricultural products of the country, for the same year, including hay, butler, wire, potatoes, tobacco, hump und wool, as well as gram, bnt excluding cotton, rice and sugar, only too and three-fourths percent was estimated (u have been exported, leaving ninety-seven and one-fourth per cent fur the home market and con sumption. The great want of the Western agriculturist Is a remunerative and rertaiu market for bis surplus products; and this want is likely to Increase rather than diminish. Experience has shown that this surplus cannot, in its crude condition, flud any sufficient outlet in foreign markets. With the exception of Great Biituin, nearly all of the states ol Europe arc now food exporters rather tbimfuod importers; and were Great Britain to draw the entire amount necessary to make op her annual lood deficit nom the United States, the American surplus would, ir. a few rears, bo as large as ever. Were, however, the American manufacturer placed In a condition iu which be could compete iu foreign markets for the sale of even a moderate percentage of his products, th-; exportation of agricultural protiucc transmuted fi omits crude condition by the labor of Atncrl- can operatives would be practically unlimited. 1 be securin': ol similar results constitutes a lead* im: feature in the commercial policy of most of the Huio|k an slates, and in their annual financial exhibits the extent of exports of manufactured snides Is regarded as one of the most unerring indications current financial prosperity. In the Uinied States, on tbe contrary, the public in general regard tbi* matter with reelings aUin to indifference, while legislation, made most fre quently in accordance with the persistent de mands of special Interests, toads not only to the destruction of tlic foreign bat also of tbe borne market. Tiro illustrations on this point arc most significant. 7cu years ago the American manu tactnicr supplied, to a considerable extent, far bats to the .Mexican, Cuban, and South Amer ican smikefs; to-day be supplies comparatively none. Why? Because the duty on foreign for, the raw material of his manufacture, has prevent ed the Ametican from competing with the foreign producer. Thirty years ago the manufacture of broadcloth coiiftitutcd trom fifty to sixty per cent of the whole woollen business of the United States; now it i* nut probably in excess of five percent, t\hyy Because American legislation U’js not permitted the importation of broadcloth wools, ard the American agriculturists have pro duct d nothing to take their place, and never will until the successful establishment ol the broad tiolh Industry In the United Stales has created a eoi s’ant home demand for “ broadcloth'* wools. The enforcement of tho so-called Monroe Doc trine is regarded as a cardinal teat ore of Ameri can policy. Is i‘ not time to inquire whether this policy cannot he effectively strengthened bvlegls- iaiion looking lo the extension of American trade, as well as by diplomatic negotiation or a menace of force? increase or the takifp considered as a ueke- DIAL MEASURE. Let ns now consider how far the proposed in crease offbe tariff; so very generally demanded ami given by the House Bill No. 718, will prove effective In relieving the Industry and stimulating the development oirhc country. The evils which now affect the trade, Indnslry and commerce of the country, are mainly due, as Ims already been demonstrated, to an extraordi nary and abnormal advance in the price of all la bor and commerce as compared with the prices winch prevailed lu tbe United Slates prior to the war, or which now prevail in foreign countries with which the United States maintains commer cial intercourse The evil is a radical one—con fined to no one section and to no one interest—tbo r» mccy must, therefore, he also radical. In considering the question ol the extent to which an Increase of the tariff is likely to prove . cmccltal, this fact in the outlet should be clearly home in mind, viz., that all taxes are in the na ture of an assessment upon the annual production ol the natron, whether such taxes arc levied in the form of a fluty upon foreign Imports for which domestic products have been exchanged, or in tin* form of an internal-tax upon domestic pro ducts in their erode or manufactured terms. Now an Increase of the tariff, or, to express the s-amc thing in more cxici language, an increase of taxation on Imports especially as extensive as That given tn the House Bill No. 718, Is dearly legislation in the direction of higher price?. If this result docs not in general follow, then the end sought for by those who ask lor the Increase iu question will not be attained. Let us, however, consider tbe immediate and ultimate effect upon the producer and consumer of such an increase In the case of a leading article especially affected by the tariff. The agriculturists of certain sections of the country complain that, owing to the high cost of labor and commodities, they are unable, as here tofore. to raii'e wool at remunerative prices They accordingly ask tor an additional duty of fonr rents per ponna specific, and tea per. cent ad valorem on ail importations of unwashed wool; while the manufacturer uccessnmy follow* with a demand for a corresponding increase in the rates Bl,ltiV-C0 i:y.oi«,G3fl of duly upon the importation* of an manufactures if wool. Doth parties expect to obtain, and doubtless will obtain, an immediate increase of price lor their respective commodities, corres ponding to the Increase ol duties Imposed; which iccu-ase «>f prices, as will he sbo-m harvafler, will tax the domestic consumers, supposing the consumption of wool mid woollens in the future to he equivalent to that of the last fiscal year, to »te extent of thirty-live millions per annum over and above what he now pays—a sum equal to i- ore than cpc-fourth o; t*.c present annual in terest ou the .National debt. principle in me economy of taxation is, how ever, belter recognized at the present day, than that n ipx. In au essentially free commnuity, upon one of the necessaries of life, is la fact a tax npoa all, and liUe the pre.-.-ure applied to the surface of watei, distributes. itself rapidly and with great uniformity i It therefore tollowe, that a tax on the consumer, like that resulting from th,> in cicascd cost oi wool and woollens under conslde tation, bum absolute necessaries, win soon distri bute itself throughout the whole community, and wih eventually manifest itself and reappear lr. the shape of ar. increased price for all other forms of tabor and commodities; thus aggravating the \oy evil which in the ontset it was intended to rcniedv, arid mecssitating a Inrthtrr increase In the volume of currency in order to facilitate ex changes at n higher level of prices. If now the representatives ol the other producing Interests come forward and demand, as In cqnitv they cer tainly have a right to do. that in consideration of the increased cost ol itcir products—arising Torn the additional taxation of tnirty-fivc millions levied for the benefit of wool growers and wool maunlactntcrs—increased duties be also levied for their bcncdt.it is evident that a compliance with this demann wonU leave prices relatively as before, with the exception that they would be biought toabtill higher level, aud be rendered cveti more unstable and abnormal. Again, let ns. apart trom all other considera tions, next Inquire, whether an increase of prices, cu, 10 stave the question more fairly, whether “an opportunity, artificially created, to Im mediately increase production," will give to the manufacturer the advantage he expects to obtain through an increase of the tariff? We think not, and lor the following reasons : As already shown, there is an acknowledged scaicity of “skilled," ana, to a certain ex tent. of unskilled labor in the country. An f Statement showing tbcqnantlty and value otlndUn corn ImiiortcO liito the United Slates dartm: the flj-c.il v*ar ending June SC. ISoC, and the countries from which In polled: \ Itnsbcts. \NdoetnGold, France, oa the Atlantic i,803 Sandwich Islands 5*3 S 3 Canada 11l « Holland 107 SI Pelirlon’ 67 1(3 irntish Wtei Indies 4 I ••• The manner In which a tax dllfufes itself Is thus: to the extent that any individual or clast can trai sfv li e onus of a tax to other* by including it in Uis prim cf Ms coran ortltus or services, such IndlvidiM or ria>N invartablv decs so. but nevertheless each Indiv idual cr class coca so In the face of a rorntanttv de creating number «>f those left to sustain the tax. Th't transfer of liability occurs again and again. UU navlnr netted to the tartlicrnicrt, it nodi its way back ilge ti c aisw<rtne ripples ol a poua or (be responsive (tlww of a valley, to thepolut whence It starts, hut somewhat modified in Us Intensity,every inlcimediate Individual or ciss* having nadio suffer In the IncreasU print- ef the products or Mnlcc-ofth.fc Immealatcjr i-cyond then-, n toriton of the liability. These rtpp'rt ana at ewcrlng ripples of transferred ilaMUlv, after r> icatvdly flowing back anu forth into •>nc another. 4 length come to a ccmparatlvc state ofretl; anatms all n ixuVers of the coatnonlty become eveataalx equally burdened." ’ incicnsed production,- therefore, necessitates an Increased demand for labor, which. In accordance with tue universal law of supply and d mand must Lo loilowcd hy an increase of wages. even tf the advance of prices on which the ircicascd pro duction is bused did not comncl tbe work men to this course. A ceucral advance in the tarilu as a measure of relief to the manufacturer must, from the very necessity of the case, there fore, in a short time neutralize Itself and leave the pi educing interests m a condition no better than before. Thar such was the re*nit followin'* the great advance of the tariff oi 1801 is almost the universal testimony received by the Commission er fiom all parts ottue country; and la indirectly substantiated bv tbc fact that notwithstanding the advance then Riven was regarded as hicbly'nro teeme, the rcprcscLtativea of th*? producing in icietiiof the com try, although the taxes have since 1661, been to a considerable extent creased, and an additional supply of labor through tl c disbanding of the army been rendered available, are now mere urgent than ever before for a further li crease in the rales of duty. The iollowlug table illustrates the extent of the advance of the tariffs of 1864 and 1865. as com pared with the taritTot March 2, 1861, on someot the principle articles ol importation. AKncLxs. MarehtlSSl. ISHMdiso. rd S”'r...sS? c - Cotton, spool 50perct..Ccta perdoz. Iron. pic. per ton *€.oo • perct Iron, railroad, per ton $12.00 #ls 69 Iron, robed or hammered, per * . cat. iLOO-.... ti in Iron, bolter and other plate, . icrlon Iren, locomotive tires, or tire Iron, asylls, per ,iu cents.,2J* cents Urcrs.hrown and tUcacheti....2s per cl.Jfiptr ct. Potatoes,iwr bush lOctnL-...23 cents. pef 1 cent.....2V cenu. cfA 1 * 0,8 ‘K ccnu..lß cents. k.totbe gum tsperct. SSperct. bilk, cere 20 per ct.. 35 per ct. Bifk'lir; aoperct.,6o pir ct. 6hk n.:U)ns, <tc JJopertt..6O per ct. lat iota 10 per ct.. 20 per ct. _ „ , CUcts pcr(2l cts per vreollen cloths J nand n and 40 Wool. value IS to 21 cts pep b. .3 cbfper a'.6 cuf per B. Itelalßes.&c .25 per ct.Xp?' tt. flannels per ct..ai cts per B _ .. and 3* per ct. Bunting.... .r... 50 per ct..r>oper cl. CarpeU, valoo $1.15 or under (40 cts per (*0 cts per icrsqjc. ? sqyd...) sq yd. CarfeU, value over fl-£3 psrtfOcieper(SO cts per sq Jd 1 eq yd...? ?q yd. Carpets, Brussels and tapestry.|l s jL C ya. per Carptts, treble ingrain and(2scwpef (4Qi cts per wormed clm«n ? sq yd... j- sq yd. AVSHAGE BATES OF DCTT L7JDEIS EXISTING TAUIFF. The Commissioner would next ask attention to the average rate of duly Imposed by the present tank (in gold) on the invoiced value m cold ofthe dutiable goods imported into the United Slates dmirg the fiscal year ending June 50, 1306. This will appear from an examination of the following table to have been 46.5.3 per cent: The total importations were 5437,*33,9C6 specie ?!0.329,15« Fr»e goods 58,301,579 Total free imports ■ 89,180,735 Total dutiable goods 1585.5C5,061 Amount of duties received sl7'J,o4C.&mj Percentage of duties to dutiable imports 45.53? per cent. Percentage of duties to total imports, 43.19? per cent. On many of the articles of ordinary consump tion the rate of duty Imposed Is considerably in excess of the general average, as above given. * The following tabic shows the relation of the talcs at present levied and collected on a variety of leading impel Unions to the invoiced values: 1* Percent. 811k*, and various manufactures of silk CO Spool cotton, equivalent .to ffi&T-i Gum copal, equivalent to over 100 Files, equivalent to Miron, pig, equivalent to 52 •Iron, bvr (commbn), equivalent 10 CS«J Iron, small, rounn and square, equivalent to.. 77 Iron, hoop. cqulVatcnito 73 Iron, band, equivalent to Gl Iron, refined, equivalent to 53 to 85*4 Iron, best Yotksfalrc,.equivalent to .*sl to 40J, iron, host English boiler plates, equivalent to 83

lion, sheet, No. 11 to 20 wire gauge, equiva lent to 53 Steel, extra cast, equivalent to 41$: Steel, blister, equivalent to 32 to 4IV* Steel, third quality spring, equivalent to C-i’i Steel, tyres lor locomotive?, equivalent t 0... 43V£ To these rates, freight, insurance, commission, etc., must be added, thus to some extent in creasing the duties above the rates here given. In view of (his statement, it would seem ob vious that an increase ot duties, carrying up the rates, average and special, to a greater degree than those now existing, and contributing thereby loan increase of prices must give to any tariff such eletucqta of weakness as to render it ‘unsta ble, thus exposing tho manufacturing and pro ducing Industry ot the country to an evil which past experience has taught it specially to dread; for certainly, next to positive hostile legi-la'.lon, nothing is more damaging to the manufacturing interests of the country than instability in tariff legislation. finally. The luvei-ligations of the Commis sioner tend to the conclusion that an increase ot the rates of duty on importations, equivalent to those given in the House Bill No. 719, would re duce, through a prohibition or reduction of im portations. the gold resources of the national treasury to a point beyond what it would be either tafe or expedient, am! militate against the practi cability of a continued reduction of internal tax ation. It may, however, be urged that an increase of the taritT at the presen* time, even if it should benefit tbe manufacturers to a less extent than w hat Is expected and desired, would nevertheless, by increasing wages, increase the ability of the laboring (lasses to consume, and would also stimulate an emigration of skilled labor from other countries. To this It may be replied that the facts submitted Id this report fully confirm a generally acknowledged principle In political economy, vi*., that nnln cicasc in the prlreuf labor follows, and rarely or never picccdes an advance In the price of- com modities : and that although there has been a large absolute advance in tbe prices of labor since IKi2, yet the advance on the whole has been greater during the same time in the price of com modities ; and that through the decrease in the purchasing power of wages thus occasioned, the American laborer has not been relatively benefited by bis Increase of wages, bulls in real it > in a worse condition than be was before the war.! Ibe Commissioner further maintains that a con tinuance in the present condition of things, so far from holding out any inducement to ah emigra tion of skilled labor from other countries, in tact lends to repel such emigration. Investigations made under bis direction indicate that skilled labor, taking the relative prices of commodities and of rent* Into cocsideiatiou, is equally well or better paid In many departments of industry iu tircai Erltain ar the present time, than in the United States. In some instances tbe evidence to this tiled i? conclusive. Farther coufiimaUon of this point can also be found in the fact, ihat within a comparatively re cent period, skiLcd laborers in the manufacture of mi tills have visit-d the United States with a view of eLgaping in their special industries, hat after investigation have rctuimd, feeling con vinced that the wages obtainable at home, though nominally Jess than In this country, were, taking nil things into consldciation, in reality equal, or greater. The question at issue, in the opinion of the Commissioner, is not one legitimately involving ary discussion of the principles of either protec tion or lice trade. On these points tbe policy of the nation may be considered, for the pres ent at least, as definitely settled. With a tariff averaging nearly filly per coni in its rates, free trade in any form Is simply an impossibility. Neither is it believed that any considerable portion of the people of the country are in favor of the adoption of “free trade** In tbe F.uropcan sense, even were the necessities of the Treasury tar less urgent than at present. But the simple question now at issdo is —what course of policy can best be pursued which wiil bring back mo*t rapidly tbe country to its normal condition of industry and develop ment. If It be urged that an increase of tariff is calculated 10 effect this rcailt, it is replied, first, that the present tariff rates ato already of an ex treme character, and that any legislation tn the same direction must necessarily soon reach a limit, unless tbe country is prepared to adopt the policy of entire prohibition and commercial non intercourse; and s-ccondlv, that if a tariff, whose average rates (nearly filly per cent) are higher than have ever before been levied by the United Stales, or by any other civilized nation in modem times, (oils to be reasonably protective, the rem edy should besought in removing the causes wiiich have neutralized its protection, rather than by Increasing the average of the duties. Improvements in the processes of manufacture and agriculture,ouglit,and in a normal condition of affairs wonldjendto increase the comfort ami add to thcprosjteiuy of the mass of tbe people, ft has been proved that in no other recent period have there been so many of such improvement?. They should give to the country the power of Increas ing Us production so much per capita as to enable each producer with the expenditure of the same time an'' amount of labor as in 18C0, to realize to himself the same amount of comfort and pros pei iiy, and u< the same time to pay his proportion of the taxes, 'that such has not been the result can he attributed only to the unwise legislation by which the burden of laxation has been une qually distributed, and tbe problem now to be worked out is so lo distubutc the bu:den ns not to impede that absolnts increase In the production of the country which should he the result of im proved tools and better methods. 'the polu cannot be too strongly insisted upon, that in orm*r to ex:end our markets by the export of finished products, rather thanot raw materials, and thereby to give employment to the largest amount ot labor in our own country, the cost of commodities and of labor mast both be reduced, : and Mich direction most be given to the legislation of Ibe country ns to relieve from the burden of taxation, as far ns possible, the commodities used by the laborer, either for bis oivi consumption or as the tools and implements by which be gams his wages. It has .been proved, that during tbo past tour years the cost of living has, on the whole, increased in a greater proportion than the wages of labor: no propo sition ought, therefore, to be made or entertained tor a moment tending to a redaction in wages, unless accompanied by such measures as shall reduce the prices of commodities in a much greater ratio, and thus giro to the laborer the power to purchase, with a less nominal amount of money, more of the necessaries and comtorts of llte. in view of these several conclusions, the Com missioner. therefore, recommends that tnc relief now unquestionably needed and sought for hr the producing interests of the country, should be mainly given by Congress through a reduction of laxation on tbe raw materials Indicated, and on the machinery and results of domestic Indu-trr. rather thin by an extensive and large Increase of the rates of detv on importations. Such legisla tion, coupled with an early adoption and adher ence to some fixed policy, looking, througn con tractor, to tbe resumption of specie payments, would. In the opinion or the Comml-siouer, by decreasing the cost of production, and increasing the purchasing oower of wages, go very far to ward diminishing the evils which now tend to ar rest the development of the trade, inenstry, and commerce of the country. At the »ame litre, in v:ew of the very decided expression of opinion in respect to the tariff, by »: e House of Keprsauntatives at its last session, which the Commif.'iouor feel* that be has no right to disregard: and in view, further, of the fact, that timing the piescnt ‘ransitlon siate of the na tional finances consequent upon funding, and upon the adoption of measures looking to the re sumption of spidc payments, Ibe industry of the coonirv is threatened vviihdlstnrham.es for which the mauulaciurrr* and orodneers ought not to be held n sponsible, mi Inci cased the tariff, on some articles, as a measure of temporary expediency, is also recommended Such an increase, In the opinion of tke Commissioner, should, however, be ex.rtrorly moderate, and should have regard, first, to the interests of the revenue; and, second ly. to the supplying of such deficiencies In the ex isting tariff as are one especially to a want of pro per ai-Justmcnt bet wet n the rates of imposes aim tbo«e of the Internal lltvcnnc; or, to a failure, heretofore, to sufficiently recognize the relation (bat exists between tnc market value of certain articles and the cost of tbe labor entering Into their production. „ ___ . r As respects the House Bill No. 716, now before the Senate, Ibe Commissioner respect fully a«ts of Congress its re considera tion— inasmuch as he believes it to he exorbi-ant in Us rales, tending to further iniialion of prices, destructive of revenue and of s \s a matter of Interest in this eenasctUn, the fbl {twins table, showing tb*> average reus of duty on rtnt'aole importations under the virions tariffs rrom n>-ii to iSCi itclnslvc, tcgcihtr with the gross revenue dcrlvcathcnfrom. is presented t Tlmeot Average Date or Txnnr. Opera-- Dutiable Gross Dmy. tb*D. Imports. lie venue. Perct. Previous to 1521... 4 Vrs 5 2M.9C2.-a, 3 90,136/112 S4H 4 “ SOU3SJSS 1t537.M2 3S* MavW. 155....... 4 “ 7J7v>S2,CI6 VAOU.M) 41* etasfcnct: i “«*2S:v.A“ ..SSSS 53888* May 8.1557 (to ’fcl). S 741.213.216 20X ♦3. Sll Total ~S 9 yr» 34,703.034,145 51 These estimates are based on gold prices on hoard 6bi > at Liverpool. October, ISC6, exchange being re<X card at M per cent premium. I Tn confirmation of this statement, the Commlss on er would rtier to the resoU of a careful examination, tJVJoatoco huacrcd and thirty per cent. what Utile of fore Imi coromprce yet remains, anl prejudicial to the general interests of the country. And in confirmation ol‘these conclusions he would add, that admissions have been made to him by representatives of many of the producing Interests of the country likely lo ho affected by this bill, that the rates of dotv im posed by tt are higher than are necessary for the adequate protection of thetc interests. In conformity with the pr.nciples adopted in this icport, and in accordance with the Instruc tions of the Secretary of ; lhc Treasury before cited, the Commissioner herewith presents the Form of a Bui. designed to be sufficiently com piebenelve and complete, to tallow, if adopted by Congress, of the repeal of all the numerous and complicated laws under which rates of doty on imports are now levied and col!ected. Qowonld further ask attention to the following statement of reasons for the rates recommended in the Fotm of Bill presen’ed; and of the results of bis investigations touching tbc relations of tbc existing and proposed tariffs and tbo internal revenue, to some of the great leading industries ot the country; tbc principal classes of aruc'23 included under the tariff being considered sepa rately. teas, corns, sugars, sfices, TORES, LIQUORS, cleans, ajtd tobacco. In entering npon a revision of the tanff, the first consideration of importance at the present tfmc» la ‘*to provide lor a large, certain, and per manent revenue.” To accomplish this, it la neces sary to select certain articles of extensive and regular Importation and consumption, of stand ard prices, and not easily smuggled. winch, through the duties imposed pn them, may be always relied on as sources for a definite amount ol revenue. The atuctca which out own experience, and the experience of other countries, have shown to especially answer these conditions, are teas, coffee, sugars, spices, wines, ana liquors. From the first four of these classes of articles, the Com missioner estimates that the revenue is now ac cruing (and likely to continue to accrue, pro vided the rates 01 duty remain unchanged), at the rale ot from forty-five to fifty millions of dol lars per annnm-tbe current importations and consumption being in advance of the estimates made by -he Kercnuo CommissionTn their Report o! February. ISCfi, By the House Bill, No. 718, the duties on tea and coflr-e arc reduced fifty per cent, thus entailing a prospective less cf from eight to bn million; of dollars per aimam in tho customs receipts from these sources. This measure appears to have been very generally received with favor, on the ground that, as these articles are of almost uni versal consumption, an abatement of taxation upon them would result in special and direct benefit to the ma-ecs. Thatruch a conclusion is fallacious, and that the effect will ho ia fact, the reverse ot what is anticipated, is, however, in the opinion of the Commissioner, evident, for the following reasons: No principle lathe economy ol taxation, as has already been staled. U be’ter recognized than that a tax oa one of the Decena ries of life. Is, in lact. a tax upon alt: and that, therefore, so long as the necessities ofthe Gov ernment require that till; cla<s of articles should be taxed at all, an abatement of taxation on one of them is simply equivalent to shifting it upon another. Under this condition of necessity, the mam point of interest to the consumer Is, thattbe taxes of this nature should be raised In the sim plest. cheapest and most equable manner, and afford the least possible occasion for an increase of the burden through duplication. In the case of tea and coffee, the dnihs ore assessed mainly al the five or six piircipal porta of the country, and being wholly specific, are collected wl hoat delay and with little trouble. It Is not probable, moreover, that the revenue on these articles Is evaded by smuggling to any great extern, while rtitdt revaluation is iuinosein'c. Being, further more. of almost nnfvirsai consumption, the duties leviec upon tb-;. are very uniformly dls tiibuud, and tali upon the consumer in email .amounts at any one lime; while,as thevcannot be considered necessailes ot life in a sense so absolu'c as breadsmiis ami clothing, the payment of the tax. through their use, is. in a great measure voluntaiy. Through these dream staticts, theconoitious of effectiveness, economy, and equality, as regards collection and dUtilbu lion, are secured most perfectlv. Tea and coffee, furthermore, being articles of standard use and general sale, forming directly no component part of manufactured products, it is at all times within the power of the consumer to accurately and «asilv deteitmnc tbelr importing price, as well as the duties assessed upon them ; thus obviating, in the first instance, any extensive duplication of taxation, and tendering it nearly impossible. In the second, for the unscrupulous dealer to nr.duly enhance puces, through the plea of excessive Gov ernment taxation... . Let us next consider ibe conditions cf raising ah equivalent sum from a taxation cu one or mere of the products of domestic industry. We select iron and its manufactures as an illus tration, lor the reason that these articles yielded by internal taxation dating the fiscal year IS>>s. an amount ({8,41M,t89) very nearly equivalent to what Hie now proposed to relinquish from tho customs revenue, through the abatement of fii;y pci cent on the duties on tea and codec. It must be obvious in the first place, that the collection of this amount ol revenue from iron and its mann lectures is an exceedingly complicated matter. In the place of five points of collection, the collec tion districts extend over every furnace, rolling mill, forge, forge foundry, machine-shop, ana hardware establishment in the country; entailing an additional proportionate increase of expense and taxation. As comparatively few. moreover, ofthe manufactures of iron come to the consumer. except os the Jesuit of many processes: and os each process, in turn, is levied upon by the Tax Collector, an extensive duplication of taxes, and a great eiihatcctuci t of prices, ntcessailly fol- and as The details ot this duplication of 'axes ennrot, in a mojonly of cases, be known to be consumer, tbe usiscrnpnlous coaler is freed from nrat ly all restraint, in bis efforts to enhance and maintain prices. Again: Iron being an essential component ele mcm of almost all lorms of mciiincp}, tin: lusa ton wbicb enhances its price, necessarily multi plies tbe price of all ni tides produced through its agency, thus restricting consumption amt the extension pf domestic and foreign comme.ce, and unfairly exposing almost every branch of acmes* (iclndastiy to a competition with foreign pro* duceif who arc free from similar disabilities. And what is thus true of iron, is almost equally true of almost every other article of ordinary dcmesllc production. Id confirmation of the position taken. It may he also added, that there Is a close correspondence between the duties levied on tea audcocec in the United Statos.Jand in tbe leadiD*?Statee of Europe, and, therefore, an equality as regmds this form of taxation; while iu the latter countries, domestic industry is almost universally exempt fiom taxa tion. if, however; it be urged that onr argument loses tn weight, through the circumstance that the Gov ernment lias at present un available surplus re venue, and that, therefore, so high a tux on tea and cclfv is not necessarj, we replyihat so long as Ibo Government is under (he necessity of taxing the industry of the country at all, U can not fairly claim to have any legitimate surplus revenue; while, ro far as tee question is on- of relief to tbe masses, we miintaxu that a reduction of internal taxation to tbe amount of eight or ten milli'rs of dollars will diminish the buiden on the masses, through a reduction of prices, to a three or four fold greater extent, lhan what would be experienced through the abate ment ot duties to a stun equivalent lo tbat above named on the articles of tea and codec. Finally. That the present tax on t-.a and coffee is not regalded by the community as a bnideu, is, we believe, cleat ly proved by the circumstance, that tbe eonsntup'ioTi of these two articles, and also of sugars, has increased mote rapidly since the present system of national taxation, than that of any other article on tbe whole list of assessments. 'ibe Commissioner, therefore, earnestly recommends that no change bo made m the existing ra'cs el dntv on tea and coffee. For similar reasons the Commissioner wonli also recommend that no change he made in the present rates of du y on spices. f In respect to sugars some slight alteration in the existing rates of duty may be necessary. Dur ing tbo last few years, such extensive Improve ments have been raidc in the machinery and pro cesses for the niannfacriire of .-agarfrom the cane, that on Improved article can now bo produced at a much less cost than formerly. This tmpiovcd pri dnct of foreign sugar can now be entered at a duty which is not equivalent to, aid does i.ot compensate for the aggregate taxes (tariff and internal revenue) paid by the refiners on a low grace of sugars and on their products, ibe law, us it stands, therefore, offers, in fact, a bonnty to the foreign producer id cotn petiug with the* American refiner, and threatens to destroy the prosperity of the great industry of sugar-reflirli.g In the United Slates. The relief, therefore, needed, may be given either by eVghtly changing the duties on the various giades of sugar—a measure a>ked for by the refiners, but earnestly opposed by the import ing ami grocery interests—or by entirely removing the internal tuxes on Die products of refining. The question is a difficult one to and the Commissioner asks for it tbe carciul consider ation of Congress. In respect to the tariff on spirituous liquors, the main qtustiou to be determined is, what rates wilt prove the most productive of revenue;—it being, it is assnnua, a settled principle of our revenue FVstem, tbaithe taxation on aiticlcs of thiscoar ttcierisio.hc limited only by the consideration above etated. on brandies and spirituous liquors, other than v ines, the returns of impo:unions for the year !Hk), apparently indicated that the exict mg rates of dntica were all hut prohibitory; the importations of brandy Into the pot t of New York for the first ten mouths of i;C.\ having been oily packages {I. c., TBJ hail pipes, V-13 qnaiter ca*ks and barrels, and l.tdd eases.) For the corresponding period of IM>U, however, the Importations ol brandies Into ti e same non are returned at 83,0 P) packages (i. <=., 732 half pipe*, 15,302 quarter casks and bar rels, and 15,1:0 cases), thus showing a large in crease in quantity as well as in revenue. The returns of importations of spirituous 1 quors, distilled from grain, for the first ten months of also showau Increase of lime bundled per ccut over tbo.-e of the corresponding period ot 1:05. A a the present rale o! duty Im posed on "gins** and other spirituous liqnore dis tilled trom grain is, however, greatly dispropor tionate to their invoiced value, the Commissioner is of opinion that a reduction ot the duty on these liquors from two dollars and fifty cents (gold) to two dollars per gallon, would be attended with an increase ot revenue. Ihe total amount of revenue derived from the imporiatlonsofbiaudies and spirituous liquots, other than wine, during the fiscal year IS fi, ac cording to the returns of the Treasury Depart ment, was fulfil,2l9. Tfco amount of revenue derived from the same retraces in Great Britain dming the year isfio, with about tbe same rams ot dutv. wa» returned at 517,3M5,75t*. • On wines, the Commissioner recommends that the cd talorttn system he swept away si once and forever; Its adoption having proved detrimental to ail legitimate business, destructive of ievenu\ and an endless source ot litigation between the Government and the importers. The ai valorem pnnciple heingabandoned, only two chcr meth ods ol assessing dutle- upon wines are available. Fiim, the English method of assessing the duty according lo the percentage of spirits contained in them;and, secondiy,theestablishment of one specific duty per gallon npou all wines containing lets than tmny per cent of alcohol. On wine in bottles, this duty, by no imposition of throe cents additional on tne bottle, would be increased to sixty-five ctms per gallon. If the rate named may seem 100 low a duty to be Imposed on an article so essentially a luxary aswlne. the Commissioner would asknttention to the following facts. According to data de rived Item the Treasury Department there were imported for tbe fiscal year ending June Sfftb, XtOi, y,47issU gallons of wine. Of this quanl'tv, 5,&t3,-iin gallons were returned a* val ued at fi-ss tbhn fifty cents per gallon, and paying a dntv of twenty cents per gallon, and twenty-five per cent ad xaloran; CSfi,Cvs gallons valued at over fifty cent* and not over one dollar per gal ion, paying fifty cents per gallon, and twenty-five percent ad taloittn ; and 317,7tU gallons valued at over one dollar per gallon, paying one dollar per gallon, and twenty-five per cent ad valorem. it Is therefore evident that the rates proposed, übile they ate satisfactory to the importing in terest, are really a large average advance upon the existing tariff. The tariff rates established on cigar- by tho act of July 35,1SUJ. are almost prohibitory, and on seme varieties are entirely so, resulting in a con siderable lo*s ol custom* revenue to the Govern* niLUt. As an illustration tne importation of a va riety ofr.lgars, known as “Swiss Cigars,” which are reported to be made to a considerable extent fiom American tcbacco, may he cited. The in voice cost of these cigars is tC.SO per thousand, and as thev average eight pounds tn weight, the specific dutv of fo.CO per pound amounts, in the first instance, to {'JUKI To which must he further added an ad raf onrn duty of flfiy per cent, or 3.23 Making a total Impost per thousand of. 527. a sura equivalent to an ad valorem tax of 119 per cent, and mailing the total cost of the above ci gar*, when oceicd in the American market, ex clusive of freight, commissions and other charge?, 1&.73, gold, or fat It) per cent premium) f 4T‘3 curraccv. As might he expected from this showing, the importation of Swim cigars has en tirely ceased. . . , „ In view, however, of the very full examination and discussion of the tariff on clears, given by committees, atlbe lasi session, aiidin viewofthofacv tnatihe domestic tobacco Interest i« almost nnaninnna in favor of the con tinuance of the present rates, lae Commissioner baa not lelt warranted, without anopportnnity lor further examination, to recommend any change in Ul3 existing rate*. WAsrcracrcni® or cottojt. A carcfnl examination has he**n made of the du ties upon manufactures of cotton, and of *hclr relative proportion to the Internal taxes, and it is believed that no mate rial change should cc made, at present, in the rates of dntv imposed b» *.co existing tat iff. Ithas been proved to the satislatlon of the Com missioner, -bat at the date of September, IS A the ♦eternal taxes upon ’.he great mass of plain cotton ■-oodi made iu the Unit' d states, amounted to teiweru ibirteen and fourteen per cent uooa the whole ceetof manufacture, without mating anw allowance lor loss of inteicst caused hythc.iddi« tional cost of erecting mills arising trom th; to* position of Internal taxes open Uie materials and machinery required therefor. . , a , Dd poods, ard apon printed soocs especially, the proportions of taxes to cost .Is greater, and Is ceummed at over Qu*eaper f?2V.«i n Ti ew °C !befle facta, after proTldlng for tne Imposition of specific duties upon all woven rotton goeda, a clause has been added providing JiJf* fac specific dut'cs shall amount to at least }°{"7 r frcc nt upon brown, thirty-three and a third per ccnt on bleached, and thirty-five per cent on printed cottons. y iU2 dera .l e Unction Is recommended in the , dul J, imposed upon the coarser ana more staple goods, being such as are used by the poorer classes, bnt it 1$ not believed that any 10 } ho , rcven ae can be ex pected from snch reduction; inasmuch as the pome manufacture of snch goods Is not exposed J° W pt , e .“ foreign competition in the home Jv , 13 claimed by the advocatf aof protec- SS?ii!?l ta n5 do 5 u ?. no f tbal P 0 would oiti ®®Je:| J r tn tbc borne manufacture of fabrics and otber atiicles at a coat less than that at which t nej could be Imported; and it must be admiacd that either through protection or some other cause, the production of hcpvy cotton goods had become eo well cstalisfaed as to have supplied not only ibe borne market, but to have competed in °^ e ,r countries, especially China and India, with English fabrics to the extent of from eight to eleven millions per annum for sevciol years before the late war. Bnt the manufacture of these heavy fabrics is now seriously burthenedby the pressure of internal taxes, and the export of them is at present very small, although, provision has been made in lh» haemal revenue l“w « or a drawback of as many cents per pound on the pound of cloth exported aa bad been assessed on the pound of cotton used, and also for a drawback eqnal to the mi tclortm tax imposed npoa the finl-ued fabric, fcuch, however, has been the cuharced own of la bor arising from heavy taxation on commodities consumed by >be operatives, and the enhanced °oat of manufacture caused by the taxes noon coal, oil, leather, transportation, iron and steel, and lor which no drawback Is orcao be allowed as lo render •f doubtml whether (he export of cotton fabrics can be resumed to any large extent until' the tab real tases ere very much reduced- it has been proved to the satisfaction of tno Commis sioner, that the amount ol such indirect taxation (estimated in gold by reducing currency to gold at the rate of one hundred and fortv), would amouettoa profit of about nice her cent per annum upon the investment r. quired In Et.-land for the erection of a mill to produce these heavy fabrics. In cousequciiCe of lhi» state ot the tacts, very many of tbo coarser mills have been or are being altered, at heavy expense and after a long period of idleness, so a? to adapt them to the man ufacture of medium or fine goods for the tome market. Xbe Commissioner baa made a chance in the classification oi cotton fabrics, providing that all PI&JtJ woven, and simple or unlformaly woven twilled Roods, shall be included In three classes, pciweei. v men the distinction is made as before, bv counting the threads. I'uis method is, on the whole, believed to be the most simple mat can be determlicd on, but as there has been some uncer tainty, and many disputes, arising from tnc diffi culty oi counting threads in fancy woven roods, a fourth class has been added in which all such goods ate comprised. The duties recommended upon Class 2, in which class Is compiisea Hie great bulk of cotton goods and in this country, arc mainly the rameas those imposed bv the present tarin upon plain goods of the fame class; the only change from the present laiifl being ftom twenty per cent to fifteen per cent in the additional ad valorem rate upon plain coeds when colored, stained, painted or printed; trom which change a moderate increase of reve- Lue may be expected. It has been satisfactorily proved to the Com missioner that without making any allowance for the increased cost of erecting factories at tho piescnt time, and the consequent loss of interest upon the additional capital expended, the inter nal taxes npon the great range of-cotton goods arc conectly exhlbi edinthe following table, basing the cost oi nianniacurc npon the rates ot wages paid in September. 1S0C; and Ibe price of O’Uon at tbc same date, via.: thirty-five cents per pound lot middling uplands. Utibhahoi JF»6rif, Thirty-ilx Indus wif. Claeses i ana 2. ct 2 an '-s x ® s2T £.* tfa 8 S *s=-= £= = 2.-:? =2 £5- £ sS r : i? 5 = 3-g ga c=-5 3 &~H_sa *o h-s S* 5 tat* 5-- = E=-a ;» 2=“ I | m.f ;=.||- if i|| i i | § ills tVrp.Hl’R.Yds. CIS. CIS. Prct.Uls. CW.Frcl Fret, to 50 3.1.0 17J0 2.36 13.72 4 1.64 33 16.23 49 48 2.H1 IS>3 2.57 13.63 4 113 33 lo.iT 56 CO 4 11.91 2.01 13.05 5 2.96 30 16.35 64 64 3.70 10Jil 2.21 13.31 5 2.76 SO 16. J 7 61 04 6.31) 15.15 1.76 PUS 5 3.51 SO 10 62 68 72 4.11 15.80 2.13 :S.II 5 2 Jit S 3 IC.SB 72 S 9 4.C5 16.91 2.23 13.13 S 2.77 30 10.-2 81 81 4 17.12 2.31 13.45 5 2.00 SO 16.53 St *llO S.C9 19.18 2,55 13.21 5 2.13 30 16.72 100 100 4.11 15.73 2.47 13.17 5 2.53 30 16.33 From this table it will at once appear, that if an allowance be made of a portion of the duties im posed, as an offset or equalization of the internal tasen (either fiomtbc specific rate or from the minimum Qd valorem recommended in case the specific dn-ics do not amount to a certain given per cent), that the remainder of the duty repre sents a low rale of assessment rather than a hi *h one, and it is believed that the imerost of ifie revenue will not allow any exeater reduction in the existing rales of er than those recommended. That the existing rates ofdmyhavo not prevent ed the importation of large quantities of cotton fabrics dm lug the last few years, is shown by the following tabic: and as the duties rccommecded aie substantially the same as now, the course ol tiaac will probably not be interrupted: latroitTS or cotton aiAXirrACTcnts. i 1?«1 f23.i27,iin ii,:sc.;iid IWB 18.‘)15,T33 isot i7,iyr,ats JSOS 22,UUUT.O ISUC .TUfltVddl The bulk of the cotton goods now Imported, en ter immediately into consumption, and cannot be speedily produced at home; especially so lone as all Hie metals and tbc cost of all toots and machinery of production nud transportation arc as heavily buruened with taxation as at present. In order to exhibit more clearly tbc onerous na ture of the internal tax**? npon c nr manufactures, and the tendency of such taxes to destroy our ex port trade. the Commissioner has caused to bo prepared the lollowlng jtatemeut, to which care ful attention should be given in connection with the revoimi cudution previously nude, that the internal taxes should bo induced. Ills exceedingly desirable that we should cx poit finished manufactures ratner than tnc ra*y product of the soil or the mines, and great pro gress had been made prior to 1569 m the export of tuavy cotton goods, tbo amount, as has been stated, having ueen SS,«jO,(JU) to 511,000,b€i) per annnm. Every possible measure has been taken by Con gress to losirr tills export by the ol'owauco of drawbacks, mu uo drawback can be allowed for li.dhect taxation. The cost ot a mill for the production of the heavy sheetings and mills formerly exported, of ike capacity ol ten thousand spindles would be, a: this date, not less than &£Xj,UU). pbc product oftucb a mill would be 1,23u,11Xl pounds per au trim. Toe cost at this date of seen product would be *U>U,US; of which the lazes would oc $1)0,125 orul.Slperccntupon the capi’al. of this large amour! of taxis, no drawback Is allowed, or can be allowed, for the amount of§ltt,W) : of estimated indirect taxation; and the foreign manufacturer bus, tbciefOic, (be advantage of t lO.WiU, in all for eign markets. A mill often thousand spindles can be put in operation m England tor the marniactnrc of the : erne goods, for about SISJ.Dri); and If the f advantage tie reduced to gold, at the rate of one hundred and forty, it amounts to §11,12>, or near ly nine per cent upon the English capital. The tenser is therefore obvious why we can no longer exchange cotton fabrics, to any gieat extear, tor the tuts of thing, or tortbe saltpetre and gunny dolls of India. ye» there is bclkr provision for the allowance ot drawback upon cotton tabrlcs exported, than npon almost any other of the man ufactures of the country. The ; loportiou of cost set opart as representing the taxes included therein, t? intended to cover, 1. 1 he lax u( three cents per pound upon raw cclton and the customary per cent usually allowed for wa:te, viz., one-sixth, computed noon the amount of the tax of three ernP, or one half cent per pound, making the allowance for the taxed three cents on the raw cotton, three and a halt cents npon the cloth (the drawuack al lowed in cose of uxpott being three cents on the pound of cloth). It mar ht- objected that the internal tax of three cents per pound is assessed also npon raw cotton shipped to other countries, but as American c-i --tdi-iorms lor the lime being the leaser part of the supply ol the world, this objection cannot bo al lowed. 2. 'Jbe tnx of five per cent npon the sale of the finished fabric; ana in the computation this tax is assessed upon a pticcwhlch* would yield the manufacturer ten pet cent prod:. Z. An allowance is mane, which has been pro nounced by many experts to be insufficient, for tbc additional cost ot oil, fuel, iron and steel lor repairs, transportation, leather. Ac., £?., and for the it ci cased cost of the living of the operatives, growing onl of the imposition of taxes upon or <icie- consumed by them. Tbc rate ol this allow ance is compute*: at ono-flftb the increased cost of laher, and of all supplies other than cotton, over the cost of the same items in IyGO.l y GO. this allowance being equal to nine and onc-quaner per t ent upon the present cost of such labor and supplies, ex clusive of COttfD. It should also be staled that this third Item of ador-mce for tares, being the only one dependent upon and not capable of positive proof, amounts to hntfiCMQO per cent on the total cost of mo«.ufiic:nro. out of au average total taxation ot thirteen cud a half per cent, ttie remainder be ing capable oral solum demonstration. As has been before stated in the estimate of tblttccr and a ball percent to’al taxation, no al lowance is made for the increased cost or erecting factories arc the consequent lose of interest; If this i«em were added, wc proportion of cost of goods lobe set aa’de for taxes won’d he overflf tecii per cent, and tbc proportion ot duties ap plied as an oilset for ihe taxes would he propor tional!? greater, hut Uis unnecessary to include this item in order to prove (hat neither the duties impo-cd by the existing tarid nor the range now recommended are prohibitive or highly protective, hut on tnc contrary they are not anove tbc admit ted tevei ue point. On the finer fabrics Included in Class 3, a small increase of duty is recommended. These goods, especially when colored or printed, are articles more of luxury than necessity, dependent npon stvlc and finish, and toe consump tion of which is hut little affected by moderate or even blph dmic-,as they are used mostly by the wealth' c.asses. The Increase of duties upon these fafi. Ics ta recommended purely as a revenue mcasute. Upon spool-cotton a moderate redaction is re* commended, and npon unwound thrcs>] and yarn, a cianse in the existing tar IE, which would be proba-lthe were it not Inoperative, is omitted, .and in place thereof a graduated scale of dalles is recommended. There have been large additions made to the spindles ol the country for producing tine coiion yarns during the past year, and as they have been built at very high cost, ir is believed than any sndtltii and large reduction in the duties upon thread micht cause great injury to this par* 'tlally established industry, without yielding any coniiien?atinc gain to the revenue. A moderate specific duty is recommended in eddt'icn to the ad zalorcm rate upon cotton \ usdery. This manufacture has been Jaiely established I.j the United. States, and now em ploys a large number of operatives and of capi tal.’ It has been started, moreover, npon ma chinery megtiy imported at very high cost, and require* such attention as the Interest of the reve nue nil! allow. If it may appear that undue attention and space have been given to the revenue do med irotu manufactures of cotton, ic should be nmemltcrcd that there is scarcely auy orber branch of manufacture in the United States in which the cost can be ascertained with such absolute accuracy, and the relation of internal taxes to the costand to the duties so clearly defined; and It may be also added, that despite the prosperity of a portion of the roanu iacmicts, there are tew branches of business upou which the present system cf int?rnal taxation bears more onerously, or whose investigation proves more clearly the expediency acu necessity ofa speedy reduction ol the Internal tax on maa nlactniiiig industry elsewhere recommended. It may cere ha stan d that no desire has been manifested on the part of the great majority of the couoc spinners for the passage of a highly protective tariff. Upon this point there appears to have been a widespread mtsunder-tanning. it having been supposed that the large prod’s made by a portion of the cotton mills of J?cw England have been In consequence ofsnoposed highly protecuvedntics lust used by the existing foriti. Such, however, is not the fact. The existing duties arc not mainly ot that caturc, and the profits have been nude by a portion of the mills only. The coarser mills of the country have. In some cases, made large profits on the rise in cotton, hut tor three years after the beginning of the war, gocas would seldom pay the cost Of pro duction if made from coiron purchased near the time of sale, and those mills which were not for tuii’-te in ibeir cotton pnrchr*-cs, in many cases made very heavy losses, of which not much no tice has been lauen except ty the owners, UpoL the medium and finer fabrics large ptoflta have nndonb cdly been made lor the last two rears, rot in consequence of protection, bat be cause the country taring more money ra circula tion and more apparent means wherewith to pur chase, demands a better grade of goods than for merly, and while th- re bos been, from IbffJ to 1865 inclu.-ivts tittle increa«e in the number of cotton spirdles, there has been a great Increase ot popu lation. During the era of very high prices, con snmptkn was much cartailed, but when thepricea of goods fell with cotton to a moderate point, a demand ensued for the finer and better grades of cotton cloth, even beyond the capacity of spinners losnpplv, Ibe rapid extension of mills and the erection of ntwoi es have been for a lime prevented by the diversion of shilled labot ffrom the machine shop?, ana also to a far greater extent by the imposition and duplication of taxes npou iron and steel. Bat despite the excessive cost of erecting mills and machinery, which la no-v ready or quite double the cost in and lECO, the large profits have hid their Jegi'imato result, and a large extension of mannfacluio may soon be expected, with apro‘>a ble equalization of prices and profit,- 1 . Daring :he year indiog September 1, iscc, over axtixo n'w spindles went into operation, and mills to cont lin count MO.tCO spindles are now under way, nea-ly all upon the medium and finer fabrics; tbe arc uate increase Doing 180,100 spindles or morethm fourteen per cent on the whole-number existing in WOOL AKt) WOOLLXSS. In respect to wool and woollens, and especially to so rnuen of it c House Bill No. TiS, as proposes to increase toe defies on the Importation of these articles, the Commissioner would report aa fol lows ; Ibe tariff legislation In respect to these pro dr<? V to , Tbe time, has been extremely variable- ar.d often inconsistent in its character. iLus, the tariff of 1&12 imposed a dutv of three cents per touLd specific, and thirty-percent cd taloKjn, upon vjool costing eighteen cents per pound or under; in IMO, the rale was reduced to thirty per cent ad valorem, and in iSs7,thls class ' of wools was made duty free. In isci, the doty on the same grades was fixed at five per cent ad valorem , and so remained until IS<M, when tbe du ties were further advanced to the existing rates of three cents per pom d specific on wools costing twelve cents per pound or less, and six cents per pound on wools costing more than twelve cents and less than twenty-four cents. Near the close of the year iS6S, la view of the evils rc-nltiog Horn each instability of legislation, ana ui vtt-w tnrtln rmore of a feeling or antago nism of opinion in respect to the larifi; which baa always undoubtedly prevailed, to'somc extent, be tween tbe wcol-growcra and the wool manufac turers, a joint convention of the representatives of these two great interests was called, witb the hope that a full and mutual discussion b tween the two ncnits would lead to the acknowledgment of a harmony of Interests, on the owe band, and io a concurrence of sentiment In respect to future tariff legislation on tbe other. This meeting was held at Syracuse, New York. December 13,”j8 3, and was numerously attended. It does not appear, acco; dii g to representations made to the cemmis mirsior.or.that the woollen manufacturers, through whom the call for the meeting originated, had any expectation that action would be taken look ing to ary increase of duties upon wool over ar.d above those then exist ing; bnt, on the contrary, they hoped aud expected, that the wool-gtowers would cunccde the propriety of a redaction of rates on these classes of wools—like the “combing’* and carpet wools—which are not produced lo any extent lu this country. They were, however, met with the demand from the wool-growers that tae duties on al. unwashed wools, except carpet wools, should be advanced from the existing rate oi six cents per pound to twenty cents per pound, and iweutv per cent aa talurtm. After earnest dUcnssion, however, these rates were abated to ten cents per pound and ten per cent ai xalorem , aud were ac cepted by the reptesc’iiativrs of the manufactu rers. on condition that ibhty-five per cent ad rofo ran additional should be imposed on imported woollens, over and above an aggrcgelc snmdent to reimburse the manufacturer tor the duties on wool ar.d dye stefis, aud his expenses for carrying tbe same; or thirty-five percent cd valorem lana allien to reimbursing specific duties, amounting to Cfiy-threc cents, as a minimum, on each and every pound of woollen goods Imported. “ Noth- Itg less,” s&y tbe committee in their report to the Kevcnnc commission, “than a specific dntv of Dfiy-'lirce cents pet pound on such manufactures wit be sufficient to msec the manufac urer on the same position os if be Lad bis raw material tree of du'j—a position which he most demand as an im perative necessity tor the preservation cf his in dustry.” On this basis, a schedule of duties on wool and woollens was arranged, which is substantially the came as i.ow embodied in House Bill No. 7iS. A careful examination, however, of lie whole subject, the opportunity for which, owing to a limitation of time and the pleasure of otacr busi ness, was net afforded to Congress or its commit tees at its last session, leads the Cummissiuuer to the conclusion tbaltbc -chtdule of rates :u gaea tion, proposed as the basis ot the futnie tariff on woo! and woollens, is of a character not warranted *y the eircumstax ces of the case, and prejudicial alike to the tine interests of the woobgrowtr, the revenue, and to the great mass of consumers and tas-pa>cra throughout the conntrr. A full con fiunaticn ofthcse views, it is believed, will be fonno tu the following summary of facts and con clusions: ilrt’. According lothe rcpor; or the Executive Committee rf ttie Wool-Growers’ As-ociation, submitted to the Ibre-nuc Cummlssion. the pref ect annual production of wool ic. the United States is about cue hundred million pound*.** Arsnmtug the average price to the grower of v-athed ai.d unwashed woo! at fifiy e cts per pound, we Lave as the entire annual >alue of the cup fifty millions of dollars in eirrcucv. or about thirty-five million three Imndri'd and .iicctv thou- Mfi dollars, present gold valuation (December 1, 2Cow tie motive In imposing the proposed min imum duly often cents per'pound specific anil ten per cent od ralurtm , is manifestly to raise ihe value or price of ihe American wools to the same extent; and if it lulls to do this, the object of the wooi-giower wilt certainly not be attained. '■The number ol sets of woollen n-achlnerv or fie ri- sof cards i mplored In the United States, re ported to the Wool JlanmicimiTs’ Association in October, let*?, was four thousand one hmulrcd,t+ cer.Mtmirg a,*,*52, M 5 pounds of scoured wool, and substitutes for wool, per week ; hut these re tutus. ii was slated, did nut probably indicate more than three-fourths to lour-tiUbs of the sew ti cd in actual operation Suppose, However, the balance to fovsumc wool cental to the s-hrinkln? from the caids to the manufactured goons—and U ere is no douot but they will do more than that—we have, then as the weekly product of the counlrv (in pros perous rimes), two million fhc hundred thousand pounds of cloth per week, or ouc hundred and seventeen millions of pounds per annum. Again. the weight ol the woollen goods Import ed into the United Stales during the fiscal rear ISOH, the Commissioner, alior a careful examina tion, estimates to have been as follows: .. . Pounds. woollen goods proper 17, • (W.uyj Carpels.... 2^et’,UoU Drc-s goods, bunting, and woreted man ufactures 15,500,000 Total :iC,t«iii,ooo These rCMtits, therefore. Indicate the present average ccnsiimpilon of manufactured woollens In the United Elates to oe about one hundred and fifty millluu pounds per annum. It must be evident now tha;, to the extent to which tbc cost of wool is increased to tbo Ameri can manufacturer, through ’he inctvastd duties on his rawma:crial.«. it "ill be necessary to im pose an equivalent incicafc ol unties outlie im portation ol foMgn woollens, otherwise tre tu cleaned price ol wool, gr wing out of the dutv, wen d act as a bounty in favor of the foreign mais n aclnrer, and prove speedily disastrous noth to the American wool-grower aud to the Amer.caa woolb-n manufacturer. fobalanc; ibe duties proposed upon wool, the .Executive Committee of ttu* woollen manufactu rers ctaltn, aud endeavor to prove it to re essen tial to the preservation of their industry, that for every cent of duty Imposed on wool, four cents per pound must t.e charged on all woollens im ported. It is also clear that if the price bto b » enhanced to the extent ot the duty, the advance must be estimated alike on goods made ot domes tic as w< II as of foreign wool. Consequently' for every cent of dutv imposed on wool, me Ameri can consumer will be taxed four cents per pound cu bb mnmif. cturci woollens ; which tax on the pieset t annual consumpfon of tbc conntrv, vtz , one hundred and City millions pounds, ’would amount to the sum of sis millions five hundred iLoHfomi dollars for each cent ol duty imposed on wool. Assuming the existing rata of duty npon unwashed wool nt six cents;; per ponnu. the present annual tax for the pro tection of this interest Is, therefore, (Sd.&.C',t‘ik!x‘J cents—) SiW,Ou;,CW>; but at t'ie proposed rate, asraiulcg eleven and a half cents as the mini mum, this tax will be further increased ($J,3*kM 0d xs}£ _) $55,T50,CW1; or. In other words, (he pro posed (anil on wool at d woollens will tax the community ill it should have the effect sought by thoicwbo ptopo-e it,) to the extent of seventy four milllccß seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars per annum for tbc protection of on in tetest, the whole annual value of whose product, a : we have already shown, cannot be considered in execs- of thiity-six millions of dollars gold valuation. Can any such amount of taxation, cn an absolute necessity of life In tbU country, i.e justified under the plea of prelection to American industry, and that industry, one which cannot claim high protection on the plea that it Is not yel wel l established? &eontify. I.ct us neyt consider whether the business o? wool-growing, at the time the bill ui cer consideration was framed, was in a con dition to warrant such on extreme aemaud for protection. The average price for medium American washed wools in the New York market in the latter part of ISGS, was from sixty to sixty-five cents. The average price of the same wools from 1627 to 1 02. vns loriy-two and eight-tenths (-U S-M) cents: the average premium uo gold dining the period fissl-mentlom d was forty-six p<-r cent.; it therefore appears that when the rote* undercon* flueiaticii were u.atr.rou and demanded as a ne cessity. the wool-gro er wn» receiving a price equivalent to the average price before the war; and shut (he growing of wool at those prices was then profitable, is abundantly proven bv the lol lowit g quotation from the best authority in the l niitrt stares on this subject—viz.: the President of the American Wool-uower*' A*socl Kiou : “liuw vc-iy striking is ihe fact that, during thirty-eight years (ending Jui.naiy 1. I-" 1 -'.**], and w ith a>J the disturbing causes to the woo! market, then has not been a single vearia widen the avetave- price (-12 e-in) for ir»e wool mark* d *m •• diaio.' would not noic [Sept., itUll pay theac nal cost of producing our heavy fleu-ccd American ( h!cttno wools Of the jiroductioo of bow-many olher of our great staples of industry can as much he said?*' Ihe low prices of wool at the present Cine arc no legitimate arguments "In respect to litis question. Inasmuch as they arc abnormal m their character, and are due mainly to a general depression of business, consequent upon an an ticipated reduction of pries, and to on over im portation oi foreign wools in the spring ami sum mer of 1600’, Emulated by the prospect of au ad vance in Uetarifl. TJttrdhj. But laying aridc all other consider ations, let us next inquire vheiher the granting ot the proposed rates by Congress will afford to the wool-growers the relief which is confidently expected. ihe trouble under which the wool-grower at present labors, is one and the same affecting every ether branch of industry tn the country, viz., a most extraordinary advance in the cost ot* all the elements entering Into production. To remedy this state of things the wool-grower now proposes to make the co-t of production still higher, for it cannot he supposed that be alone, of all the producers of Ibo country. Is to o« allowed to Advance the price of his products without sub mitting to au equivalent advance in (be price of all others. The present prices of New England, New York and Ohio unwa?t>ed wools (New York iVrcs Cur rent, November ?, JSfii,) range from thirty to forty-six cents per pound, and at these rates u Is claimed that me business of wool-growing, par ticularly m the Slates of New York, Pennsylvania, atd Ohio, is 'ery far from remunerative. A higher rate of duty is, therciote. asked on iho importation of the foreign competing wools, the principal and cheapest ot which—the south Amer ican ot Mestizo unwashed—wa* quoted In New York at the above date, at from tuenty-lour to thirty-four etna per pound (currency). The production ot cheap wools, however, is col confined to foreign countries. Wool from Texas Ir rowoScrcd in Now York at from* twenty to ibirty-ln o cents perpoand. and it was claimed Ddore the war, that wool could be produced in that Mate as cheap as cotton.or (bom five to ten cents per found. Whether Ufa claim was an ex aggerated one or not ir Is immaterial to discuss, but the Commissioner would ask attention, first: —:o an authoritative siatemcct of the President of the AmcricanWool-growers 1 Association, to the ef- Icci, thatwrdletve costot keeplngasaeeu on the high-priced lands of New England aod New York,. Is two dollars per annum, the co-u in tbc southern and southwestern parr of the United States “docs pot exceed twenty-five cents per head per an nmn.’*c And secondly, that the results of a car.ful ex amination of Texas, made during the past year by an experienced Northern wool-grower, and sub mitted to the Commissioner, give fifteen cent* per round as the present estimated cost of raising wool in that S'ate. At the presect time, moreover, the production of wool in Southern Kansas and in New Mexico, where the conditions of cost are nearly the- same as in Texas, where the sheen feed out the«ycar renrd, and where two shearings are not uncom mon,. Is Increasing with great rapidity. It is also reported to the Commissioner thsitho cost of raisirg wool in the great S*ales of Minnesota and lowa, is not ip excess of one-half of the cost of product in Ohio; while in California, whose pro duct of wcotls rapidly Incrcfttlng(and Is now sold m ftew i‘orlc, after tiansport&tron around Cape Horn, at from twenty to thiity-als cents per : ponnd\ the cost of woo], !>y the Cessna of ISGU, was returned at only twelve and a half cents ter pound. And as touching tba question of locality in wool-growing, it should th:borne in mind that the cost ol transporting wool Is less !n compari son with Its value than of ary other agricultural •Tbeestltcnteol the Agricultural Department ot the “clip” efISSG, Is one hundred aid seventeen mll litcs.an estimate, in Iho cplolon of the Executive Committee ot the Wool-Growers’ Association, alto gether too high. _ _ . . __ +tSee report of the Revenue Commission, page 4«. ttA part of the wools imported, vlr, the carpet wools, are subjected, both under the existing and pr£ p A*tc tarttfe, to a lc»» rate of duty than six cents per pound; tut as the minimum raw of doty oa all wool* costing less than twentj-toar cent: per pound, owing to the addition of freights, charges and commissions, to their invoice value. Is now moro than six emts; andasail wool* valued at over tweaty-foap cent* per pound are subjected to dotlos ox tco cent* per pound and upwards, the average assumed as the da-I* of the calculation respecting taxation Is rather diminished %-f SnoaU’iPractical Shepherd, page* 91,98,1568. product; the ratio, from a point two hundred miles west ot Chicago to.the seaboard having been established some years since.as cightvpsr ccnton the nine-of wheat; thirty per cent on pork; twenty per cant on beef; while on wool ir was only four per ccntth The Inquiry therefore, becomes a pertinent one, aa to what protection the wool-grower of New England, New i'oik and Ohio, expect to obtain, as'agafnal the competing wools of other parts of the United Mates, which arc already onered in tbe market at about tue tame price aa the foreignilestiw wool? and more especially, when It is corsldercd that these cheap domestic wools are to receive, under the proposed increase of rates, an cd salorem protection, and a tariff stimulus as much in excess of fiat given io the wools of New England, New York and Ohio, *? ’ho producing coafol the former ately inferior to that of the litter. In short, is It no, evident that any advantage to be derived Iron, an mcieasee duty on foreign wool—onuing it.aa Dian as It cr.uld in any way be home—most ofne- S£*?‘iT b ® delusive and of temporary benefit; and i5 a »k° r il I ®/ u i Q S- e » ,be b “»inesa oC.wool-g-owing the United States Is to be regulated by cll • soil, and the value of-Lmd—rather than MacSLt r t ll * cI: iV I r- Cccnc « a resulting from tariff the wo °l-srowere of the older e , and sect lo how tb;ir own hy ■*nr h th^ e m 8l ' te ? 10 recmlt - and revivify the llod.s of the more favored States, and in* turning their attention more fully to supplying the mare fc! i »MilsSMi ei^l!W,al can be obtained UoJrfJ&tt? ******>* itt their calculi- Again, with the temporary increase in'the prise of wool, and a decrease in the price of cotton, the irevltaole tendency mast be to again ramdlr bring iu cotton aa a competitor to wool - decreas ing the consumption of the latter, - and increasing tbal ot the lorxner, both as a separate manufac ture and as a constituent lor mixing with wool in tbe tncnniaciuv of wcoJlcns.wlth a view tf reduc ing their,cost. It needs, therefore, no gif*, or pro . phccjto predict that between allmulalcd lic ccmpuitkn and the increased consumption or cottop, the ■■ col grower woo now asks for higher piducttoc win tit bis request is acceded to) be ginned os between the npper and nether null atone. ilvrUi'.y. T,ct a- -next consider ihe relation which the growing ami manufacturing of wool are to miiiutain to each other under the pro posed tarinl As, under all ordinary clrcum stT.ce?, the American wool-grower can. ot export bis product to any foreign country with an tif cctatu-n of profit, and Is entirely dependent upcti the American manufacturer for a market, it would seem to netd no argument lo prove, that a f'atc of pre?pe;iTy on the part of the wool mann fat rarer is essential to, anu must precede a condi tion of prosperity on th- part of the wool-grower. roenuule ihe manufacturer-, however, to pros per—or In ether words, to produce cheaply and geli largely—«is necessary, no' only that the raw materials should be aSbrccdtothematlair nrlccs, ler also that they j-hould not be tesirictcd'in the tc.i ci.cii of varieties. No one country produces ml the vaiiedes of wool, but ever*- country has its own distinctive qualities, adapted eanscially for eome Peculiar branch of the woollen manofac •lure. It Is, therefore, evident that uo connirv can make all the varieties ot woollen goods unless it can go lor Its supply ot raw material to such oth , ers as may be necessary, to ob.aln the varieties not raised within iu own bom.danes. To pre . cinde the marufreturer Irom doing this. Is eonir alviit to prescribing that hie business shall not be allowed the privilege of obtaining that develop- * ment which is enjoyed lu all other countrie*. Teat the granting oftbia Urer privilege, more over. to the manufacturer would not prove a delrlmtnt to the domestic producer, but rather a benefit, the experience of our own, audofal otter countries, iXers abundant proof. ~ Thus, an examination of the prices of domestic wool, from k-» to ISC?, establishes the fac* that the periods when the American wool-grower baa obiaicid the highest rates for his products, have been coincident with those of the lowest tariff? ' and that tils was especially the ca-e from ISM to Isfi', when wools, costing xwc« tv cents per pound and under, were admitted into the United States _ free ot duty. This drcnmstance finds areadr expianatiou in tbc tact, that during the pcrloda referred to, the American mannUclnrvr wa« ena bled to produce cheaply aud cell cheaply, and competing advantageously with tbo lorei'Ti pro ducer, to furthermore sell largely; and ihat underthe increased consumption .bar followed the fUpply of domfsllc wool became icade.male* to the (itmand. 1 .Ah who are familiar with the history of Great Britain, moreover, know that when that coon try first aboii?hea the duties on foreign woo), the wool-eiowtr? made earnest opposition- to the mcasme, in the faith that their interests would he destroyed; but trom that day to thi->, the wool product ol that country has steadily increased with regularly advancing prices, subject only to those fluctuations which, from various disturbing causes, afll-ct all trades and occupations. That the expert' ence ot i iatce Is aiso tc. the same effect, I- ‘•town byartceWicponofM, Baudrlllard to the Em rcror of the French or. tills subject. h» which U is shown that when tbeduty on wool was reduced in brsnee. irom thlrty-tcree to iwcntv-iwo per cetl ccL taloretr, the price of wool vicrta»eti, and was maintained at trom six to eight per cent ato'e the termer rates. A? an txulauailon of this, >l. Baudnllard says: - ibe home produc- Uon l> not suthclent for the dully increasin'' wants of our iiif'tij.jry. hverj cheek thiown in tre wa▼ ol the latter, adect.-its-activity. As soon as our manuiaemrers cannot procure foreign wool, th- T decrease their production, Kousc thev cannot find at hon.e me reqmied qualities, and the * reueh wool which they would have u*od to mis .u, lies about in the markets. 1 he stalls: leal tables ot hi gland lead exactly to the same conclusions - i high only, low wool a* home—moderate duty or tier wco», prices good at home *’ -jo the extent towhlchwe now deprive the Amcr.can wool manufacturer of adv.intans'.in He selection aml cost of bis raw mutenaT, ton certain, if not u» an equal extent no we in crease those ot hi? foreign, competitors. Ihe seventy millions pounds of lore«-n wool annually import-, a into tnc United States, to meet a utmand which tre production of American wool does not yet supply, will nut cease to be produced because the American tnanuiaettuer i.- forbidden to take it. Directed from It? present channel of consninpiion. it nn?t tn d Its way to the markets oi I.urope; and through the diminution of price w jicti always follows an excess of supply, an ad vantage will no given to the. foreign over the American manufacturer. largely additional to ! w hat benowposM Ssistc and this, conped with ! the use oj shoddy and cotton, will lead to an'.m --* portation of che p foreign woollens Into the Unt ted Mates, which no tariff, short of absolute pro hibition. can snppiess. ■ A further, and wc think most valid objection to the pi oposeit rates is. Hint their adoption will se riously impair the immediue cold reveane of the Govctnim-i:: and thu? delay the abatement or re mova> of the various Internal and duplicated taxes on or mestic Industry, which are the real sources of the trouble? under which the wool-grower as well as every other Amurxac producer W.y ta bor*. The a tuption of these rate? will also tend to destroy a not inconsiderable part of the foreign commerce that yet remains to the United States. The large American carrying trade which before tbewarwas maintained with Brazil and other M’Ulh American States has. as already fia;ed, been nearly anmfcPaten, bnt a very considerable number of vessels arc yet employed in the Cape ot Good Hope and Australian trade, earijlngoci the products of American Industry, and uceinng lor the same, in great part, the wools of thuEe countries. If the proposed rate on wools nn adopted, the Commisioner is assured, that nearly ail these vessels will be at once withdrawn from this trade—inasmuch as the Importation or a return cargo of wool will be Impossible. That it may be clearly {understood as to where the loss from ihe distinction ot this trade will fall, vregive the following summary of an invoice of a cargo of orcot these vessels (beingbnt oucoutof eight or tune sent every year by the same Arm), which. within a recent period cleared for the Cape of t.coc Hope, to ootain a return cargo of wool: Flour, l.ftfC uaircl? Butter. 5,t Kilt-.; Cheese. 5,23» fi-s Fi?h 3*a>ZHia, 4J (<f> fra Cindies, 3,120 lbs Soap Petroleum, I.SCO gallons Tobecco, 53,*2jT lb- Cigars Diuq apple?, I'.lCfs.. luimp?. etc Pail?, tubs and uroonis Plows Bead tempt rs . Cabinet furniture, Charges. Total value of cargo §52,133 68 In nil other civilized countries the smeroad to national wealth is supposed to lie in tbc direction of exchanging manufactured products for the row material of less civilized nations, and In real izing a profit * n the carrying trade consequent on suen an exchange, in the Untied States uis now se-ioubly proposed, at least In the instance under consideration, to adopt a oitferenl policy. The Commissioner ia well a -arc, (hat the pres ent depressed condition of the wool Interest both fibre and manufacture—may he referred to as a rejoinder t« each and all the arguments thus submitted, arid as a good and sufficient reason for an immeciat-; advance of the tariff. An analysis of the causes which have :etl to this depression, \vill,towev»r. m Lis opinion, lead to.an opposite conclusion, and establish the following facts: first— That the present high duties on combing wools (fo nterly admitted free under (he recinroc .ty treaty) have, during the past year, almost entirely prostiated and crushed out the worsted maunfccturc; and that like causes mlormer years have also nearly destroyed the broadcloth manu laclare, which formerly eoastitut-a fifty percent and upwards of the entire woollen Industry efiho com.try. Uo - h of these industries, altbof-’h re quiring wools not yet raised to any rT*~r‘ tuKea Mates ae iceir basis, would, if in'active ' operation, work up a very considerable por ion of American fleece—ftom twenty to thirty percent aid their prostration, therefore, has not only de prived the American wool-grower of a very im portant and certain market for a portion of bis smplns products, hut has also diminished the In ducement for the introduction of new breeds of sheep, aod the introduction of new varieties of wool. Stconi— Uurim» the p-riod cflhe war, cotton, formerly, the textile fabric of common consump tion, attained anu maiutuiued so Ltga a price th«»» its nse was greatly restricted—(Las necessitailnra most extraordinary demand for wool os a cheaper fibre, and leading toagicat increasein ihe number of w oollen manutactorcrs. At present, this condi tion of afiairs is reversed; and cotton, as the cheaper §bre, is rapidly resuming its normal posi tion, and supplementing the use ol wools: (bus introducing a disturbing cl .meat which no legis lation cm* remedy or prevent. Third— Another curious and Interesting met brought out incidentally during the inquiries instituted by tbc Commissioner relative toprices vss the reception of testimony from almost every section of the country from dcal-rs In, and man nfectnrcrs off clothing, that rarely, in their ex perience, has so little of cloth and been told aa during the past fail season: thmT’ahow iog that the burden of Taxation and the high prices of woollens have forced the people to ths practice ot a most unusual and ngld economy. It is now proposed to remedy these difficulties by* making the prices of woollens stilt higher. In presenting these views the Commissioner would not be understood as advocatin'* any re duction of the present rates of. doty on woo? ex cept so tar as regards the combine wools.’ On the contrary, be lavors atd recommends their re tention. Lot he is, at the soaid lime, of tbs opinioo.thac the duties, os the; now stand, afford ail the protection widen this interest haa a ngbt to expect—having due regard to the questions of revenue ana prices —sad all that they ought on the grounds of expediency to receive. In consider law this question of the increase ot rates. It should he also di*tmcily borne m muid,ihathy the act or July £S, ICtti. which provided, that, fa determin ing the dutiable vulca of merchandise imported the cost of transportation,, packing, commission, etc., shall lie added, the wool grower receives art additional protection to that a horded by the for mer i ates, of at least twenty per cent. If.bowcver, In the Judgment of Congress, the tacts and arguments presented herewith are not; considered conclusive, and an increa - e of duties, upon wool is resolved upon, the Commissioner would ask that a most favorable consideration ha given to the duties to be imposed on that class o£ wools known as ‘•combing* 1 or ••worsted" w ool?. Wools or this character are not grown lo an v extent in the United States. In a rcppxt—" made to the Revenue Commission oq this subject. In February 0, ISO 6, by a committee of tho American Wool Manufacturers’ Association, it was etated,.that at that time the annual pro duction ol worsted or combing wools was-.uot safil clentto keep oue worsted mill in operation.**. Wools of this character arc, however,, now pro duced In Canada to the extent of about six mil lions of pour da per annum, and under the reci procity treaty were brought into ths United States tree of duty. Under these chcciustances the womcemannfsesure, which, except mils appli cattatlonTo delaines, nardly exists in the Untied States prior to 15C0, original- d ard developed up to iSO. 'wltn a rapidity that has scarcely any pre &Ste Statement ct Hoa. 51. J. B. lows: Etporl V . S. ComtalMloter cf Azncoltore. e 11 Is point is further tiluilrwed by reference to the range cl pries wld a ha> treviiltd for M-;:tlza won* duifneUie last ten years. Br. v.oa* to ISjJ, me price* tf iliwe wools ranged fifteen to eb»Li'«a cent* la tbc'marfeets of production, under the tariff oi W 57, which admiiud wools coA’sng leas tl.w twenty cents per pound Bee ot dutyv'se c-mptlliioo cl Amerlcaa c naufacturers carried tae price upto the highest oulut atwhlcu ibey (ould be ndumudfree. When,hitr everthem*limit to ttuhlccn cents, ihe prteeoalchl* ris;-cx<se«lby a *!ai;jar redaction. Tta stoppage cf the Am/rteaa wo-.Uai. milt*, a: the com-' n-enctmentor the war, next reduced prices, by iheoa saCoc cf demand, to nearly aa !ov»< they were pre, vlons to IST. Vcdei »ho taaff ol i?Ui, suhj-clt-g all wool cottma Iroiu twelve to twenty-lour cent- per rjncil to s>x cents per pound duty, the price still tur ther declined, untlrMeanra wool* of goo.! quality hare teen sold In Bueno* Ayres altcsstbau twelve cent* per tennd, U the duties proposed m House Bill ao. 71S ehcnle now b*come a law, experienced Juices ire coa tdeal that the price ot these wcols, In c;*>equimco » x t£i* entire withdrawal ofthe Amerlcaa deraaod,wlU tail sill lower. that the European manuCutorera ftn oltaln thtlr supply fcralesa price even than tea duties state would amount to tu st»tef» Value. ...Bir.itß.ua~- ’slaai ..... 216.07 .... 31U.00 - .. 6i9.20 77.C3 BlO.OO .... 23,7133.07 ... . 227.23 ..... 353.00 titxJ.tTX