IN THE NEWS THIS column ha* maintained that In a democracy the masses meaning the vast majority—are responsible for any declaration of war. The majority rules In a de mocracy. The majority elects the congress men, who have the (lower to de clare war. The majority also elects the President, who can commit the •eta which will provoke war, and who can consequently lead us Into 'war, or cause war to be declared against us. If, therefore, the majority elect* congressmen and a President who are war minded— or If It elects a President who Is war minded and a Congress which Is weakly sub servient, the majority of the voter* —that la to say, the masses—are responsible for war: because- they knowingly and after due warning elected war minded men to repre- A man is legally and properly responsible for the act* of hi* agent. And a majority of the citizen* are responsible for the acts of their legal representative*. If the majority did not want that kind of act, they should not have elected that kind of repre sentative. 'T'HAT kind of reasoning, ellhrr | 1 logical or specious, seem* to go down pretty well with the men, bat a lady controvert* It very vigorously and rather effectively. The lady Is Miss Emily Schaffer. She writes: "True this is a d< mor racy, but 1 have heard a number of people in thus last election say they liked neither of the candidates. So they did not vote. “As for myself. I chose —I hope — the lesser of the two evils.and voted for Mr. ~ Rnosne.lt, because hr drrr nitely stated we would not get into theyjur ope an conflict. “/ am wondering now if that pledge is going to h< like Mr. Wilson's ram par g a watchword, ‘he kept us out of war.’" As a general proposition, Ml** Schaffer’* point *eem* well taken, but In the specific Instance cited It Is not sound. It I* true that both candidates promised to keep America out of war, but we must be iactual Lu political situation*. We must consider the record* of potltlciaas, and their characters. We must review our rx(»erlence with Individual politician* In the past in order accurately to esti mate what they will do In the future. All politician* promise. ) Some keep their promise* and some do not. Mr. Roosevelt wry drftnitrly belong* to thr rl».» who <lo NOT. NOW, wait a minute, Roosevelt fan.. Do not hop n(T the deep end until Ml.* Schaffer nnd your columnist get through discussing thl. matter. Mr. Rooaevelt may be one of the moat brilliant men who ever occupied the White Houw. He may be one of the most plausible speaker, in American history. Personally your columnist be lieves that Mr. Roosevelt In a much more t ua.hiring speaker than ever Wllltaai Jennings Bryan Was. Mr. Roosevelt may be. and In fact Is, one of the world's most facile promisors t*bttt his promises are not worth anything. They bounce back like bad Checks. This la not a political argument. It la not a discussion of any theory or policy. It Is merely a factual statement (Continued on Next Page. Col. 2) In the Times Today Psp<- Brttrr Health . 11 ''Bugs" Barr IS Comic. 12. 13 Cross-Word Punlr 13 Pally Short Story 11 K V. Purling II yinanct.l 1* H.tlo'a Carton 11 Horoneopr * tlrnrrsl Johnson Is Ids Jr.n Ksln 1 lattm to Editor is M.K.iln* P.gr 11 P.ul ksnon :...... !■ Mnli Progrsm* ft Psttrm 7 "Pitfall. of laivr" ..... 13 Wr.tbrook p.glrr is Rsdlo Progr.mii s Rlplry 1" Kl.tr RoMn.on 1J Dsmon Runian 1" Borlrty ... " Sport. . S. In St.gr, Srrrm •• • ■ « Vital Statistic* Ift Want Ad. Ift. I*. 17 Wlnchrll * 1* Wl.hlng Wrll What', thr An.wrr? —ran. 3 Women'. Past. >. 7 HITLER REPLY THREAT TO U. S. Britain Fears Food Crisis; Cuts Urged j Intomatlnnal New* Hprvlrr ( LONDON, Dec .’ll.—Asserting that danger of a food shortage in England is now greater than at rany Ttnie"during the last war, Lord Woolton, minister of food, today urged the British public to reduce consumption of bread, meat and canned goods. Making his plea in a nation-wide radio broadcast. Lord Woolton dis closed that German submarines and bombing planes had sunk "quite a number" of food-laden ships en route to the British Isles. i “Th«- danger*," in' warned, "are much worse than in the last war.." IKON RATION IN C ASE' Urging the public to use canned foods sparingly, Lord Woolton declared; "Regard them a* an Iron ra tion In case the food supplies break down." Lord Woolton asked the popu lace to reduce breed consumption and to eat more home-grown potatoes and more porridge in stead of imported cereals. “We ate nearlv a* much tn IPtO a* in 1939." he said. “We shall have to do with less meat in 1941." The food minister also requested that the public ronsrirne-less tn»* and urged that they eat ie*x. cheese in order to prevent tlie necessity* of rationing it. SHIP I.OSSEN DROP Brrtfsh sbqtping losses during the week ended December 22 amounted to 15 ships, totaling 32.- 849 tons, the admiralty announced todaj. Neutral mercantile marine losses during the same period to taled three vessels of 10,451 tons. The admiral., stated average weekly mercantile losses during the entire war. excluding the week of the Dunkirk withdrawal, amounted to 03.287 tons During December average weekly losses totaled 71.000 tons as compared with 80 000 tons a w-ek for No vember. This marks the second successive week that British shipping losses have taken a sudden drop. Naval circles cautioned, however, against w-suming that the fewer sinkings are a sign that counter-measures against U'-boats will succeed in re ducing materially the effects of submarine attacks. These quarters revealed that German E-boats—fast motor boats—have participated in laying mines in British harbors and ports. They pointed out that although German air attacks on coastal ! shipping convoys have been count ered successfully, the Germans are achieving a certain success in !attacking shipping along the west ern approaches to Britain. Ford Co. Appeals To High Court lntrrnatl«’n*l NfWl Wire WASHINGTON, Dec. 31—The Ford Motor Company today ap pealed to the .. ipreme Court for review of a National Labor Rela tions Board order, holding it had violated the Wagner Act. —Tho-company appealed from the Sixth Circuit Court at Cincinnati, which upheld hoard findings that the Ford company had interfered with collective bargaining hut overruled the board on the "free speech” issue. Fascists to Fight Profiteering International Newt Serrire Cable ROME, Dec. 31. New taxes and severe restrictions on specula tion will lie imposed by the Italian government, Virginio Gayda, noted Fascist editor, reported today. Gayda said there will he “new. heavy taxes ami restrictions to block war-time speculation and extensive distribution of stock div idends, which in recent months have boomed unhealthily.” Buddy Clarke Honeymoons NEW YORK. Dec 31.—(INS)*- Orchostra leader Buddy Clarke and Floryn Walder were honey mooning today in fulfillment of a childhood romance that endured >ls years. DETRWRrtWTMES Only Detroit Newspaper Carrying International Newa Service and Complete Sport Dispatches 41 ST YEAR, NO. 92 Wheeler Challenges Roosevelt, Says V.S. Takes Road to War By L. W. MEREDITH WASHINGTON. Dec. 31—Sen ator Burton K. Wheeler (D) of Montana, a steadfast spokesman of congressional "America First” forces, last night called on Amer *oa -so turn- back from the mat! down which he declared “we are running” to war. Wheeler challenged President Roosevelt’s promises in his Sun day night radio address to the nation that there would be no American expeditionary force; the President's “ridicule” of the idea of peace in Europe, and the school of thought that feels “that Eng land is our first line of defense." CONTESTS ARGUMENTS Almost point for point in his speech, delivered over the Wash ington Evening Star Forum of the Air, Wheeler contested Presi dent Roosevelt's arguments, and in laying down an eight-point basis for a peace program of his own. declared: “Each of us—from the Presi dent of the United States to the mnit humble citizen—should Collapse Noted In Italian Lines « By A. E. AXGELOPOULOS lull New* srrvtew Slsff CX»rrr»|M.ndeat ATHENS, Dec. 31.—The Italian defense lines have partly collapsed in the Chtmara-Tepeleni-Klisura sector, ac cording to front line dis patches n achiaC Attucns today. In the face of heavy Greek pres sure. the Fascist troops are reported to be falling back on hastily-constructed new defenses on the border separating central and southern Albania. ABANDON SUPPLIES In falling back on their-new po sitions. the Italians abandoned large quantities of munitions and materials. Taking advantage of natural fortifications, the Fascist high command has strung out its line along the Tomcirl Mountain chain Starting at the Adriatic coast, south of Durazzo. the new line passes along the mountains to El bassan, where it turns in a north westerly direction along the Skumby River to the Albanian- Yugoslavtan border. All front-line dispatches indi cate that it is along this line that the Fascst troiops hope to make their final stand. Aerial recon naissance indicates that the newly-arrived Italian reinforce ments have bqzyi brought up. SEIZE SKI UNIT Capture of 1,000 Italians and defeat of a Fascist ski patrol were announced by the Greek high com mand. At the same time the Greek press ministry announced that fortified Italian positions west of. j Bogradec on the northern front had been "wrenched from the enemy.” | The Italian ski troops were sent into headlong flight, according to ■ advices from the front. They j were reported to be the first i j Fascist ski contingent the Greeks ! have yet encountered. .1 Happy Vcic Year ★ ★ ★ ★ DRIVE CAREFULLY A happy New Year to Detroit motorists. And: That means a happy New Year to just about every body in Detroit. But: Whether it really is a happy New Year depends entirely on Detroit motorists. If you drive carefully, courteously and patiently you will help make the New Year happy for all of us. Your behavior over Christmas was very good. Make it better over the New Year holiday. Drive carefully, drive courteously, drive patiently. Don’t drive even one block if you have been drinking. DON’T DRIVE AT ALL IF YOU HAVE BEEN DRINKING. DETROIT, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, DECEMBER 31,1940 exert hi* every effort for peace, now.” Conceding peace was difficult, if not impossible, to define while war rages, Wheeler asserted the present - wap “cannot last forever," that peace will eventually come to Europe, "fleeting though it may be." PEACE PROGRAM The ("working basis" he sug gested for a peace program was; —Restoration of Germany's
1914 boundaries with an autonomous Poland and Czecho slovakia. —Restoration of Independent France, Holland, Norway, Belgium and Denmark. —Restoration of Alsace-Lor raine to France. —Restoration of German col — onies. fT —Protection of all racial and religious minorities hi all countries. (Continued on Next Page, Col. 4) I.S..lurv %/ Subpenas Dickinson Tlmfti M»(T Ci»rrr*|*»n«!efil LANSING, Dec. 31.—Gov. Luren D. Dickinson, Glenn C. Gillespie, his legal adviser, and Attorney General Thomas Read were served with subjienas today calling lor their appearance January 9 before the special federal grand jury in Detroit. Another subpena. also issued by the special jury, w'as served on Willard Mclntyre, deputy attorney general. Although comment was refused bv Henry G. O’Donnell, special as sistant United States attorney general in charge of the grand jury, it is understood that ques tioning of the officials will center around the Great Lakes Steel Cor poration tax assessment case, re cently made the basis for unsuc cessful ouster proceedings filed against Melville B. McPherson, ohairmßriof the state tax commis sion. McPherson, together with Tax Commissioners Alvin E. Richards and John W. Libcke. and varibus officials of the Great Lakes com pany have already been witnesses before the jury. GOVERNOR CALM With customary calmness, the 81-year-old governor grinned and said he was worried about nothing except the vacation he planned to take beginning the day he is to appear before the grand jury. "They are invited to come in here with a searchlight,” he said. "I don’t expect to lose any sleep over This, but I’m wondering about my vacation.” He had planned to leave for Florida Sunday, January 8 | Read said his subpena did not request any records. "I have no idea why they want e down there,” he said. "They didn’t a*U for office file* or rec j ord*. They are welcome to learn anything they can from me.” Reds Curbed In Bulgaria, Yugoslavia Infrrnaflonit Vrwi Hfrvlrr Ciblf BUDAPEST, Dec. 31.—Amid new German troop movements into the Balkans, two countries today took sudden amT wholly un expected anti-Soviet measures. Yugoslavia’s government ex pelled the Belgrade correspondent iof Tass, the official Soviet news agency. The correspondent, Piotr Rosdestvensky, was charged with espionage, and was given only 24 hours in which to leave Yugoslavia. The Yugoslavian government also suppressed trade unions. In Bulgaria, the official press announced new and more serious measures against. Communist ac tivities. PHONE CALL CENSORED New German troops arriving in Rumania are constantly . . . (Editor’s Note: Marking the first serious imposition of cen sorship on dispatches from Buda pest, the censor broke into the conversation immediately after the word “constantly" as this message was being telephoned to B< m< Switzerland, for relay to New York. Later the Inter national News Service office in Budapest was allowed to resume the call, with references to Ger man troop reinforcements de leted. ) Bulgar ias repressive acts against Communists grew chiefly out of their violent demonstra tions demanding a military alli ance with Russia. Since Bulgaria declined to enter the Axis, it cannot join a con flicting alliance with Russia, the government in Sofia stressed. Greatly increased friction be tween Russia and German-con trolled Rumania 1s developing. Each day the official Moscow radio reports details of “Rumanian anarchy” and presents ‘‘eye-wit ness descriptions" of "Iron Guard” atrocities. One report in Budapest said Premier-Foreign Commissar Vya cheslav M. Molotov of Russia planned to close the Soviet lega tion in Bucharest without break ing off diplomatic relations. In spite of Russo-German friction, this report said, the German am bassador to Bucharest would be asked to handle Moscow's affairs there. Hint More War Craft to Britain By WALTER FITZMAURICE Inf I V»» Staff Corrrspondrut WASHINGTON, Dec. 31. President Roosevelt, administra tion quarters hinted today, shortly will transfer 40 mord destroyers and at least as many long-range army and navy bombers to Britain in token oF this government's de termination to give Britain all aid necessary to defeat the Axis pow ers. Although officials directly con cerned with the aid to Britain program withheld predictions that the transfers would take place, one of them said such a move "would certainly not be inconsistent with the President's promise of ‘every ounce of supplies we can possibly spare’.’’ Experts said the move, if taken, would strengthen immeasurably Britain 1 s weakened convoy system. The destroyers, flanking the con voy freighters, and the bombers, operating from bases in northern Ireland, together would "make the eastern Atlantic very tough,” they pointed out, for the U-boats at tacking British shipping off the Irish coast. Jury Debates Fate 01 Utility Magnate NEW YORK. Dec. 31.—(INS)— Failing to reach a verdict after 11 hours deliberation, a federal jury considering mail fraud and con spiracy charges against Howard C. Hopson, one-time head of the bil- : lion-dollar Associated Gas and Electric Corporation, was locked up late last night and resumed ; deliberations today. Hopson and two attorneys were accused of stealing $20,000,000 *from the utility firm through stock manipulations, overcharges and , expense padding. No Skating Today According to the Department of ftecreation. there is no skating or (tobogganing anywhere in the city today, 18 PAGES THREE CENTS HOSPITAL-BOUND GABLES ;Vr •" ' v „ Ilf H e f s ,• ,yi I B \ I ■ \ H:; p \ International Ntwi Photo MR. AND MRS. (CAROL LOMBARD) CLARK GABLE One of Hollywood’s most celebrated couples pictured about to enter Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore where Mr. Gable will undergo treatment for a shoulder injury sustained recently. They were visitors at the White House. Hitler Highlights International News SmW Cable BERLIN, Dec. 31.—Here are the main points of Adolf Hitler’s Near Year proclamation to Nazi Germany: England must be destroyed, and any nation “eating from it” must die as well. President Roosevelt’s charge that Germany seeks world eonquest is a “stupid and infamous lie.’’ Germany will complete her conquest of the British Empire in 1941. From now on the war will be fought to its “final con sequences.’’ with 10 or 100 German bombs dropped for each British. The time has passed when gold ruled the world. Germany, Italy and Japan are fighting to decide whether the world’s wealth is for one nation or all. Defeat of England will mean the liberation of peoples and a new world doctrine of “rule by human beings” instead of by the “thin capitalistic upper class.” The war was started by capitalists and armament shareholders, and it is they'who wish its continuance for profits. Three Clipper Planes Purchased by British WASHINGTON. Dec. 31—Pan- American Airways has sold three of its six huge new transocean clipper planes to the British gov ernment for service on the British Imperial Airway Lines, the British purchasing mission announced. The planes will not be used for war purposes, but for maintenance of air communications between Great Britain and its dominions. Flu 'Under Control' WASHINGTON. Dec. 31—(INS) —Although ’’a considerable num ber” of new cases are still being ; reported, the epidemic of mild in fluenza is now “under control.” the war department announced to day. Safety Advice—'DON'T!' CHICAGO. Dec. 31. —(INS) — The National Safety Council had one word of advice'today for people planning to follow up New- Year's Eve celebrations with driv ing. It was DON’TI Heart of Boy Lifted From Chest, Stitched NEW YORK, Dec. 31.—(INS)— With three stitches in his heart, 9-year-old John Richard Guerin was alive today by one of the miracles of medical science. A surgeon lifted John's heart out of the chest cavity, made three stitches and replaced It after the boy accidentally stabbed him self with a pair of scissors. I 11 v Hvvommvnti: “Whether you believe that It would be better to neglect ear own balanced defense by diverting to another nation material that could easily become vital, or that we should provide oureaehres with an effective American force under the American flag, is not Important so long as we are not getting the production to do either —much less both.” General Hugh Johnson sees defense production lag due to planless leadership. Page 18. • • • “I think I will start the New Year by putting my light under a bushel and practicing blackouts.** Bugs Baer heard the President's speech, too. Page 18. • • • “This last day of 1940 Is the top step of the years that haw gone before ” Benjamin DeCasseres looks at man’s climb through the years. Page 18. NIGHT EDITION Says Friends 01 Britain Must Die By PIERRE J. HESS Infl Mrw* ttrrvlrn Kill I ormpooint BERLIN, Dec, 31.—England must be destroyed and any power “eating from it’’ must die as well, Reichsfuehrer Hitler declared to day. Branding President Roosevelt’* charge that Nazi Germany seeks world conquest as an “infamous and stupid lie," Hitler said: "If Churchill and his Interna tional democratic companions today declare they defend their world and that the latter cannot exist beside ours, then It Is only their misfortune.” In a proclamation to the Nazi party which followed a New Year’s order of the day to his armies. Hitler laid the outbreak of war and its continuance at the door of “democratic financiers and arma ment shareholders.’* BLASTS DEMOCRACIES (Hitler did not Identify the United States by name when he spoke of nations “eating from” England. But his threat was voiced in the course of an at tack upon “plutocratic democ racies” which oppose the Nazi system and allegedly desire con tinuation of the war to swell the profits of capitalists.) In his two lengthy manifestos, the fuehrer prepared the German army and people for at least an other year of conflict. But promising vastly increased forces and new and stronger equip ment in the coming months, the fuehrer said: "The year 1941 will bring completion of the greatest vic tory in ear history.” “If they aawnot live along side our world,” Hitler con tinued, “Churchill and his crowd would destroy the German world. But sooner or later they will crush their own, whereafter their own peoples will obtain freedom. SEES NAZIISM TRIUMPH "We enrte 1941 with the con viction that the Nazi Idea of peoples’ rights will triumph over plutocratic privileges." Hitler branded British claims of victories over Italy and elsewhere (Continued on Next Page, CoL 5) British Town Hit By Lone Raider By JAMES E. BROWN lat'l Ntwi Service Staff CorrasposSnt LONDON, Dec. 31.—A lone Nazi raider bombed and machine-gunned a southeast coast town today. The machine, a Heinkel bomber, dropped nine high explosives on an unidentified commercial prem ises. Two hit the target, while the rest fell in nearby fields. Two persons were Injured. Slight damage was caused when the pilot opened his machine-guns on the town. No German planes appeared over scarred and blasted London during the night. Miriani Named Head Of Welfare League LANSING. Dee. 31.—Louis G Miriani of Detroit, member of the state welfare commission, has been elected president of the Michigan Welfare League, it was announced today. Mrs. Irene Ellis Murphy, staff member of the Detroit Council of Social Agencies; Walter M. Berry of Caspian and Mrs. W. G. Rice. Houghton, mem ber of the State Crippled Children Commission, were named vice presiden ts.