21 Ekim 1845 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1

21 Ekim 1845 tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. Vol. XI., No. 970?Whole No. 4159. NEW YORK, TUESDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 21, 1845. Price Two Con t*. ) AFFAIRS IN EUROPE. Aspect of Politics and Religion. THE HARVESTS, die.. SiC, Farther Extracts from the Foreign Pipers re ceived at the New York Herald Office. The Queen has approved of Mr. Alexander J. Ber gen, hs Consul at Bermuda lor the United States of America. The number of newspapers found intheGeneral Post Office last year, with the covers burst, was 55,016; of those sent to the dead letter otlice 178,689, and of those placed in covers and forwarded with notice, 9,912. In consequence of the great influx of letters brought by the mails from America, India, and China, ana other foreign ports, a delay took place in the delivery of the letters at the General Post Office, in London, on Monday, the 29th ult. It is stated that 260,000 had to be sorted in the inland office on the morning of that day. Measures are in progress for the removal ot the present unavoidable delays which occur in the delivery ?1 letters. A letter from Salonica states, that a curious phe nomenon has bean observed at Bei-Aurethiser, a village eight leagues from that town; a rather exten sive Take nas instantaneously transformed itself in to a salt pond, and now contains abundance of salt of the first quality. A letter from Berlin, of the 20th ult., states that Paorder Wehl, the writer of a pamphlet entitled "The Devil in Berlin," has been sentenced to nine months' imprisonment and hard labor, lor offending his Ma jesty !?(of Prussia.) The Ottoman Porte has issued the firman so long ! asked tor by Sir Stratford Canning, for the building of a Protestant Church at .lerusaiem. The stakes in the late fight for the championship, ?410, have been given up to Bend igo under an in demnity. The Emperor of Russia has made an advance of 200,000 roubles to the inhabitants ol Livonia, to enabje them to purchase rye seed, the crop having generally failed in that country. The Cologne Gazette states that a project of con voking a general council of the clergy ot all sects in Prussia, with a view of hearing their opinions on the religious questions which at present agi tate the public in that country, is under considera tion. Smr Building on the Rhine.?A brig with a new moveable keel that can be accommodated to the depth of water in which the vessel may chance to be, was attracting much attention at Stettin, in Prussia. It was built at Cologne, on the Rhine. Accidents and Crime.?From the last annual re port of the Registrar-General in Engl&nd, it apjiears, that, during the year, 3305 perrons were killed by machinery, railways, walls of stone, carriages, horses, <tec.; 8057 by fire, viz: 2577 by burns, 332 by scalding, and 148 by explosions; 1950 by drowning, 158 by accidental poisoning. There were also 65 cases of murder, and 84 of manslaughter. Religious Persecution in Russia.?The per secution, says the Journal dee Dfbatt in a recent number, against the Polish Catholics is continued with greater barbarity than ever, if we may credit the following report, which we borrow chiefly from the Unirere:? " On the 23d ult. the Polish refugees in Paris at tended a funeral service, celebrated in the Church ot St. Roch, in honor of the 47 nuns who were re cently martyred in the town of Witebesk, l&ith a re finement of cruelty that one would refuse to credit it, had not witnesses in every respect worthy of belief attested the fact. This convent had been established from time immemorial near the town ot Minsk, and the inmates fulfilled, among the people, the same duties as our busters of Charity. They in structed the children, provided for the widows and aged, and assisted the poor by the fruit of their labors. They had. unfortunately, for'chaplain, a priest called Michclewicz, one of those creatures whom tyrannical governments invariably select to fill the chief offices of the church. This wretch, having become bishop, apostatized, and wished to involve in his guilt the holy sisterhood Alter be setting them in every kind of way, and vainly re sorting to promises, persuasions, and threats, per ceiving that he could not obtain his object, he determined to punish by serverity. During the night, by his orders, Cossacks surrounded the convent, seized the nuns with the most revolting brutality, bsund them with cords, and conducted them thus to Witebesk nearly 20 leagues from Minsk, compelling them to walk the entire distance. At this place they were confined in a convent of schismatical nuns, in the capacity ot servants, or more properly speaking as sluves.? Those who are acquainted with the profound ignorances, dissolute morals, and ardent fanaticism of these Greek nuns can form some idea ot the dreadful trealmcnt which the Basilian sisters were compelled to endure. Forced to perform the most vile offices, supplied with a quantity ot black bread scarcely sufficient to support nature, each of them moreover received regularly every Friday 50 lashes, so that their extenuated bodies were covered with wounds and sores, yet they showed even more cour age under these trying circumstances than their en emies exhibited ferocity. Encouraging each other to suffer patiently for the glory of God, they perse vered in the Catholic religion. The anger of the apostate Suinayko increased. He caused these holy and self-devoted creatures to be ironed and sent to the galleys. Their nourishment had latterly con sisted of half a salt herring daily, with a small measure of water. This diet was now changed to half a pound of black bread, with the same quantity of water, and thus, whilst suffering from hunger and thirst, they were compelled to act as laborers to the masons employed in constructing the Episco pal Palace. Several of them were driven into the river up to their necks, and from time to time plunged under the water, because they persisted in refusing to apostatize ; others, condemned to labor in mines, were placed where the danger was most imminent, and were in many instances killed; finally, eight of them had their eyes torn out. Their faith surmounted these severe trials, not one ot them gave way, though 30 of them sunk undertlieir sufferings. Among the 17 who yet survived, after the deatn, or rather after the triumph of these 80 martyrs, three only possessed sufficient strength to avail themselves of an occasion which presented of escaping their unmerited punishment. The schis matic nuns who guarded them having become in sensible from ebriety after one of the orgies conse quent upon certain of their fftee, they were enabled to climb over the door of their prison, and thus escaped unobserved. It was not without regret that ihey abandoned their companions, and re nounced the glory of dying witli them, but they hoped to be of service to their faith and to their country; moreover, it was expedient that Europe should be made acquainted with what had transpired. After encountering a thousand dangers and hard ships they succeeded in entering Austria, and one of them, the venerable superior, is actually at pre sent iu Pans. It is this lady from whom we have gained the above facts, and which we also take from the Polish journal the Troie Mai." " These facts Hppear startling," observes the Jour nal dm Debate, " but, unfortunately, when Russian policy is concerned, everything is credible. The Emperor is resolved to bring all his subjects to the oithodox Greek Church. The autocrat will not tolerate any religion in his European States except his own. All resistance is treated as rebellion. We will not, however, call upon Europe to join in a crusade against the Emperor of Russia, and we have no desire to see return again the times when God's creatures cut each other's throats in the name of religion. We would wish to see the spirit of tolerance, which has triumphed in civilized coun tries, take the place of those odious excesses. To go back to the period when Catholic armies de stroyed by fire and aword the Christian sectarians ol Alby appears to us a bad means of pre"fnting the persecutions arising from Russian jwlicy and orthodoxy. " Brazil and the Zoli.vkrein ?We And by the commercial accounts which have just come to hand, that there is every probability of the Viscount Abrantes succeeding in his mission of forming a treaty with the Zollverein. If this point is gained, it must be in direct opposition to the best interests ol England, and the more mortifying will it be be cause, in the first instance, the Brazilian envoy was deputed to our court with the otter of liberal terms tor the formation of a new commercial treaty. Upon previous occasions it has been noticed by us how advantageous such a combination would be to the manufacturing interest of this country, but, with a ppecies of wilfulness which cannot be easily ac counted for, the policy of fSir R. I'eel appears to be to throw everything into the hands of foreigners, for the purpose of keeping up the monopoly of the West India Planters. A very slight reduction in the du ties upon Brazilian sugar would have cemented the mercantile intercourse which has so beneficially been carried on between the two nations. American IngenuityIn a list of patents recent- 1 ly granted, there is mentioned, G. Mitchell, of Graf- i ton street, city of Dublin, confectioner and miiamer of American ice, for a new and improved construc tion of building, for housing, storing, keeping, and preserving ice From heat and air.antf rom any other consequence, whether from atmospheric or other causes, descriptive of, or calculated to, injure said commodity. Sealed, July 2H. H. M. Meade of ^he dirtifi! frorJW'' America' .for. improvements in ; sSJuS." ?S? m?X)? "* Knm- s"l'd American Clocks.?For some time past the veo- I P?/U ot ^nd?? and Liverpool , 1srfir Yhork' ra. ted states, have brought a novel kind of clock, something simdar in shape to a Dutch clock, with ne addition of a closed place of deposit for the weights, iSee., on the floor of which is fixed either a painting of some place or a piece of looking-glass. I nese clocks are in a complete state, and several questions were raised at the time of their first im portation as to the particular rate of duty to which they were liable, when it was ultimately decided that they were to be cfcarged with the ad valorem duty ot 20 per cent., and that when they contained a P? jl.l9n ?1 plate or silvered glass, they were also, in addition, to be charged with the rated duty on that article. One of the principal importers of these clocks has recently made application to be allowed to import the article in future without the weights being attached, it having been ascertained that thev can be obtained in this country for a considerable less sum than that for which the/ can be imported when the cost of manufacture, freight, tmd other ex lienses are considered, such practice being objected to by the revenue officers on the ground that they would then not be perfect or complete in all their parts. It appears, however, that by an order issued * 9?ble time since, Dutch or German clocks are admitted to entry on importation in the manner proposed without either bells or weights being at tached ; and it being considered that there is not any material objection to a compliance with the re quest with regard to the clocks brought from Ameri ca notwithstanding that the 63rd section of the 8th and 9th \ ictona. cap. 80, restricts the importation of parts of articles it has been conceded/and a notice to that effect has been furnished to the seve ral departments for the government of the officers with respect to future importations of the article. New Method of Protecting! Wood from Sea Water Insects.?Captain Sir Samuel Brown, 11 N in a letter to Admiral SirByam Martin, states that' from numerous experiments and observations he is sutisfied "that at present there is really no spe cific remedy against the attacks of the insect called by entomologists tereno navalis, or sea-worm except iron nails. He proposes to encase the pile' r.il- u,r?ad'hea.ded,nails ambling scupper nails, but considerably larger, and says that in the course of a few months corrosion takes place, and spreads into the interstices. He further suggests the adoption of square-headed nails, which leave the smallest possible extent of the surface of the pile exposed. Experiments tried at the Trinity T'm' u 7a9d Bnghton pier have fully es tarnished the eflectiveness of Sir Samuel Brawn's Antidote to Prussic Acid.?Recent experiments seem to prove that instant immersion in cold water is an effectual cure in the event of persons swallow ing prussic acid. The Anglo French Interference In South American Affairs. [From the London Times, Sept. 20 ] As long as the wars which are perpetually raging between the eastern republics of South Amencf were regarded as mere contests for power between the military chiefs who aspire to oppress their fellow citizens and to destroy their enemies, these confhcts only excited the aversion, or at most the companion ia heard Wlth du?U8t ?f outrages k u a ^ S?uld not Prevei". and of inhumunitv censu^e of the civilized world; and we could only lament that in recognizing the inde penoence of the former colonies of Spain in South America, we had prepared the way for their subjec tion to the worst form of domestic tyranny' km upon a closer examination of the causes of these 11? k Policy of these tyrants, we discover that thev have an intimate connexion with our own interests and rights, and with the prosperity or destruction of^ society in that jiart of the globe. But when we find that his policy extends to other states, which execrate his character and resist his authority, and that his chief motive for attacking them is his jealousy of their amicable and commer ce relations with us it is high time that we should protect our allies and our own interests, and deal with the dictator of Buenos Ayres as a proper object for our utmost resentment. The chief design of Rosas, since he has subjected Buenos Ayres itself to his authority, has been to ex tend his power over all the provinces which were , r. .... T f'w'iwro WHICH wen formerly included in the Spanish Viceregal Govern ment of the same name. T- J ? ? ment of the same name. In his mode of acquiring preserving, and exercising power, the jealous and' cruel dictator of I araquay has been ins prototype Like Dr. I rancia, after having possessed himself of a degree of power over the lives and property of all his fellow-citizens, which surpasses even the inso lence ot (Iriental despotism, he seeks to segregate and cut of) the community he governs from all fo reign influence and control, For thirty years Para guay was as little known to Europe as the interior oi Japan ; and if Rosas had unlimited power over the foreign relations of Buenos Ayres and the adjacent provinces, he would close up the River Plate itself against every foreign trader. What, however, was possible in the centre of a continent, and in a coun try which only communicated with the sea by the channel of one river, is infinitely more difficult on the coast, and in presence of independent and rival states which are animated by a very diflerent spirit In fact, in order to carry sucli a scheme into exe cution, it was necessary to subdue or intimidate all the provinces contiguous 10 the Plata, or to its tributaries. Corrientes and Paraquay, were land locked by the arbitrary restrictions of Kosas. who denied (heir right to communicate with the ocean, and even prevented foreign diplomatic agents from ascending the stream above Buenos Ayres: and Montevideo, the most formidable ri val of that city, from her independence, her position, and the spirit of her inhabitants was Mlow HWK und,sguii*d hostility, which has'been followed by protracted warfare. The prosperity of Montevideo, during the comparatively short interval of peace and independence which she enjoyed was sufficient to kindle all the jealousy of Buenos Ayres The tonnage of foreign shipping employed in direct communication with Montevideo, Ifad risen before the blockade from one quarter of that which traded with Buenos Avres tpdouble the amount of that port I he citizens of the Banda Onen'al have done all that hjy In 'heir power to encourage emigration from Europe, and foreign commerce. They have abso lutely abolished slavery in the territories of the re public; and their only desire, as an independ ent community of free men, is to make the most ol the position and the soii which Providence has al lotted to them. Their prosperity, indeed, is certain as soon as they have obtained the common blessings of peace and security. * * v ? 8 The motive for the war which Rosas persists in carrying on against these neighboring states, is one which >s fatal to their interests and to ull the foreign interests connected with their independence. The real question which will be decided by the success or the failure of the dictator of Buenos Ayres " whether the states of the Plata are to be united be neath one common yoke, and closed against the rest or the world, as long as one sanguinary tyrant shall k ma,Pta,n them in his dependence, 01 whether, by maintaining the independence of those h-Ki-Ce? Crh are eag,er t0 Procure for themselves thei blessings of a more liberal system, we shall take t0 P1;0"1?1' between ttiem and Bue ms%ad o?ihL8t,rU|8gle ?f ,airuP"citic competition, l a ?-1 .u 91' contests which have so long de solated those regions. To such a question there is but one answer. The rights of these independent countries, which have been repeatedly an? esnJL renci the?Si!!f byr ?U1 ?W'! d'I,lomatic interfe rence, the f reedom of trade which has been secured by treaty with ourselves, the safety o?Europ^n tiers, and the political duty of securing to tW states the right of cultivating their own naS advantages and preserving Hieir civil liberties when both of them are attacked by a lealous and oppressive enemy, constitute one of the - -n- v . wiioii.uic one of the strongest imaginable cases for an energetic inter vention. The supposed reluctance of the Govern ments of England and France to engage in actual hostilities has already rendered the representatives of those two great countries iiowerless nt Buenos Aj res. They were instructed to ask no more than public justice and the common interest of the world demand; but Rosas defies remonstrances, and re jects overtures of mediation proHered in so modest a tone. Mis government knows no arguments but lose which rest on fear and force; and those means ? which he unjustly and arbitrarily applies ilie ?"Ttl turned Hgainst himself. In short, (lelav nn.f 18 89 great- and the consequences of fei tiw Kv ?k?. 80 lnjurioua al1 the interests al rmnforeemini2,9f,8tlon? that we trust a considerable forcesTS?ifi?""Jtf"""I Supply of Food In KagUnd. [Kroin London Economist, Sc|)t. 37.] It id not our wish to create any alarm; on the con trary, what we are about to aay will rather have the etfect of allaying the apprehension* that have attend ed a sudden rise in the price ot wheat in a single week ol live shillings the quarter in this country, accompanied, as it has been, by the very unusual fact that continental buyers are now in our markets, purchasing our bonded grain lor their own pressing necessities. But while we are able to discover many circumstances that mitigate our share of the danger in which Europe at this moment btands, il uotol ac tual famine, yet of considerable want, during the coming year, it would betoken the most criminal apathy were we to oveilook and disregard the cau ses, rather accidental than otherwise, to which our more iavorable position is to be attributed. We are willing to admit that there are at this mo ment many circumstances calculated to create alarm in this country, as to the sufficiency of the present harvest to supply the wants of the country until the autumn of next year. There is now no doubting the fact that, excepting in some of the most favora ble situations, the wheat crop of the present year, even where comparatively well secured, is defective in the yield, both in measurement to the acre, and j in weight to the bushel; and that, moreover, a larger portion of the crop is still exposed to further damage than has been the case on the 2<>th of September for some years back. But perhaps even a more serious consideration,in relation to the deficiency of wheat, is now the almost universally diseased state of the potato crop; and, as it turns out, the greater or less damage which has been sustained, in consequence of the wet season, by every other description ot ve getable, grain and fruit Nor can the extent of this calamity, especially as refers to the disease in the potato crop, be estimated by the present amount of the damage. The remarks whicii we made some weeks ago, and the quotations which we gave from the report ofthe American Commissioner ot Patents to the last session of Congress, with respect to a similar calamity which visited that country in 1843 and 1844, and which we regret now to hear has again made its uppearance in the present year, shews that the apparently perfect part of the crop is equally liable to attack after being stored as when in the ground. Moreover, as was the case in the United States last year, and has been partially in this country already in the present season, many circumstances may arise from an injudicious and careless use ol diseased potatoes which will create an impression that the use of the root is dangerous, or at least unwholesome, and it may be to a consi derable extent banished from family use. This is a contingency which cannot altogether be left ou' of any future view with regard to the supply of wheat, as such an impression becoming general would cause a considerably increased consumption of bread ; though, no doubt, such a circumstance, would diminish the demand for potatoes, and make them more available for the use of the laboring classes. Nor can we overlook the great rise in price which has already taken place in rice, one of the best substitutes for the potato. It is true that that rise in price, will cause very extensive shipments to be made from India (in the United States the crop has |>artially failed); but the earliest period at which , they cun arrive will be in March and April ol next year. In addition, too. we may add, that the import of flour from Canada in the present season so far, is considerably less than last year, and is likely to con tinue comparatively trifling. The accounts which we have received this day, inform us that the potato disease has made its apjiearance not only in Canada, but in New Brunswick. And, as regards the Uni ted States, the European countries into which the import is now free, will offer much more advanta geous markets lor their wheat and flour than this country by the circuitous route of Canada. The imports from Canada from June 30th to the present day, and the corresponding period of last year, have been, Wheat Importko krom Canada. 1811. 1845. Quarter*. Ouarltrt. June 30th to September 20th... 178,731 96,754 And further still, the whole imports of wheat and llour have been much smaller in the piesent, as are also the existing stocks in bond, than for some years past, as the foltowiag comparison shows: Foreign Wheat and Knot-a Imported HTirat. Flour Quarter*. Cwlt. 1842... January 5 to October 5 2,517,791 908,489 , 1813... " 777,758 141,171 18H... " 929,680 854,302 I 1845.. .January 5 to Sept'r 20 319,660 * 190,794 With all these considerations, it cannot be a mat ter ol surprise that considerable anxiety should pre vail, and that there should be a tendency to a much higher price. But there are other considerations which are either overlooked or but imperfectly esti mated, which will have a considerable tendency to modify these apparent dangers in this countrv. The first, whicii is in some measure generally admitted, but we think scarcely to a sufficient extent, is the unusual stock of old wheat which must be in the country. In the entire absence of agricultural statistics in this country, we have no certain means of knowing the exact amount ot the produce of any one year ? But there are many means by which, in practice, es timates approximating to the truth may be made ol the comparative produce, one year with another. In order properly to estimate our present stock, it is necessary to look back to the autumn of 1842, and consider what have been the crops and the state of the market since that time. It will be recollected that, up to an advanced jieriod in the summer ol 1842. a very general fear prevailed that the crop would prove very defective, in consequence of per haps the worst seed time that has been known for some years. Until the middle of June, prices con tinued high, when the improved prospects of the harvest, from the extremely favorable state of the weather, caused a steady and rather rapid reduction. In the mean time, however, extensive orders lor fo reign wheat had been sent out; and, in the course of the year, upwards of three millions of quarters ot wheat and flour were imported, in addition to one of the,best harvests inyieldand quality which we had ex perienced for several years. The ruin which followed in consequence to tne importers of wheat, is still fresh in the recollection of all. The losses in Lon don alone were estimated at more than two mil lions of pounds. The avernge price, which was b7s. lOd per quarter in Mark Lane on the 1st of August, fell below 50s. in the beginning of 1843 ; and in the spring of that year, there were still left in the ware houses one million and a half of quarters of foreign wheat which had not gone out of the importers' hands. As the harvest of 1843 approached, consid erable apprehension prevailed from the state of the weather. Speculation again set in. and the price of wheat rose to 60s. per quarter. Tne harvest was a fortnight later than usual; and a general opinion I prevailed that the stocks were nearly exhausted. In stead of there being any ground for such a fear, it afterwards turned out that the stocks from the crop and large importation of 1812 were really so large, that, up to January 1844, a very large portion of ah the wheat brought to the country markets was that of the crop of 1842. But the alarm of 1813 again had the eflect of bringing upwards of one million ot quarters of wheat and flour in aid of the crop ol that year, which, though not so fine tn quality as that of 1842, yet, from the greater breadth sown, ultimately proved equally productive ; and was of itself at least equal to the improved consumption of the year, es pecially if we add to it the million of quarters of fo reign wheat imported ; so that it is impossible to es timate tht stock of old wheat in the country at the harvest of 1814 to have been less than it was in 1843. This brings us to the crop ol IS44, which is by far the mosMmportant consideration at the present mo ment. Considerable difference of opinion prevailed at the time as to the yield of that crop. There is no doubt that Great Britain produced in 1844 the largest crop of wheat of any on record. But in addition to this enormous crop, we imported no less than 1,100,306 qra. of wheat, and 985,862 cwts, of flour ;?very little of which was consumed pre vious to the harvest of last year, and which, there fore, was an available addition to the crop. And the large pro|K>rtion of old wheat which appeared at market for many months after the harvest, was a sufficient evidence of the large stock left over from the preceding year. In estimating the excess of the crop of 1844 now left on hand, it is no doubt needful to take into account the increased rate of consump tion. This, however, we do not think has been so great as has generally been assumed, Thare is no doubt that the condition of the working classes haa-1 been greatly improved ; and that in the rural dis tricts particularly, a greater proportion have con sumed wheat than in some former years. But in the manufacturing districts, we much doubt if during the last year any material increase above that |>rc> l<ortioned to the greater number of people, us labor ers and in other capacities, has taken plncr. The improved condition ot these districts has enabled the ?rrtizans to command a better description of diet; and so far has, in many cases, decreased the use ol bread. Compared with 184-4, we do not believe that the consumption of 1845 has experienced any very great increuse. We are, therefore, from all theae circumstances?considering that the stock of old wheat at the harvest of 1844, which proved, after some months, to have been so large?considering the extraordinary extent and yield of that crop, and the large quantity of wheat and flour imported in ad

dition to tne home supply?we come to the conclu sion that on the first of September of the present year, a larger stock ol wheat was existing in country than in any former year whatever. Ani - 'though those stocks may be suffering BO'n?wc?"f ~T erable diminution at present, yet it must be wn"' mind, that the extra consumption upon the old stocks, in consequence of the lateness ot th? present harvest, will be in some measure compensated Dy the fact that the crop of this year will only haveto supply eleven months' consumption ;?that ot Itm having already been available lor thirteen months. The Revolution in < Irkat Britain.?But apart from the circumstances at which we have glanced, other causes have been at work to produce this feeling on the part of the British fanner. 1 he soul, the vitality ot the English aristocracy, consists in the possession of a respectable rent roll, and in the influence of political i>ower. To increase the one, the great landlords have assumed of late years the task of educating the cultivator of the soil, by in troducing him to the mysteries of chemistry, and making him acquainted with the wondrous powers of the different manures. To secure the other, the same landlords hold their tenants in a kind of po litical vassalage?make them tennnts-at-will, and ih the majority of cases, refuse to grant leases of any duration on the property which they occupy. I he consequence is, that the>nants must exercise the franchise as his lord directs him, or bid adieu to his homestead. These two motives, seemingly incom patible, are brought out in strong rehel at the agri culture dinners, and both of them have contributed, in thair way, to the singular anomaly in which, as a body,the British farmers are placed. 11 leases were ueneral, the farmers would possess the strongest pe cuniary inducement to vest his capital in the im provement and extension of his land?in making it yield the best return; but in the absence ol such a motive, he lives, as it were, from hand to mouth, as Ue kflows not the day when he may get notice to "turnout." So, again, thejtmprovements ot modern science go into the pockets of the owner rather than the occupier of the land?for with the means of increasing the produce come an increase ot tne tenant's rent. Thus, the actiyity which has at length overtaken the sons of the soil, engenders a state ot mind unfavorable to the existing order ol things, and it is not very surprising, therefore, to find many practical farmers the friends rather than the opi>o nents of those who advocate a free trade in corn. In short, the corn laws are now universally regarded as a landlord's, not a tenant's question : and the best proof of the progress which Cobden has made on the minds even of the aristocracy, is to be found in the subdued tone, and in the actual recognition ot his principles, by many ol the titled personages who formerly assailed them in the bitterest terms. The new light, which has at length so tardily began to dawn on the minds of the operative agriculturists, has loosened, in a great measure, the sympathy which long bound them up with the feelings and pre judices of their superiors?the sympathy of an ima ginary but mistaken self-interest. 1 hat the change in the corn laws is not distant, may be read in tlje speeches at the various agricultural yatherings in different parts of the island during the last few days, i It is well that it is so; forall classes must profit by a ! legitimate traffic in one.ol the pnmary neceasartet j 0f life?a traffic which, instead of exhibiting galva ntc fits and staru, as at present, in a reason of un certainty and alarm, would be regular and uniform, and would go far to mak% distant nations contribute ; to each other's necessities?would obviate the dit ferences of climes and seasons?and bring the great hitman family, by the fraternising influence of com merce, into a brotherhood of amity, mutual depen dence, and interest.?Liverpool Timet, Oct. 4. Harvest in Denmark.?According to the rural periodicals, the reports of this year's harvest, from all parts of Denmark, are very reioicing. There is an extraordinary rich crop of wheats andcloverB and although the first hay was a little spoilt during the haymaking season, by the wet weather, yet there is nothing to complain of as regards tne se cond cutting. Rape seed, also, has Buffered a little, not only from the weather, but also from insects. Rve will be very satisfactory, not only in quantity but quality, and will be cne-fourth over the usual average. Barley, it is said, will be unusually plenti ful in quantity, but its quality cannot be judged ot, as it will be rather late in ripening, and its goodness naturally depends on the weather?in many places we are told it is beaten, and consequently a good saleable yield cannot be expected. Oats are cer ! tainlv this year behind other grain, but will be about an average?all kinds ot pulse have grown I strong, but will, we tear, in many places yield more ! husk than fruit. The early buckwheat has every where tailed-the latter cannot yet be judged ot with certainty, but seemingly will be better. I ota ! toes?of all roots the most extensively cultivated in DennlSrk?promise a most excellent and plentitul crop: the blight which has made such extensive ra ! vages in the more temperate parts ot Europe, hav ing apparently been kept ofl in the north, by the ' more frigid climate. Should the present genial wea ther continue as it has been since the dog-days, tnis vear will hold a notable place in the annals ot Dan ish agriculture. For the population of a great part ot Jutland, who on the breaking up of new land Ire quently suffer a want of fodder, such a year is in valuable. In consequence ol the superabundance of fodder, which has this year every where tn Den mark been housed, the price of cattle has risen in a remarkable degree, and we may prophesy that this rise will continue till the catile are again housed tor the winter. Taking it as a whole, we mav confi dently say that the harvest in Denmark has this year been above an average.?Angsiurg tuiz. The Railway Manln In Korope. Railroaps in Great Britain.?The railway mania increases. It is now a national epidemic, and threatens to engulph every other species of business The legitimate operations of trade must suffer se Day alter uay, as rcguiauj . T - 7 most absurd schemes are propounded with an easy impudence, that, in cooler moments, would cause the projectors to be regarded as candidates tor a lunatic asylum. All these newly-broached schemes require sums of money to carry them out, which would speedily make a bankrupt of Crmtue. Hall a dozen millions sterling-thirty millions ot dollars appear to be a mere bagatelle in the eye of each hatch of provisional directors, who appear, like Banquo's progeny, to extend to the crack ot doom." No matter how absurd each newly-an nounced project for making iron highways, the gamblers gather round the game like vultures over .1 rotten carcase, and, as Puff in the Critic has it, immediately " plant oaks where there never was an acorn." Attention is now directed to the derange ment of the monetary system of the country, con tingent upon this absurd system of speculation.? The Accountant General has a reckoning in store for these speculators in moonshine capital; he will shortly require a deposit of ten per cent to be paid on the amount of eacn share, and some thirty or for ty millions must be taken out of circulation to com ply in this respect, with the requirements of the law. The withdrawal of a sum so enormous irom the legitimate sources of business must, in the first instance, influence the value of money; but where the remaining ninety per cent is to come from, to make so many lines, is a puzzle, a marvel, for the worshippers ot Plutus. In solving this knotty point the commercial writers in the daily papers are ad vancing opinions the most crude and contradictory. One thing is certain?that the Accountant General, when he fingers the whole ot the deposit money, will be the recipient of the largest stock of cash that was ever lodged in the hands of a single individual, compared with the value of which the mines ot I o tosi were valueless and barren. He, ot course, will hand this accumulated pyramid of weahhovertor safe keeping to the Bank ol England; and there is plenty <>t speculation hazarded as to how the Bank is to appropriate it tn the safest way for the benefit of the commonwealth, until the period arrives when Parliament sanctions or rejects the schemes?to se cure the acts for which the money hns been thus, tor a temporary purpose, invested?without producing what the Bank so much dreads?a ' crisis. The improvement in the incomes of existing rail ways still continues, and during the last two months amount to upwards ot ?200,IXW ?" comparison with the corresponding two months of 1844. Ine lines which ha\e reduced their fares most liberally are the creates! gainers. At this rate of increase of income the value ot the railway property of the country is becoming greater by upwards of ?2,000,000 sterling per month. It is said that in one day a sharebroker on the Manchester Exchange transacted business in snares ,o the amount of ?85.000. At half a crown in the pound, only, he would clear by this one day s ness l?l0,000.?Blaikburn Standard. This calcula non of profit would haue been correct, had the sharebroVer sold ?0.000 shares, not ?80,000 worth. | French Bailroads.?The Journal dts Chrmint df Fer, publishes a list ot the different companies that have been formed to tender for the five lines ot railroad which are toi be adjudicated this year, viz.: Paris to Strasbourg, Tours to Nantes, Creil to-St. Ouenttn, Paris to Lyons, and Lyons to Avignon and Grenoble. The companies are ihtrty-six in j number, viz.:?Paris to Strasbourg, eight; Tours to Nantes, six; Creil to St. Quentin, hve; Parts to 1 vons eleven; nnd Lyons to Avignon and Gre noble six The n minal capital of these companies, collectively, amounts to between four and five mil lards ot franca, whereaa the amount required for the execution of the lines is only 600 millions. Sup posing all the subscription lists to be filled up. and a deposit ol one-tenth made immediately by the sub scribers, there will be taken from circulation for two or three months or more, nearly 500 millions, instead ol 50 millions, supposing that only one company existed for each of the intended lines. This large drain of capital must, it is imagined, have some effect upon the money market. Several more new companies for lines, which will not be adjudicated during the present year, are talked of. Swiss Railways.?'The committee appointed by the Swiss Government for directing the railroads in that country, has decided upon the execution of the following lines, viz: Bale to Olten, Olten to Zurich, Olten toLakede Biel, and Olten to Lucerne?being in all 44 Swiss leagues, and requiring an expendi ture of 30,000,000fr. The Sew German Reformation. [From London Standard, Sept. 29 ) We have, as our readers must have perceived, followed with close attention the statements given by the German newspapers rel-tive to the religious movement at present agitating the land of Luther ; and our readers have, we are assured, dwelt upon those statements with eager curiosity. Let us re port progress. We see a simple priest proceeding from town to town, and wherever he presents himself, whether in Silesia, the Prussian Rhenish provinces, Hesse Cas sel, or Wirtemberg, thousands come forth to greet him. The people crown him with flowers; the mu nicipal bodies present him addresses; young men ask to be allowed to take the horses from his car riage; women invoke the blessings of Heaven on his miuHon; and the cannon itself is bid to thunder | a welcome to the bearer of the sword of truth. The Protestant and semi Protestant German States are moved as if the voice of Luther s|>oke from his tomb. ?The Roman Catholic States tremble with toy and apprehension, as it the moment of their de liverance from the thraldom of superstition was come. Austria is not less agitated than Saxony. All this taken as an ontward manifestation is unde niable. Our columns have day after day bore cor roborative repetitions of the same story. The jour nal which announces Monsieur Ronge's arrival at any given place,accompanies the statement with the now unvarying account of his reception with enthu siasm, displayed according to whatever maybe the characteristic of the place. Of less easy proof are the diplomatic communications between Berlin and Vienna and Dresden, but they are almost authenti cated by a speech from the Saxon throne, by the suppression of prof essedly religious clubs, by prohi bitions to allow churches to be devoted to worship according to the forms adopted by the German Ca tholics, and by M. Ronge's expulsion from certain localities, as from Hesse Cassel. To the feeiingB undoubtedly awakened among the people, to the sensations created, at least presumed ly, among rulers, we have to add the councils and reprimands addressed to the Romish clergy bv their superiors, imposing upon them reformed conduct, i prudence, p caching, decorous examples, blameless living, lest their flocks should abandon them totally. | Such a movement as this, so widely reaching, so | all embracing, and that at the voice of one man, the world has not witnessed since the days of Luther ; | and this movement may well be designated the New , German Reformation. We have endeavored to present in the strongest light the popular manifestations attending the leader I in this movement wheresoever he appears, because, it properly regarded, they go to dissipate a certain i apprehension with which some conscientious per sons have allowed themselves to be affected on two I accounts. The first is the presumed rationalism with I which the German movement is said to be tainted ; and the second is the uncertainty as to the form which the New Reformation shall take. To the first fear we oppose the enthusiasm of Ronge's friends. The crowns of flowers, the dis charges of musketry, the taking the horses from the carriage, are those signs which doubtless the pious mind takes the least pleasure in dwelling upon ; yet have they their value. They exclude the supposition of cold calculation; and when they are followed, as they always are, by attention to religious discourse ana public joining in worship, the whole show a cheerful, innocent, pious disposition, which, to our mind, testifies to the character of the movement in question. The uncertainty of the form, meaning thereby the uncertainty as to whether the German Catholics shall split into a number of Beets, or combine so as II to form a church adopting a sound creed, abates much ol the satisfaction which many good minds feel at this rising up against the debasing super stitions of Rome. Here again we have to oppose the evidence so undesignedly furnished by the re ports which we have given from the German jour I nals. Everywhere the churches belonging to ortho | dox christians have been freely tendered to the Ger man catholics ; and certainly the people who con duct themselves with such openness, candor and simplicity, are not deceivers or hypocrites. That the rulers of the different German States view the present movement with anxiety, we can not doubt. The speech of the King of Saxony, as we have said, affords some proof of that; but ne is the Roman Catholic monarch of a Protestant peo ple. Austria, too, must feel alarmed, because the reformation takes political freedom by the right hand. Prussia demands a constitution, and ner good King does not mean to refuse it, hut he thinks that he ought to proceed carefully. Already has the desire for constitutional government in Prussia been .aised to a high pitch by the religious spirit with which she is agitated?a spirit which, while it ren ders the demand imperative, makes the granting of it safe. Now it is in Prussia where rationalism is said most to prevail; it is there that the dislike of forms ofChutch government is strongest; and why! because of the law of 1822, which attempted to do that which is beyond the power of any law, namely, by the application of a kind of military regime, to submit to a certain uniform state, the Lutherans and Calvanists, under the name of one Church. Hence a re-action against forms of Church government, and hence that mystical language about the vessel, and the bush, and the spirit, which in some mouths is very much like infidelity, but in others is a protest against the forced coalition apparently effected in 1822 We published lately in the Standard the substance of a petition from the college of the University of Berlin,calling for a new constitution of the church, to be settled by delegates from different provinces. That petition respectfully invited the King to put himself at the head of the movement, ana to that document we once more invite attention, and as its full bearing might not have been perceived at the time, we beg to introduce it here in connection with the remarks we are offering. It is as follows: "The present movements are not of an ephemeral character, for they have their basis in the intellectu al developement of the people. That the happiest consequences should be the result it is only necessa ry that the state should take these movements under its own guidance, and thus foster the germ of good which tney contain. Two parties are ranged on opposite sides. The ola party takes for its motto exclusively orthodoxy, and tradition, as the ground of faith in the literal sense of the word. The other party, that of the movement, rejects human tradi t'ons, and appeals to the living source of truth. The majority of the population inclines to the latter par ty. It may be that the |ieople cannot see clearly the end towards which their efforts are tending, nor point out the organization which ought to be given to the Church; but this they do know?that the prin ciples of Christian liberty form the basis of their ef forts. The reformation has established the right of living and progressive developement, as contra dis tinguished from the backwardness of Rome. We claim for each Christian the right of private judg ment. The spirit of God ought not 4o be bound by formulas. It is not the mere vessel to which faith is consigned, which is itself the all-essential, but it is the spirit of truth, of holiness and charity, an nounced by Christ, which constitutes the corner stone of the Church. The persuasion of this truth has penetrated the conscience of the age in which we live. Another party would identify the spirit with the letter, the form with the substance, think ing that the Church and State depend for safety upon the conservation of external formalities. It is not the living faith of Christ?it is the Church which has become their profession of faith and their sub stitute for religion. Those who do not follow their viewa are anathematised." The address then goes on to acknowledge the exaggerations of some of the new reformers, the existence of which is not denied, but the motives are stated to be of the purest kind, while these very exaggerations are but a natural reaction against those which would bind men by mere human tra ditions. Christianity and the Bible do not depend upon external aid?tne struggle of the Church is oIh spiritual kind, and ought to be allowed freedom ot action. The address concludes with a prayer to the King to convoke a commission of all the pro vinces of the State to prepare a constitution for the Church, the necessity for whirh had become so generally felt. , , The imssage, which we have quoted above, re sumes all that we have been saying. The people may not clearly see the end towards winch their efforts are tending; all they do know is that then sympathies go with the movement against that army of darkness, whose banner was the shirt of Treves. It is for wise rulers to give that movement a frame sutliciantly large for its ample character, and, by so doing, submit it to order, rule, and government. Such ia the sense, as we take it, of the call for a reconsideration of the ecclesiastical constution ot 1822 which, if accorded, would probably place Prussia at the head of the glorious reformation, which all Germany is ready to embrace. English View of the Fall of the United States. [From the London Herald, Sept. 27.] The latest accounts from the United States illus trate as happily as we could desire our remarks upon the certain disruption of the colossal republic, and upon the tendency of every enlargement of territo ry to accelerate that event. According to tolerably well-authenticated state ments, the republican squatters, settlers, or whatever they are, in the Oregon territory, have manifested latrlv a very strong disposition to renounce all con nection with the elder republic. The disposition thus early exhibited is what must, sooner or later, direct the destiny ot the Oregon settlement, whether Great Britain do or do not interfere between the contending parties; and it is our anxious wish that Great Britain may leave them to themselves. The inhabitants ot the western coast cannot de rive commerce in peace, or protection in war. from the republic; on the other hand, the established com merce of the old States must forever weigh as an in tolerable incwbui upon the mercantile enterprise of the States, ta be, upon the Pacific, and the wars of the republic, from which these extreme western set tlers can receive no possible advantage, will be con stantly involving them in difficulty and danger.? Every motive of interest, must, therefore, urge tho settlers in Oregon to rid themselves at once of all connection with the Government and Legislature of ^Loy'alty'and national honor, which have so much ard so just an influence in holding together the hete rogeneous parts of some European states, are ot lit tfc weight at the other side ot the Atlantic. Loyalty, indeed, can hardly exist where there is neither King nor a Church to claim it; and a nation that merely "covenants with itself," has small opportunity for the cultivation of national honor. The United states have no history or historical recollections that can attach to their constitution by bonds of feeling any but the descendants of the men of 1774. Tne peo pie of Texas, lor example, or Oregon, have no claim to the military glories of the revolution, and they will not acknowledge these glories as ties upon them The only lesson applicable to their own posi tion. which they will find in American histonr, is a lesson of rebellion and revolt. Let Texas or the Ore gon territory, or any other remote member ot the ilJ compacted confederation, discover that it would be benefited by separating from the L ni?\n, and the pre cedent of 1774 is before it without a single counter acting motive. It will separate, dragging with it no inconsiderable fragment of adjacent territory; as we see in the fall of an o}d building that a descending wall pulls down with it much of the edifice that, but lor such neighborhood, might have long remained immovable. Even in the more center and older States of theUnion, there are, however, as we have already shown, the elements of a not very distant disruption, because there ib a very plain opposition of interests find of feelings among them. It it is supposed that we contemplate with any sentiment of pleasure the near approach ol the disso lution ol this magnificent tree state, we suffer a great injustice. The most zealous patriot of the republic cannot regret more sincerely, though of course he will more sensibly, the certainty that the United State are doomed to give place to a number of inde pendent and jarring communities. The States, as they exist, can do us little harm, but broken up, as they will be. they may involve us in many perplexi ties We merely state the natural course ot events, and we cannot see any other end to that course than that which we have described. The temptation of fered by land sales will irresistibly impel a democra cy to extend its limits, and the extension must lead to all the disastrous consequences ot which we have spoken. The events in the Oregon are merely a be ginning. The China Trade. We have great pleasure in laying before our read ers copies of a letter from Mr. Macgregor, of the Board of Trade, consisting of an extract; of a des patch from the British consul at Foo-Chow-f-oo, containing the regulations of trade for that newly opened port?the one w?h respect tc.the opening o which the Chinese government niade the greatest difficulty during the memorable negotiations with Sir Henry Pottinger. V?""C,how'F"? port of the tea distnet, and, it we are not mistaken, the great emporium of^ the Chinese trade with ' office of Committee of Privy Council for Trade,) Whitehall, 29th Sept., 184A. S Sir-I am directed hy the Lords of the Committee or Privy Council for Trade to transmit to you, forthehi lorniation of the Chamber of Commerce at md the gentlemen counectud with the trade to th*^"' Indies and China, the accompanyinge?*ract of ed*P?tch i rom her Majesty's consul at foo-Chow-Foo, dated the Jtith April last. 1 am, sir, your obedient humble eervt, * j. Macorcoor. To the Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool. (Copy.) "In reference to the first article, defining the limits of the port, I have onlv to observe that, while thepess which forms the Umit is too well marked to admit of mistake, it allows ample anchorage above to **?**!" wishing to trade, and below to any driven far shelter in to the river, but not desiring to enter the port. ?? I trust the third and fouith articles will also be con sidered satisfactory; the former pcrm'ttingvs.seUfree IV to enter and remain without incurring port dues, un test they find a market for their goods; the latter estab lishing the same standard and rales for the P?7?*ntof duties as are in force at Canton-thus, 1 hope, P?clud">* ill future discussions as to the relative value of the ay cee in most common use, and providing laiopt at extortion similar to that so long and obstinate ''?^l"!s port"a^)?w be considered fairly opened; end if merchants are disposed to avail themselves of ilities afforded by the approaching lavorabta monsoon, I have no doubt they will be well received; 1 mrther led to believe, that a considerable demand will .?rise for British goods, if judgment be shown in the ao lectiou and tact and patience in ottering them for sale, ?fht^ld merchants, however, freight vessel.ofconsid. , utile burden lor this port, and expecttodsposeof the whole careo to one person, or even to self it in large porUon. t?one, twoor three individuals, 1 can only an m. ??w to"? ^autiia transactions are carried on by means ol a ouirency, whicn can only ba converted into BAA]rer 10 * very hunted amount. Ol the accuracy of this sUtsment II eel well assured lrom multiplied inquiries, and the uniform consistency of the answers received. ?? Although few or none of the native traders have sev eral thousand dollars at command, 1 believe there ere a large number, nevertheless, who are prepared with ?mailer amounts to make purchases of British manufac tU'*^m-<those who may think it worth their while, there lore to freight vessels with assorted goods, end dispose of them in small portions, or by retail, there will no doubt ne a market, and 1 should conceive a profitable ?"f \'or should it be forgotten, that in this manner commen " The'g^'rnoV'anii iu? treasurer have both assured l?fh?most unqualified manner, ol their anxious do me, n the most. unquaiineu ^ ^ ,tUblithed at this '"Wnn'u fsee lnile rcaseu to question their sinceu rein this matter, It may be salely anui irivolous difficulties or vexations wiU be thrown in the way of the lair trader by the authorities. ; - Rrtulation, of Trait for the Port of Foe- Chore-foo. " m The limits ol the port ol Koo-Chow-too extend lrom the bridge to the Woe-I'oo-Man I ass. ? ad The Chinese officer at the station within the Pass nas orders to provide any vessel desiring to auler the ' British ships may remain in the port, with a view of ascertaining the state of tha market, without restric ..on as to time, and should they desire to depart without Breaking bulk, no port dues will be demanded. The captain will, however, in all cases, deliver his iship s pa pers, bills ol lading, kc., into the hands ol the consul, within 24 hours alter arrival. " 4th Payment of duties may be made, eifbsrin 8yce* or coined money, at the retesjalready established at l?" 5th. All cargo 1. to be taken in or discharged between .uuiise and sunset accompanied by an ?? 8th. Sailors on libe 7 on #nd itrictly enjoined to jawiiSBS. - ?? i-*" ?" Chow-Koo. ?? r.a"cocs, h. Brit. Mad- Consul. " Foo-Chow-Foo, 28th April, 1846. O't'onnell at a Banquet. Mr O'Connell has emerged from his mountain home, and is again on the wing. He has been [Be rn rm* ft "Monster Demonstration" atLashel; and tils appearance at the Repeal Associationthan!given ew impetus to the rent. At both places Mr. O Lon 11 travelled out of his way to make an mack on the gentleman who is now in rt,'"nd- ? behalf ol the 7"lines an attack d. 8h?^eJVho lowest and moat rslnd ,iersonttl.ty. l ^ ^r1;^^ has provoked Mr. O'ConnellN Knulmu great good in Ireland; lie 18 rCee ^d re no JabUc con.?.,?un h?concl" lar from the niark n *?? * , da and die brutality vionsas to the conduct he q ^ ^.curr ol agents. ^,BUCV hli hostility. The Itmt, Mr. V leader arc, ot courae, at "loggerheads' and the lnah letwer ? ^ ^ imrtiea are "aW toi U..V

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