21 Şubat 1848 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1

21 Şubat 1848 tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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THJ WUuIa No, MIT. Francr. Paris, Jan. 27, 1848. Corruption of the Government?M Guizot Exposed in Corrupt Trafficing for Office, and Supported bg a Majority of 295 Pensioners and Devendents?The Amir's Retirement?Effects of the Royal Sneezing?Rt appearance of the King ? TYcatmentof Ao-del Kader?Speculations on Abdication?Theatrical and Musical Intelligence. In former letters 1 have more th&u once explained the system of corrupt influence by which the machinery of government in this country is kept in motion. I have now to relate a signal example of the irresistible power of that influence?an example which will prove that nothing short of a demonstration of public opinion which will strike terror into the dependents of the government. can defeat that government in the chambers. M. Guizot enjoys, all over the world, the reputation of being the most incorruptible and immaculate of ministers. Yet we have seen, within the last few days, an exposition in the chambers strangely at variance with this supposition. It anncars. that some time since, a tren tie man desired to be appointed to a place in the department of finances. He succeeded, through the interest of a member of the ministerial party, in obtaining the promise of an appointment; but it was soon alter intimated to him, that the immediate appointment he desired conld only be obtained provided that a vacancy should occur in another department. It was further intimated to him, that this vacancy might probably'be created if he (the applicant) could induce a certain individual to resign his office, and retire upon the usual pension. Of course, the persuasion necessary to be resorted to in such case, consisted in offering to the retiring officer an equivalent in hard casu. The applicant perfectly understanding this, a negotiation waB opened which ended in an agreement on the part ot the officer in question, to retire for a quid pro quo, and his written resignation was accordingly placed in the hands of the candidate for office, an equivalent in money having been paid for the same.? This resignation was then tendered to the chief secretary.of M. Gui/.ot, and soon after, the candidate found himself gazetted to the office which he sought. This is a mere outline of the case. There are certain spicy incidents about it, which would require the descriptive pen of Alexander Dumas or Kugene Sue to do them justice. Thus, the candidate for office had a handsome wife. This ladv (as generally happens with French ladies) had an amant. This ariiant was a peer of France, and an intimate friend of M. Gui/.ot, and was said to have exerted a powerful influence in favor of the husband of the lady. The husband, first ascribing this influence to friendship for himself, is later made aware of its true origin, and in a fit ot indignation, he separates from the wife, attempts a prosecution against her, throws up the office, &c., &c. The details, which would be too long to be given here; may be easily imagined. This subject was brought before the chumber a few days ago, by M. Odillon Barrot. Not a tittle of it was denied. M. Gui/.ot was proved to be cognizant of the whole : the buying out, the paying the bribe, the creation of the vacancy, the filling it up by M. Guizot's own friend, and the appointment of him who paid the money, to an equivalent post ileewhcre. No part of this foul transaction was, or could be denied?the only defence was, that similar things were done under former ministers. It was, however, promptly denied that any former ministers were cognizant of them, and it appeared in fact that such transactions, when they occurred, had been private arrangements between the out-going and in-coming parties, to which the minister had never been privy; where tie, in tlie present case, the minister whs not onlv privy to, but wa? the originator and planner of, " the whole transaction. In any legislature, free from corrupt influences, this would of course be sufficient to demolish a cabinet. But in the present case, M. Guizot put a bold face on the matter. The dependents and friends of the cabinet, those who drew the breath of their nostrils from ministerial and royal favor, were whipped in, and a majority of 225 placemen, actual and expectant, rendered their votes against an opposing minority of 146. Such a result will imt surprise those who remember that in a chamber consisting of 45rt deputies, there are actually within one or two of 200 office-holders, and a large proportion of the remainder are of course oflice-s<ekers. It will doubtless be asked, then, whether under these circumstances, the cabinet is to be considered irremoveablel The answer is no! for that, in France, the influence of royalty goes for much, and that the withdrawal of royal tavor, adroitly made known in the chamber, would speedily release the majority from their allegiance to the minister, who in that case would of course fall. Such a movement in the royal mind might be either the result of conviction, of patriotism, or of private and selfish objects ; or it might prorftpH frnm th#? matinrt nf aplt.nr^oAFvottAn prompting the head of the State to move in the direction of public opinion.t Such is the constitutional regime at present in France. The personal retirement of Louis Philippe, which necessarily followed the loss of so near and dear a relative, and so wise, a counsellor and ludicious a friend, as the Princess Adelaide, has been productive of a series of public alarms, which have been felt upon the Boucse, and indicated by the decline of the funds. The habits of Louis Philippe art accessible in the extreme All persons holding a certain Bocial position are free to resort to the xulons of the chateau in the evening; ; there the King of the Barricades appears wilh his family and mingles freely among the visiters, always finding something agreeable and appropriate to say to each. The public thus are haMtMtld ti? have, as it were, daily occular proof of thf* health and vigor of him whose decease would at the present moment be productive of a "boulrvtmemrnt," the result of which is utterly beyond the scope of the foresight of the most sagacious. The suspension of these receptions, the retirement ot the person of the King, and the consequent absence of that daily evidence of his condition which has necessarily followed the decease of the Princess Adelaide, has given birth to a succession of conjectures and alarms, by which all Paris lus been agitated ev-?r since that event. It is scarcely possible to convy to those who are n<jt on the spot, how sensitively alive the public in Paris is, and the monied interests especially, to the condition ot Louis Pmlippe.? It is literally true that the King cannot sneeze without lowering the funds one per cent. Although a court mourning of two months, and the consequent discontinuance of public receptions at the chateau, were annouueed on the death of Madame Adelaide, the strict observance ot'thein has been found so incompatible with the public interests, that iho King has seen it expedient to re-open the talon* of the palace, and resume his customary receptions. The first of these took place oil Monday evening last, and was brilliant in the extreme. The entire diplomatic corps, accompanied by their ladies, were present, all the cabinet ministers with their ladies, the high official functionaries in every department ot state, and a large number of the members of both chambers. The King appeared to enjoy his usual health.. The reception continued from an early hour in the evening until eleven o'clock. The embarrassment into which the cabinet was thrown by the impolitic conditions on which the Due d'Aumale consented to accept the submission of Abd-el-Kader, hat been surmounted by the dexterous management of the agents of novcrnment. who have, nermmHed th? Fmir to throw luniaelf on the generosity of the King ; tlius abandoning the conditions on which he had surrendered. Altd-el-Kudcr is at present consigned, with his suite, to a fort called Lamalgue, near Toulon. ]i is understood that nothing is neglected to mitigate his captivity, by surrounding him with conveniences and luxuries, to which neither lie nor his followers have probably ever b*en a?customed. It is generally considered that his present abode is only provisional and temporary, and the prolmbility ol. his being brought to the capital is even iih ntion<-d. You will doubtless have heard ol the various rumors which have been in circulation of the intended abdication ol Louis Philippe, and the establishment ot a regency. Although there is really 110 positive ground tor these rumors, it is certain that the idea has occupied a lar^e space in the political circles of Paris. The intrinsic probability of such a desire, is the only present i E NE1 NEW ground for such a report. Many motives obviously 8U8gest Buch a measure. By withdrawing from the throne, and leaving the regency to the Due de Nemours, Louis Philippe would still exercise behind the throne a secret influence, and uphold it by his experience and sagacity The transition from his actual sovereignty to the regency, would be, as it were, broken, and the public would be more reconciled to the new order of things, by being insensibly brought to admit them. Moreover, it is understood that there n a large party in the chambers, and in the country, the leadership ot which would be assumed by M. Thiers, who would Bupport the cause of the Duchess of Orleans, and who would not be backward to set aside the claims of the Due de Nemours to the regency, in her favor. This party would, under the arrangement we now advert to, be discouraged in sucn efforts by the actual presence of Louis Philippe behind the throne ; and if once the regency of the Due de Wmnnra WAm flnknnwlpfi(7f>rl. it rmild not hf? easily set aside at a later period. Ia addition to political motives like these, Louis Philippe has a dearly cherished object beside him, who would be eminently gratified by any measure which would withdraw his person from the dangers to which it is now inevitably exposed on every occasion on which the exigencies of the State require his presence in public. This object is Queen Amilie, whose anxiety iB apparent to the least cUear-sighted observer, whenever the ceremonies of State expose the royalperson to the piBtol of the assassin. On the othernand, the inextinguishable love of power, which is the characteristic of Louia Philippe, would render him strongly adverse to allow the reins of government to pass into other hands, even though he himself were at the elbow of the charioteer of the State. Paris, Jan. 27, 1849. Theatrical and Musical. The progress of musical and theatrical events here is too slow to supply, from week to week any facts of interest. A successful drama or opera takes possession of a theatre, and absolutely excludes every thing else for months. Thus, A uber's new opera ot " Haydee," which I mention" ed to you in my last, monopolizes the Opera Comique The French version of Verdi's " I Lombardi," called "Jerusalem," languishes, but still occupies the Academic. A ridiculous French version of Hamlet, from the atelier of Messrs. Alexandre Dumas & Co., is played at the Theatre Historique A new ballet, to be called the " Five Senses," (not that lately presented in London) is in preparation at the Academy. The music will be supplied by Adam', the immortal author oi me I'ostnion ot Liongjumeau," and the heroine will be Cariotta Grisi. Jenny Lind has cruelly refused all the overtures of the Parisian ifianagers, and declines any visit to the French capital. M. Alboni continues to be the load-Btar of the Italian Opera, filling the house nightly, till it overdows. Paris, January 26,18-48. Affairs of Sicily?Bud Effects on the King of Naples?Thoughts on Italian Matters?Constitution of the French Chambers?Rising and Revolution in Palermo. On the 12th instant, Sicily was revolutionized, and Palermo, the capital, invested by the insurgents, in military array, eight or ten thousand strong. Thirty thousand people assembled in Palermo, to fight for their liberty, and to overpower the forces of the King^ placed there to hold the people in bondage. Tb*y triumphed ; and at night the tri-colored dag waved over the ity, amidst shouts and songs, revelry and blood shed; and Palermo acknowledged only the power of the people. The receipt of this information made the King of Naples sick ; but after a few hours, he revived, and immediately embarked six thousand well drilled troops for Palermo, to put down this insurrection, and to give ascendancy to the throne. Blood will flow in unmeasured quantities, in this mere strife of the people against Kings. In Europe, a country less in area than the present limiu of the United States, forty-nine kings, emperors, kc. reign; living, each one, at an ex- i pense of millions, annually; maintaining the most costly establishments for themselves, their households, and their mistresses: supporting large military establishments, to hold the people in subjection ; while tho?e who are compelled to bear the burden, and from whom are extracted, at the point of the bayonet, the means and expenses of these courts and armies, are compelled to subsist upon only small remnants of their own earnings, and in the most indigent circumstances. Italy, immortal Italy, is among the most oppressed of European States; divided into States of limited area, and parceled out among foreign powers, she, who was once the mistress of the world, and who furnished models for the civilization, polish, power, and glory o! ether nations, is nersrlf the prev of those to whom she has given example, and is dying of the wounds which they have inflicted, and of the poison which they nave diffused through her I veins. Italy, which once was, but is not now, is rode and used as a beast of burden, by Austria and the other European powers, stronger than i herself. Not like Poland is she annihilated ; no, she is reserved for the menial service of supporting branches of some royal family that ; j i r i i .1 i i.an inn uc I'luviuru iui ai uuiiic, auu mcicuy IP forced to occupy the poBition of an appendage to i the other powers, which yet tolerate her exist- I ence. The different States in Italy are in the I act, or preparing for. a revolution. The insur- | rections embrace all classes?high and jow, priests and laymen. In Palermo, the priests 1 fought themselves, or aided and encouraged | others to do so. The people, as a whole, are rising up, to throw off, if possible, the chains i ot their oppressors; and the successful is- i sue of the revolution in Switzerland has i given them unbounded confidence. But, I I fear that torrents of blood will flow in vain^<< for her ; I fear she has not the powtfr to i break the chains by which she is fettered, and i bound down, as a vassal, to the stronger powers; i and to exterminate that system of oppression and i corruption, which has been destroying her vital- i ity and existence, for the last thirty years. I i fear that Kagland will not stand by her, though she is accused of giving countenance to this grand movement of the masses, in favor of civil liberty. Can Lord Palmerston have determined to have made himself, and his country serviceable to the cause of freedom, and to use the power ef England, for the improvement of the condition ol the people, in the European States 1 From, Louis Phillip's government, thrones only, will receive nnv support. France is now an ally of absolutism. I mean the government of France ; and it firmly refuses to concede any additional rights and privileges to its own people, as it does to lend its influence to the progress of such reforms as Europe is prepared for; and if not conceded by governments, to wrest from governments, or to overturn them in the whirlpool of revolutions. The French Chamber of Peers are nominated by the king, and are unlimited in number. The Chamber of Deputies are composed of men, thirty years old, and each paying a direct tax of five hundred francs; elected by those, only paying two hundred francs, direct tax? annually, and being twenty-five years old. The Chamber is composed of four hundred and forty-nine members ; and two hundred of that number are. pensioned and salaried by the government. What a representation of the people! and yet the government firmly resists all demands for an extension of the rignt of suffrage ; and braves " the reform budgets," and the popular movement in support of them. Tne news this morning from Naples, under date of the 22d inst., confirm the first accounts. The rising in the interior of Sicily has been general, and the success, thus far, complete. In Palermo, the women and children joined in the tight, throwing hot water, furniture, and every kind of missle, from the windows, on to the h<>ads of the soldiers?from one window they threw a piano. At Palermo, a provisional government has been formed, and preparations to meet any force which the King has sent, to subdue them. The soldiers are represented as disinclined to tight against the people, and the insurrectionary movement as thorough and complete. Where, these revolutions will terminate, the future only can unfold. The southwest part of this Continent is in a condition that indicates great changes in the relative rights of governors and the governed, either by consent or force. England is charged with countenancing all these popular movement! on the Continent. The debate in the Chamber of DtDUtieaoon* tinuee to increaae the excitement in Frtaop An OMtttm. W YO YORK, MONDAY MORI Paris, Jan. 18, 1848. State of the Paris Funds?Agitations and Reports on the Bourse. During the last ten days, there has been a general decline of prices. All securities have fallen. The three per?cents, during the past week, fell from 75 10 to 74.15, and the fives from 117.15 to 116.25, which were their last quotations.? During the last two days, this downward movement was continued, and the threes closed yesterday at 73.70, and the fives at 115.85 for the end ot the month. In the share market a like downward movement took place, but not bo rapid or extreme. # This general depreciation of securities has been ascribed to a variety of causes, among which the reported decline of the health of Louis Philippe is named most frequently. Nevertheless, it is certain that there are no real grounds, at present, for any apprehension on this subject. A more real and practical cause for so general a fall may, perhaps, be found in the near approach oi numerous and heavy calls of the great railway companies, combined with the monthly instalments en the new loan. These produce a real pressure on the market, and one from which no contingency can relieve it. Holders of shares who are unable to meet the calls expected to be made three months hence, are selling, and those who are able to meet them, are selling government stock to provide funds for the purpose, in contemplation of a further fall. Well, it is Contended that money is not really so scarce, either in Par's or the provinces, as is pretended, and reliet is expected from the approaching halfyearly payment of the dividends on the fives ? There are still other causes of the recent and nresent agitations of the market. Rpnnrtn unfn vorable to the maintenance of peace arise out of the situation of affairs in Italy and Switzerland. Not a day passes that reports are not circulated on the-Bourse either of an invasion of some of the States of Italy by Austria, or of some emeutc in the same States. The debates in the chambers, since the opening of the session, have also contributed to the agitation of the market, being considered by speculators as presaging stormy time*. In a word, public confidence Has been considerably shaken. It is true that thiB situation of affairs, may be regarded as the reaction of the unreasonable rise wnich took place before, and even immediately after, the announcement of the conclusion of the new loan. Bold speculators were at that time overburthened with stock, which they expected to get rid of after the adjudication. Although surprised at the price at which the new stock was issued, they nevertheless, pursued their operations; but they have been unable to struggle against the natural force of things, which has brought the new loan down to the price at which it was issued, and has now reduced the threes below 74. It results from this: that being compelled to abandon the coarse they had resolved on, by the apprehension of the future, they are obliged to make their settlements on the most disadvantageous conditions, and thus accelerate the fall of stocks, already declining from other causes. From the very commencement of the month, this state of things was foreseen; for it had been observed that the parquet became sellers in the coulisscby means of continuations, of an immense of quantity of stock. It was therefore concluded that stock was passing into bad hands. Each party immediately contracted their operations,and thereby hastened the denouement of those which had been effected. Even in the most prosperous condition of the market, such circumstances would be often sufficient to produce a bouleversement; but how much more certain must such an effect be at present, when the market is glutted with securities which as vet represent no real sources of revenue, but only vast works in process of execution, the ultimate returns of which no one can certainly foresee. M*Jan. 25, 1818. Breaking out of the Sicilian Revolution?Thrilling Description of Events, by an Eye Hritness? History and Anecdotes of the same. We are here in a state of high excitement, owing to the arrival of intelligence of a general insurrection which broke out in Sicily on the anniversary of theffte of the King of Naples. You have, doubtless, been made aware, by your Naples correspondent, that for a long time, the greatest discontent had prevailed throughout the dominions of the King of Naples, and especially in the iBlandof Sicily, where political reforms, the emancipation of the press, and the re-establishment of the constitution of 1812, have been loudly called for. These demands have, however, been resisted by the king. The population, excited by continual disappointments, at length resolved, that if on the celebration of the anniversary of the king's fete, which was to take place, tk* i-jfi. ?r r granted, they would proceed to enforce them. Out of this arose the transactions which I am now about to relate to you; but I think it will be best to give you them as nearly as possible from the words of the parties from whom we have liere derived our information. I shall therefore extract such passages from the letters of eyewitnesses and ear-witnesses as will present you with the most lively tableau of this important movement. A letter from Naples, dated 15th January, a*y?:?"As early as the 8th instant, the Sicilians liad acquired the conviction that nothing would be done to relieve them of their burthens; but the period fixed on for a demonstration, viz j the 12th, was not anticipated. As the movement was to be spontaneous, every man held himself ready for action, waiting for the signal from Palermo. Without knowing precisely the nature and extent of the manifestations, the police foresaw the events, by the calm and decided attitude of the Cspulation, and irritated it the more, if possible, y effecting. on the night of the 9th, the arrest of some of tne first persons in Palermo. Tney *re the same who, in the warm demonstrations of the 27th of November, kept down the popular efl'ervesence and restored to order, when the authorities declared themselves uunable to do so, these impatient masses. Amongst the persons nrrested the following are mentioned:?Prince Fiorenza, the Chancellor Amari and his brothers, IT P.....: ... I. .,11 n/?..ollir r inuuin rrnau, iiuu iwciuy uuirip, an c4ua.11/ respectable. "Count Acceto had been denounced, but when the police went to his house to arrest him, they found the doors barricaded, and they began to besiege the house, the first floor of which is occupied by the English consul In the course of their proceedings the arms of Kngland got detached and, falling on the ground, were brok:n to pieces. "The police, dreading the intervention of the representative of Kngland, withdrew, amidst the hootings of the populace. M. Acceto was thus saved, and the consul sent off a communication of the insult which his flag hid received, to the British ambassador at Naples, who has demanded prompt reparation. All these circumstances were ot a nature to keep up the energetic resolution of the people Every thing, however, was organized in silence. Manifestos were sent ofl" secretly from Palermo, in all directions of the island. Every thing had been provided for, md the part which each was to take had been arranged. The patriots, who were without arms md the necessary means for taking a part in the insurrection, were invited to go to F'alermo, where they would immediately receive them. In the morning of the 12th, on hearing the salvoB of artillery announcing the anniversary of the king'a birth day, the population spread in masses through the city, ana barricades were formed at leveral points, under the protection of armed men. The police totally gave way before this imposing movement; a part oi the troops march rn oui 01 me lown una iook up h posmuu at uic root of the Monte Pellegrino, the rest remaining in thi torts. All remained in this state until rleven o'clock ; but a few minutes after that hour, i strong detachment of cavalry debouched by the ;ate of Saint Antonia to disperse an assemblage collected in front of the palace of the intendant. l'he cavalry was hailed by cries of friendship ind fraternity, but they tired and killed one man, wounding many others, whoae cries of pain were re-echoeaby loud cries of vengeance from the infuriated people, who rushed upon the detachment and brought many to the ground, compelling the rest to sound a retreat. The attitude ot the populace became so menacing that the few troops left in the city retired, leaving the insurgents masters of it, and who occupied themselves in strengthening their positions. One remarkable faot Attended this insurrection, and proves 1 the accord which rcigae between all classes of ?? K?vvi?> Ail* ium?i?u mpwoiTw unottf the armed parti#?-, iaatmatljr prtaohi&g | D If TJ JLw ,l?. ,1 SIING, FEBRUARY 21, 184 to them sentiments of patriotism, and exhorting them not to depart, even in the heat of battle,

from that spirit of moderation and humanity which are the distinguishing marks of our reli i gion. some 01 tiie priests were seen encouraging, by voice and gesture, those who were work- I iug at the barricades. In the evening an Englisn war Btenmer arrived at Palermo with despatches for the British consul, and soon after went off again, with most of the English residents. At niyht the city was entirely illuminated, and hres were lighted on the topB of 111 tM RUrrannding eminences. Some hours later, between 7,000 and 8,000 mountaineers, well armed, entered Palermo in good order. The Vesuve steamer returned to Naples at five in the afternoon of the 13th, with despatches from the king's lieutenant. On the following day troops arrived by the railroad from Capua and Nocera to the amount of 8,000 men, and were embarked in nine steam frigates, which immediately steered for Sicily. In the evening, Count de Aquilla himself started in the steam frigate, the Roberto. Placards, posted during the night at every corner, called upon the Neapolitans to imitate the Sicilians. The rising of the people of Trapani has not been less decisive than that of Palermo?they have repelled the royal troops, and gained possession of the castle. ''The packet Giglio del Onde, which was in the port, has been seized by the insurgents and detained for their own purposes. At Messina, the people appear to have the same advantages. The forts which surround the town are in their hands. The troops occupy the citadel. Catania, Syracuse, and Melazza, have not been less fortunate. Every where success has crowned the efforts of the insurgents. "It in reported, also, that there is an insurrection in the Abruzzi and Poglia; but this news requires confirmation. The news has produced a profound sensation in Naples, but there has been no outbreak. "There is a report current that the Duke de Sierra Capriola is in disgrace, and that instead of his ooint; to Sicilv. he will be sent on a mis sion to Rome." Another letter, dated Naples, the 18th, says:? "The severity with which communications are intercepted. preventd Ud from knowing exactly what has taken plaoe at Catania, Syracuse, Kegrio, Melazzo, and the prinoipal towns of the Interior; hut every thing leads ns to believe, that there, as at Palermo, the insarreotlon hai been energetio. As to Messina, "we can affirm, in the most positive manner, that all the population are in arms, and that the royal troops, too weak to pnt down the general movement, have bean oompelled to retire to the fort, where they were preparing to bombard the town. At this movement, however, British frigate, the Thetis, oommanded by Captain Codrington, and which had quitted Naples on the first new* of thia event to take under her protection the English residents at Messino, anchored under the fort. The captain, in conoert with the English and French oonsuls, gave notion to the military governor not to oommenoe his Ore until the subjects of the two oountries should be safely on board. But Capt. Codrington, doubting the promise to this effeot of the Neapolitan governor, resorted to the following stratagem: he placed the Thetis as near as possible to the fort, and in the direotion of his guns, and plaoed his sails in such a position that a shot could not be fired without touching one of them, whioh was by far too set lous a thing for the governor t o attempt to do. it is to be feared, however, that, although Capt. Codrington would prolong this state of things as long as possible, he would be unable to save Mess'na from the horrors of a bombardment, as soon as the British and French subjeots should be onboard his ship. Our last accounts from Palermo were to the l-ith. Almost at the moment when the insurrection broke out, the English pquadron, which had been in the port for a fortnight, set sail, leaving only a frigate for the protection of the English residents. The squadron returned to Naples on the 16th. i ub ruyi i uuu|?i, wuicu, at vu? uatn ui our ! ? ourrnBpondence, occupied the foot of the Monte Pellegrino, had returned to their barraoks. where they had to sustain the attacka of the people, who fought with fury. The?e engagements, although very sanguinary, had been without deoisive results. The troops in the barracks and forts replied to the Are of the assailants ; but they were olosely blockaded, up to the 16th, the date of our last newt. The troops fought with resignation, but it was easy to peroeive that they fluctuated between a sense of military duty and tbelr feelings as oitiraa. The people lied formed a proTleiomi am wert The greatest enthusiasm and most perfeot aocord reigns among the people. Men, women, and ohildren, have all combined in raising the barrioades and outtlng the trenches. No exoess, tending to oompromlse the patriotio oause, has occurred to tarnish their prooeedtngs. The Knglish consul, whose arms were accidentally thrown down, in the attempts made by the police to make their way into the residenoe of Count Aooeto, obtained immediate reparation." Such ia the teuor of our latest information, at the moment I write this. If further intelligence should nrrive in time to reach Liverpool for the mail steamer of the 29th, I will send it. Switzerland. Berne, Jan. 16, 1848. End of the Civil War?Trick of the Priests of StBernard to excite Public Opinion against the Liberal Parttf?Revision of the Swiss Pact. The civil war ia this confederation is concluded. The Jesuits are expelled, and the liberal party is triumphant. The expenses of the war are decreed to be levied on those who provoked it; and, as the religious orders in the Catholic cantons were among the foremost of these, great is the havoc made among their properties by fines and exactions, which, in some cases, amount to confiscation. Among the parties which have thus suffered, by far the most conspicuous are tfle monks of the great St. Bernard, so familiarly known to all travellers across the Alps. These ecclesiastics refused to pay the fite decreed against them, and, deserting their celebrated monastery, withdrew to a villa which they had built not long since in F'iedmont, protesting in the face of Europe against the measure of which they had become the victims. \ The liberal party, however, affirm that their | retreat from their monastery was a measure ll?.l for no other purpose than to cast odium on the government of Switzerland, bjr exciting the commiseration of the rest of Europe. It is contended that the fine decreed against them was a trifle, compared with their resources, and that moreover they eminently deserved its infliction, inasmnch as they were among the foremost and most active instigators ( of that civil war which spread devastation and bloodshed in the confederation, and involved both the government and the Cantons in heavy ] pecuniary, losses. In general, however, the Cantons which raised , the war have submitted with a good grace to the fines necessary to indemnily the federal govern- 1 ment lor its expenses. The great question now is. the revision and modification of the pact which forms the basis of the constitution of this confederation, and which was framed at the commencement ot the general peace in 1815. The object of this revision will be to give more power and strength to the federal government and to curtail, of course, the independence of the Cantons. How far this will aflect the international ielations between Switzerland and the great powers of Europe, remains to be seen. pain. Madrid, Ian. '20, 1848. Reception of Espartero?Royal Slight upon Him? Strength of the Narvaez Cabinet?No Hopes of Heir* from Queen Isabella?Sixteen Doctors Called in to Consult on the Queen's Health? A Plague of the Infiutn za?Sixty Thousand Prostrated by it. I have little to say in addition to what 1 communicated in my letter of last week, (reneral 1 Espartero, the Duke of Victoria, and ex-regent, J is now the great lion of the day here. Some , persons, however, have been disappointed at his < backwardness in assuming a political position. He knows how little reliance is to be placed | either on general popularity, or on party spirit, in such an atmosphere. He has been graciously i received at court, but we have just learned that 1 he is pointedly omitted among the rather nutne- J rous invitations to k grand hall, to be given in a , few days at the palace. This circumstance is , generally attributed liorc to the tact that hehus I omitted piying his dtroirs to the (^ueen Dow- < ager, the Duehess of Ilienzares. for whom, at no < time, it must be admitted, Iihs Kspartero had any 1 very profound respect. The ministry of Narvaez, which was thought to have been lotteriue at the lift, lias been established chielly by the alarm of the modn ado, or tory, party here, among which a split was near taking place, the effect of which would have been probably the dissolution of the Cortes, and the establishment of a progressist or liberal cabinet.The modtradot have accordingly coalesced, and the Narvicx cabinet is now aupported by a tolerably strong majority of 155. Mtton uneaalneM continue* to prevail regard % I?? III |_ [ERA 18. i no llio lionltli nf ?fiA nnil tllOBO WhoRrP I best informed, abandon the faintest hopes of seeing u direct succession to the throne. Within the last lew weeks her majesty has been, on several occasions, attacked by fainting tits, in one of which she watt deprived of Hens" and consciousness for nearly two hours- These seizures were first attributed to well understood sexual causes, and produced but little alarm; their frequency, however, has appeared scarcely compatible with this supposition; in addition to which, it is known that frequent consultations have teen held, not only of the regular court physicians, but that on one occasion, so many as sixteen doctors of the most extensive experience in Madrid were called in. Meanwhile, ner majesty rebels against the rules prescribed for her, and rides out on horseback, or in carriages, in the most inclement weather. The influenza, or grippe, as it is here called, prevails here with almost the intensity of a plague. Since the prevalence of the cholera, no sucn mortality has been witnessed. It is computed that at the present moment, there are no less than sixty thousand persons prostrated by it, among whom are four cabinet ministers. Sardinia. Turin, January 11, 1848. Prudential Conduct of King Char Ira Albert?A Magna Charta given by Him to the People., filling 34 columns of a Newspaper?Some Account of its Provisions. Piedmont has recently been the theatre of a bloodless revolution, in which changes have been peacefully effected by the wisely directed will of the sovereign, and the grateful acccp tation of the people, which are without a parallel in th? annals of any country, except the neighboring States of the Church and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. King Charles Albert has begun, by steadily asserting the supremacy of the law, and by showing that, to mere popular tumult, nothing would be conceded. Having repressed disorders, and demonstrated that the rein3 of government were held by a firm hand, he called around him wise and liberal counsellors, and, with their aid, organized a system of public administration in which the foundations of a constitutional government are laid. This magna charta of Piedmont appeared in the official gazette, of which it occupied 21 columns, a few days since. By this ordinance, the entire State is re-organised on a plan, in many respects, similar toihatof Prance. The entire territory is resolved, primarily, into pro vinces, which correspond to the drench departments. These provinces are again resolved into divisions, which correspond to the French arroiulissements ; and these divisions are again, as in France, resolved into communes, or townships. The provinces are governed by Prefects, and the divisions by Sub-Prefects, and the communes by Mayors and municipal councils. The latter bodies are elective, and form the link between the sovereign and fiia subjects. The tests of elector* are either that of property or intellectual acquirements. The property tests are thus regulated: Lists of the population are made out in the order of the amount they contribute to the public revenue. Of the lirat class, consisting of a limited number of those who pay the largest amount of taxes, one tenth is invested with the elective franchise ; of the next class, one twentieth, and so on in a diminishing proportion as the classes augment in numbers, and decrease in the amount of their contributions. The intellectual qualification is regulated on the most liberal principle, including all professions and callings of an intellectual nature. Thus the elective privilege is granted to all graduates of universities, all members of the liberal professions, all persons engaged i?*he public service, military, naval or civil; all callings partaking of an intellectual character, such as surveyors, engineers, public teachers, kc.; and in tine, all merchants and traders who are in condition to prove that they maintain their (amines by the proms ot tneir business. \ &very one conversant with the history and constitution of countries, will see in this organization the germs of a future representative system. The municipal councils will be in Sardinia, as they have been elsewhere, the nurseries of future statesmen and senators. Time, however, must be given for the people to complete their political education. The first great step, meanwhile, has been made, and havinp emanated from a wise and patriotic sovereign, and having been effected by the comrion consent of prince and people, no doubt can be entertained that in due time it will be followed up by measures of corresponding wisdom and liberality. Turkey. Constantinople, Jan. 7, 1843. Qecree by the Sultan ^Abolishing the Slave Markets throughout Turkey?Pension to Reschid Pacha of 30,000 dollars per annum?Honors to Ali Effendi?Greece making an Humble Apology to Turkey?The Cholera at Constantinople in a very mild form. Few events have transpired here since the date of my last which could excite an interest at your distant part of the world, but among the few which have occurred, there is one which must be recorded by the friends of human civilization, as of transcendent importance. The Sultan has just issued a decree abolishing the slave markets throughout his empire. His Highness has, in this, rrivan nnlv nnnth^r nYflmnlp n f that rliannoif inn ?ITV.I wilt J vri UH?Kwoimwm I towards a system of enlightened pnhcy, which I they who have had the advantage of observing his character, are aware forms the distinctive trait. He has also evinced the same disposition to exercise a liberal and wise policy, in shuwer- I ing munificent rewards and honors on the two statesmen who are most reniarknble in his empire, for sound and,extensive information, and liberal politics. On Reschid Pacha, one of his cabinet minister*, who has passed through ofli- j ces from which others have gathered large emo- i lumentu,without accumulating an independence, lie has granted a pension equivalent to HO,000 dol- 1 lars per annum lor life. On All Etlendi, who does not appear to have stood so much in need of pecuniary gratification, he lias conferred the highest titular honors which he could bestow, in making him a Pacha with three tails. These measures are received here with peculiar gratification, not only by all the Turkish liberal party, but stiil more so by the ro/p* tliplomatiqiir The quarrel which T have so often mentioned to you lately, as having arisen between Greece and Turkey, has been adjusted. King Otho and his cabinet applied successivfly to all the European courts, and from all of them received an answer that the outrage which had been committed , against M. Misurus, wan wholly unjustifiable, ] and such as demanded imperatively the most , ample retribution,and which all civilized powers, , who sent to other courts diplomatic representatives, were equally interested in obtaining an , apology. An apology, accordingly, has at length , been nihde in such terms as have proved satisfac- 1 tory to the cnbinet of the Por'", and M. Misurus is about to return to his post at Athens, as repre- ] sentative of Turkey, at the court of King Otho, , in the 10th. He has already taken his leave of I he Sultan, and received Ins final instructions , Tom the Miniate!. The cholera lias not entirely disappeared from lus city, but it has existed with such trilling in- , ensity, as to pass altogether without exciting lneasiness ; indeed, it is as little regarded here is the most ordinary disease is which is inciden- . til fn lipnlthv nlimutpu ? " "/ - I Fashions tbr February. From the London snd Pari* Ladles' Magaiine of Fashion] There is but little variation In the make of dresses, ilthough *one skill I* required In adapting the style of < :he dr?ss to the flgure. Open redlngotee prevail for the I morning wear, the corsages only being close, with trim I rigs cf velvet or gimp, which give width to the form. | nesting at the waist In the waistcoat style. The j?cktts sometimes resemble pockets?bleiu <le France, a lint >etw*en the eaphir and lapis Isiuli, Is a very fasoionable solor; It is the only shade of blue that looks well by can- 4 He light; the vert de fruit is also a delicate color, very >retty, with black lac.i; pink is l*ss In favor this winter ' ? or dresses, but la much used for bonnets, trimming, and j 1 lortles ds bal c The skirts of the dresses ar* no . worn so long; those t vho still preserve them a little trslnnnte, bave them ^ )nr<jue In froi^t. so as to disengage the feet, and in floun- , )ed dresses the upper one is fulled into the waist, giving he effeot of a seoond skirt. The toilettes de bal are made a la grecque, or with I lraparle; corsage a coeur before and behind, and rather d ocg sleevte. With respeot to the trimmings on the t "kirts, there Is always much variety, but meny are open ] kt the eldes, and eonflned at Intervals by natuds of ribboa, W by bUnd ssblUonoM. Double and triple skirts ' sontinne la fkvor, in thin materials tit* oorsa?es ate not L ilways pointed, bat failed into a baad, with oelntare of < LD. Mm Tw? casta. ribbon ao wide that the long and* nearly sorer thefriat breadth. Many walking dreaae* with high bodlaa are oruamea*ad with aeveral rnwa of narrow velvet or braid ml?el with gimp; prrftty radlnico'ea of dark or aoinbre oil-jr * are trimmed with atnall ahouz of ribbon Dreaieiof Canton netln are trimmed with Vandykes of the earn material, and narrowband* of vol ret la foar or Are rowe. Man team and nardaaatM >rn anun In everv varied*. Small on*# are frinioi<* 1 with four and fl?e row* of Un; ether* are entirety cotimiI oorarad with embroidery; other* K??ln h-ivx a broad hand of fur all round, and a second narrower row above Bom* manteaux ??ateIeta of satin bay* frill* faatoone* In daep Vandyke*. or pinked and edged with (imp, dark green and deep bin* are used for th* morning. and white or plak for erasing norttM da bal, trimmed with colored blood, that on tha hood being deep enough to farm a Tell. Many Spanish coiffure* In blaok and plak are worn; some are formed of vary *mall mantilla* a'tached to tha head by branch** of roie*; and supported bra tortoiseBheil-oomb. the end* of the mantllle Ml to th* waist; a similar coiffure of white tulle lalne d'or la very elegant. The ornamental oombii hare good eff?ot ia oolfTures, composed of flohu of bUok laoe planed on a wreath of dowers arranged In full bunohea. Theatricals. The committee of Drurjr l.ane theatre, hart bow oome to the d> termination that th* pit shall not be opened aa a oirole for equestrian performances, and nave stated as much to M. Julian. Thalberi;. the eminent pianist, has created quite a furore at Madrid: *omethiD<r similar to that whloh took place whoa Catalinl visited that city about fortj-t?? years ?<<> Ha Intends to pay KngUnd a rMt out month, and to make an extensive tour through the provinces, under the direction of K. Ileal*, commencing at Edinburgh on the llth of February, accompanied by the Misses William*, Miss Basiano, and Slgnor Clmttl. Alexandra Dumas, the oaiebrated Kransh writer, htf given the last touch to hit drama ot " Monte Chrlsto," which will boo a be performed at the Thidtr* kitieriqu*. It appears that thin work Is *o long, that it will ba played in two nights; whioh is to say, oat in two?a streak of lean and a streak of fat. Montrkal, February 1, 1848. Xi'wa of the Week. Half-way between the result of the general election nnii the meeting of Parliament, which is fixed for the 2.1th instant, by royal proclamation of yesterday's date, is the time for rumora of ministerial changes and ministerial measure* to be introduced in the legislative assembly. Of tl\g former, the one which is moat probable, is, that the ministers who were in office during the late Sir Charles Bagot's government, known aa the Lafontaine Baldwin administration, will he reinstated in office immediately after the meeting of Parliament. However, they would appear to make it a trine qua nou, that certain responsible officers of the government must resign before they accept office, (such as the clerk of the executive council, &c.) This may or may noioe tcceaea 10 ny L,oru u<igin, aim in a y dc the cause of a disagreement an to the terms on which they will accept office. You are aware that the result of the elections has been quite in favor of the radical,or democratic, party; and should Lord Elgin not pursue the policy of the late Lord Metcalfe, and assert the Prerogative, in the same spirit as his lamented predecessor, democratic principles will gradually gain ground, and pave the way for an important change in the sentiments of the people. Of the contemplated ministerial measures, that which stands most prominent in the sanction of government, by means ot a vote of moneys, in parliament, for the completion of the railroad from this city to Portland, Maine. On the 19th ultimo, the company made its annual report, which is highly flattering to the friends ot the undertaking, and from which it would seem that the railroad will be completed to the province line, ut Straustead, thus affording an uninterrupted line of communication, by steam, from Montreal to ttoston and New York. The railroad from Saratoga to Whitehall will also accomplish this object. The free navigation of the St. Lawrence, and the establishment of a bank of issue, under the control aud superintendence of the government, may also fall under the consideration of the new ministers. The new tariff of duties, which ought to have come into operation on the 5th of January last, haB not yet been sanctioned. 1 have no doubt that the policy to be pursued by the new ministers, will advancc the general interests oi the province and tend considerably to givo an impetus to trade and the introduction ol loreign capital amongst us. This is what we most require, and the repeal of the navigation and usury laws, and other obnoxious legislative enactment^, will promote the attaiment of these important objects. Should another crisis occur between the governor and his ministers, as took place under Lord Metcalfe's administration, nothing will be done, and the country will again be thrown into a state of agitation. The Hon. L. J. Fapineau has been returned as a member of the new parliament. I have reason to believe, and have heard from what I may call " undoubted authprity," that his policy will be more pacific than it was wont to be, and that whilst he will for a period support Mr. Lafontaine, he will not tak'1 a very active or energetic part in the proceedings of the assembly. A. B. C. Vera Crlz, Mexico, Jan. 24, 1848. Appearance of Vera Cruz?Effect* of the Bombardment? The Mexican People, Sfc. fyc. A very expeditious and agreeable passage, of leas than five days across the Gulf, from the time we left the Baliz.e, on board the schooner Decatur, brought us to this place. VeraCruz presents walled and fortified city ; the walls are of strong masonry, and extend around the entire city, while the houses are constructed in such a manner, all of stone, that each one is a fortification of itself; the roofs arc Mat, with parapet walls, and from the roof ofone house you can walkover those of the entire block. Mad our forces been obliged to have taken the city by storm, wc most certainly would have lost an immense number of lives. So well prepared were the Mexicans for defence?anticipating an assult by storm?that immediately outside of the walls of the city are innumerable pits, in each of which were pikes, into which the horses and men would have fallen. The Mexicans must have taken this idea from the example of Bruce at Rannockburn ; not with as much success, however. There are many ruins of the bombardment visible in a walk round the city ; the top of the wall in many places knocked off; shells buried in the sides of lious'-s, and houses in ruins, where a shell has exploded in their inidsf. Immediately outside of the walls was a large church?the Georgia cavalry. Captain Loyall's company, are now encamped in it?which was nearly destroyed by the balls. The first one tired completely destroyed a magnificent image of the Virgin Marv, and the next one scattered the ornaments of the altar to the four winds. This conduct tnghly exasperated the Mexicans, and from the juris on the wull nearest the church, was the most damage done to our lives. The better cla?8 of Mexicans whom I see here, se?m to mc to wear a revengeful look, while the commoner class are dejected and sullen They have the fullest privileges in the city, and pass in and out of the gates at pleasure. Numbers of them are employed in the different departments, and at work on the streets. They receive $2-~> a month and rations; more than a year's pay to many of them before. In arpeartnce they resemble the Indian* very much; ar" ne?t in their dress: but. I mil told, exrrcdingly negligent 111 regard to the cleanliness of their persons and houses. I have seen but lew oi their females, who, I should say, were pretty ; tho better class, however, keep in their nouses, and are not therefore visible. I shall, perhaps, write you at another time, more at length, descriptive of their appearance and habits. The Alabama Battalion is encamped at San Juan, IS miles from here. I have been to the camp, and passed the ?round where the last train was attacked; ih-' bones of two men, who were killed in it, were visible, where they had jeen dug up by ih< wolves; we did not set- any guerillas. The Alabama Battalion expect to nove from tvin Juan tor the city of Mexico in itiout two weeks. The hotel where I am slopping is the "Delirence," kept by Mr. Bell, an Englishman ; all he wuiters are Mexicans, and only si>eak their iwn language. A large train leaves the ctty o-day for Mexico, under a bold escort. The reorgia Independent Horse, under Lieutenant Inderson, form part of the escort, and iinxtous or an adventure, 1 have attached myself to tluiu or this expedition. We shall be absent about six lays. General Twugs yesterday made a visit 0 the Aug ship, in company with the commodore. 1 hose witling to their friends in the army here, hould be advisc J that by superscribing on the lirectton, " belonging to the army," the letters ire free of postage. Giikoob.