16 Ekim 1848 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1

16 Ekim 1848 tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
Metin içeriği (otomatik olarak oluşturulmuştur)

TH NO. 5248. Our London Correspondence. London, Sept. 22-23, 1848. Felon Emigration to the United States?Cotton m India?Object of Lord John Russell's Visit to Ireland?The &}>ecial Commission?The Catholic Endowment Bill- Movements of the Queen? French. JJairs, $-c. Will the citizens of the United States of Ame rica believe that an organized society exists in London, to pour upon its shores and into its towns liberated felons, who are the very dregs and scuin of the English metropolis 1 The proof of this fact was given on Friday last by two poor women, who appeared before the Lord Mayor to solicit relief, as they had been deprived of all means of support by the departure of their husbands to New York, where they had been sent by this society, free of charge, leaving their wives, as best they might, to shift for themselves. A Mr. Jackson, who described himself as a city missionary, was the agent who selected these men as proper candidates for the society's bounty. It appeared some niifgiviDgs were afterwards entertained that their crimes scarcely |>artook enough of depravity to bring them sufiiciently within the Bcope of its . cpeiations. Mr. Jackson sought to exculpate himself from the charge, by the assurance of these men that they had many times been convicted of felony; and his own judgment of their personal appearance, and the slang language they mide use of, went to strengthen their statement. Mr. Jackeon, it appears, is only one of the agent*, or puppets, in the hands of Lord Ashley, who is the head and promoter of this society. If ever there was a transaction more than another in character with tke man, this is it. This lord?one of the most piotound political and religious Mawworms?is the son of Lord Shaftesbury, perpetua chairman of committees in the House of Lords, ana a placeman of nearly forty years' standing on the public purse Th? injustice he is doing, and has done, directly to the States, and the injustice he is doing indirectly to the honest but poor Englishman who may emigrate to thena, are perfectly monstrous, and require the most prompt and energetic measures to be taken to remedy the evil. The burst of indignation on the appearance of these proceedings in the papers on Saturday m>rn ing in the city among mercantile men, and, indeed, the public generally, was universal. The opinion is, that the American government will immediately protest against it to the English cabinet, and adopt such means as will prevent any recur, reBce of such infamous proceedings; as, otherwise, a taint will be attached to all English emigrants The secret workings of the class of men to which Lord Ashley belongs, for purposes like the above, are scarcely credible. An almost parallel case exists in the manner of getting rid of indifferent characters, to supply the deficiencies in the various police forces throughout the kingdom. The lords and squires recommend to these vacancies, privately, those who have become troublesi me to them either as poachers, garden plunderers, receivers of pauper relief, or in any way obnoxious to them. A hint from such parties, to various police commissioners, is enough, especially to the London ones, who are said to take in any man who presents himself with such recommendations It is to be hoped that the editor of the Herald will lay this emigration infamy more prominently and powerfiflly before the American people than the writer can do. Something ought to be done in the States, a? the time is probably not far distant, when the large landowners, or. probably the government, will send forth a tide of pauper emigrants to Canada, which will, if not prevented, find their way into them. Above all things, let matters be put on such a tooting, that honest English emigiants may be enabled to show their faces without being afraid and ashamed of being mistaken for one of Lord Ashley's protegies. For some time, a strong desire has h*r\i mum. Tested, by the manufacturing interests of Lancashire, to tett the capabilities o! India, in the growth of cotton: hence the parliamentary enquiry of last session, which was institntrd on Mr. Bright's finotion. The evidence was very voluminous; but the labors of the committee appear to have created very little, beyond a local, in interest at the principly seats of the cotton manufactures. Latterly, however, the public have had an opportunity of acquiring, in a more popular form, several interesting particulars on the subject, from a gentlemnn of the name of Chapman, who ra the manager of the embryo Great Indian Railway. This gentleman has addressed a naper to Mr Bdzely, the chairman of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, wherein he points out the various contingencies that may arise to prevent the regular import of cotton from America; to the impolicy of decoding on foreign supplies; and, lastly, the capabilities of India, for an almost unlimited one, and the means of making it available at a very reasonable cost. Among the contingencies enumerated, is that of war. to intercept the transatlantic supply. According to Mr. Chapman's account, the capabilities of production in India are so g>eat, that if one field in thirty-six were appropriated to the culture, the supply would be equal to that of America, and of a very superior quality. In the Nisam's territory, with a most oppressive land tax, it might be sold at a price varying from lid. to 1 jd. a lb. The present difficulty of making it availaole to English manufacturers arises from the want of any adequate means of internal transport to the place of shipment. It is natural to anticipate, from .. the position Mr. Chapman holds, as manager, that he proposes the immediate construction of the great Indian railway, to remedy this impediment to the accomplishment of so desirable a purpose. With this means of transport, the manufacturers of Manchester have his assurance of the delivery of a first-rate article, at Liverpool, at the low price of 2jd. per lb. It remains, however, to be proved how far the staple of the article produced in India can be improved by a better culture, as several unsuccessful attempts have been made, some yeare ago, to attain this important object, even at the expense of introducing American seed, and planters to superintend its growth. On this subject Mr. Chapman is unfortunately silent. It is not to be denied that the subject is one that requires the att#ntinn of ct nn?Hpnt arnvpmmont Knt at tKo anma time, it mnst be admitted that, in the present case, its introduction to the notice of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce emanates from a source, having for its object the attainment of a partial rather than general interest. It is not uncharitable to ascribe some portion of his zeal for English manufacturing interests to arise from a desire, in these dull times, to distribute the unallotted shares of his railway among the parties he proposes so largely to benefit. The prospect of war, it is to be hoped, ib remote, still a stimulating hint at the possibility of such an event may operate favorably for the earlier construction of tne Great Indian Let such a calamity arrive whenever it may, it will be a woful day for Lancashire; then, indeed, will there be a well-grounded fear of an English rebellion amongst the millions it would bring to poverty and starvation. As a resource for England to fall back upon, the realization of the scheme may be pronounced reasonable; but with the view of a speedy adoption, it would operate most mischievously. In the first place, were such a course of policy carried out by England, it would necessarily shut the American ports against the introduction of its manufactures Those of America would receive an impulse to supply her own requirements, and the su'plus cotton above these wants, wttuld find its way in a manufactured Ftate into neutral port*, to compete with those of the mother country. It may be urged, that agriculture comes more w thin the legitimate province of the occupations of the Americano, which is true; but if necessity imposes a departure from this course, therw is no alternative but to brain manufactures on a more ex tended scale, or diminish>:he production ofthe raw material. Competition in neutral markets must be unequally sustained; as the balance must certainly fee in favor of America, tn every manufacturing requirement, except wages. Coal is not an im >ortant consideration, water power being so abundant iood .m also abundant and cheap; and then must be considered the absence of an overwhelming taxation, which weitffaa so heavily on English production But, independent of all ti?ese considerations, where ie England to find a customer for her immeac" exportation of good*, if she gratuitously breaks connection wtdi the State* ! Itnas already befn shown that America takes yearly more id value from England than all her colonica. It must also be borne in mi'id, that America might not feel the loss of English connection bo severely as some anticipate It may be approximately stated, that the domestic consumption of cotton in the States, lias increased rrtnarkubly within the last few years; some accounts giving it as rising from thirty thousand to nearly tliree-uuarters of a million of bales The whole proposal wears nn air of profound absurdity, snd argues the propriety of establishing a capricious mercantile independence, that would involve England in ruin, merelv , to promote the interests of the Great Indian railway. Mr Chapman is not alone in the field for i ^ the attainment of this object. Another interest has 1 supplied a sample of cotton, which was grown m E NE MO New South Wales, between the latitudes of twentynine and ten degrees South, which competent judges have prononnced very good. Then, agun. the settlement of Port Natal near the Cai>e of Good Hone, is said to possess a soil and climate admirably adapted for producing a good article. Within the last few years, and now within the last few months, a very patriotic phrenzy se^ms to h ive pervaded certain minds on the question, for whom it is charitable to ascribe some portion of disinterested motive in the agitation they are getting UP- . Circumstances are being brought to light, which have a tendency to show, that, whilst Lord John Russell's visit to Ireland was professedly of a political nature, it, at the same time, partook somewhat of a personal one. If public journals are to be believed by his lordship's evidence at the approaching special commission, for the trial oi ine estate prisoners, 11 win neanown mat ne naa been implicnted in certain seditioua proceedings, rs well aa his neighbors It appears that, during the progress of the R^lorm Bill, in the House of Lords, in 1832, his lordship had written certain letters to various political leaders throughout the kingdom, to get un meetings at which proposals were to be made, for large bodies of men to inarch to London, to present their petitions in person, but virtually with the view of intimidating the lords. Such letters, it is said, will be placed in his lordship's hands, whilst in the witness b>x. The threatened accomplishment of similar purposes, by the chartists, on the 10th of Auril, it will be remembered, were met by his lordship in quite a different spint. He hid then got all he wanted ; more he did not require. The Reform bill had been passed, and he lias more than once declared it his final measure ; but it is one that is a mockery, and delusion to the people, and intended as such ; but it had'_he effect ne and ?ld Grey desired, of giving the whig clique a more frequent chance of holding office. Formerly, the tory interest was all-powerful. The starved and rapacious whigs, ever clamorous for power, only secured what they wanted by arousing the people to bully the lords, us they did to secure their obiect. Nor is this all; the tories being more eligible f'orofhee, as being lees necessitous in their pecuniary wants,and possessing more aptitude for legislative bu8ines8,have too frequently, for the wings, ousted them from the loaves and fishes. The whigs, in opposition, however, descend to the most contemptible means to annoy them, and reinstate themselves. Strange rumors are at this time afloat on this point, that go to implicate the present premier in transactions of a very discreditable nature. It will be remembered that when Sir Robert Peel was in office, hia cabinet prosecuted O'Connol for originating and heading the great Irish monster meetings. It is scarcely eredible, but repor* attaches to Lord John that such proceedingB originated from his suggestions, with the view of annoying and driving from office a political rival. It is further asserted, that letters urging this line of policy are i^ the hands of neari ly all the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and ready to be produced on the trial of Smith O'Brien. It can be no longer considered mysterious, if the report is correct, that the specific object of his mission was to throw himself on the confidence and mercy of these prelates, who, it apfears, have him so completely in their power, that they may hold hia nose, when and for so long a period as tliey lik* to the grindstone. No wonder mv ' orfi T0hn I lireed the exoediencv of r.A e I ttU a?iiiicoiv iur lurmiiuiii treason; meanwhile, Lord Clarendon, little dreaming whence flowed the premier's lenient yearnings for forbearance. To judge from past circum1 stances, it is not unreasonable to attach some degree of faith to the mmor. During the passing of ! the Reform Bill, the system of coercive terrorism | instigated by the whigs was notorious, and much j worse than any modern chartist displays to that ' effect. The debates of the last session of Parliai ment show, on Mr. Wnkeley's authority, that J General Evans, that saffron-faced whirling, offered : to lead one hundred thousand men to the door of the Hi?nse of Lords to terrify them into the passI ing of Russell's Reform Bill; which was not dei nied, though ihe parties charped with this threat; ened outrage were seated on the opposite bench's, j If this can be true, what can the world think of such a minister, who is dyed up to the eyes with a ; treason te his fellows if not to the State, and who seeks to punish men not one whit more culpable than himself T It is evident, from what has | already transpired, that his lordship has not ; been successiul in the objects of his Irish mission, nor will his offers of compromise or amnesty be attended to. This is strengthened by a notification from the I'ope, that he will not agree to the system of education proposed for the regulation of the new government colleges in Ireland. He has, according, it is said, to the suggestion of the Arch I Disnop iTi nair, put a vt-io upon u ; wnicn is a iresn, ! and will he a formidable barrier to the favorable ! change these establishments were expected to bring about, on the principles and loyalty of the rising generation. Whether it has been with the view of retaliation or no, for this display of papal hostility to the government scheme is not known, | but the government have lately protested against i his holiness parcelling the United Kingdom into j titular bishoprics. This objection has been called I into action by the creation of a new one at Biri mingham. His holiness, however, is indifferent ' to their frowns?his rescript has been issued, and the bishop has been installed. For the present, the ; Romish diplomatic intercourse bill is suspended, ; the holy father having expressed a perfect indiffer] ence about itB succcess If there is a mire, the I ministry will be in it if they can, and appear always i desirous of treading themselves deeper and deeper j into it. Notwithstanding the admonitions of the amateur scribe of the Chronicle, the journals pour forth theircolumns of twaddle about the royal visit. All is chronicled?the smallest scraps help to feed the hungry maws of morbid appetites. A recent account has given the world a description of the rooms at Balmoral, the color of the chintz that ; hangs on the walls, the various designs of the : Dutch tiles on the hall floor, and a thousand other I etceteras equally interesting Then there is an ac! count of a visit to a Mr. Farquharson,at Invercauld, I where there were large gatherings of the clans, j The royal party wore the Stuart tartan, and were j met by the worthy host, his lady, and the five I Masters Farquharson, who presented bouquets of i wild flowers to the guests, fee., &c. Then came I the old and, apparently, only highland pastime of throwing the big hammer, which Her Majesty i viewed with much interest, it is said, whilst seatI ed on a rustic chair, placed on a tartan carpet spread on the green sward. After this refined ; exhibition, a stalwart kiltpH Hioblon/l?r ! ed hi? powers of climbing, by running up the precipitous face of Craig" Chlunie. In thia exploit, her Majesty took especial interest, snatching up a spyglass, the better to watch his ; daring agility, which was frequently rewarded by I encomiums from the royal lip*, and ultimately by a five pound Bank of England note. It ought not to be omitted that the day's sport ended by a word dance, during the execution of which, it i was difficult to determine whether the screams of i the bagpipe*, or the battle yells of the dancers, ; were predominant. The prince consort and his German jagers are assiduous in deerstalking He h< wevcr, missed his first shot at a fine buck by an unlucky keeper being too near the animal to allow his IlighnesH to gratify his love of sport at ; the rink of a Highlander's lite. Her Majesty's chief minister seems to enjov no kind of popularity in his tour. He landed at Greenock on Sunday afternoon at ft o'clock, and proceeded quietly to the Tontine hotel, where he remained a oonpl? of days, lie visited those wonderful waterworks, the ShxwswHter, and a cotton mill on its banks, ' and :einrred to town on foot, followed by a train of ragamuffin boys, at whose pertinacity of pursuit, he seemed much annoyed. Thence he went to Glaspow, where not even a bailie steiped out to meet him, much less the civic authorities. There : he |>opped his chaise ui*>n a railway track, and proceeded, bv the Scoitish central, in the ihrec1 tion of Aberdeen, to plod his way to his royal mistress at Balmoral to relieve Sir George Grey, ...w? I ?i? <? " k'lnumi iu u"nui'n iu aeep a iook out tor ! Confederate and Chartist squalls from the official eminence of the Home office. The papers say his lordship looks pale and careworn; but that he his, withal, a firm and vigorous step. The great bodv of protestant dissenters throughout the united Kingdom, are at this time marshalling their forces, with the vif'w of offering a vigorous opposition to the Irish Unman Catholic endowment. These consist of the Methodists, llaptists and Independents, who look upon the subject as one entirely subversive of the fundamental principles of rttc constitution as established at the information. There is no doubt that the efforts of this |iowprful bo?Jy would of itself, independent of the disinclination of the priesthood to accept the j proffered boon, prove effectual in thwarting the intentions ofihe ministry It would not be the first | defeat from such a source, for it is well known had it not been for exertions of these parties, th>' whole education of the youth of th" kingdom would have been in the hands of the clergy of the established church, who would have spared no pains to cram into the juvenile mind the whole duties ?f a wilting tithe and rate prayer, and the thirty-nine articles to boot. The pittance at present granted by the atate for educational purpeaes, is perfectly W YO iRNING EDITION?MC ridiculous?as much having been spent in one year for building stables tor the Qu??en, at Windsor, as ! has been granted for the education of the people in two. The pretext lor this niggardliness, is, that the proposed recipients, namejy, the Est iblishment and Dissenters, are opposed in their views as to the manner of applying the funds. One party insists on the reading ana study of the Bible forming one pari 01 me eoucauoii. /luouier is oppose a 10 it, 011 the grounds of such ^ course being likely to lead to unpleasant dissensions ; whilst the bishops must needs insist on the introduction of the church catechism to make matters worse These diflerences appear almost a planned conspiracy among the various parties to keep the rising generation in darkness, at which, if the truth were told, the ministry may not be ill pleased. In the meantime the poor sufler by these delays, for they are invariably told, when they petition for pol.tical equality ana rights, that they must wait, and can only have them when they are sufficiently 'ducated to exercise the trust, when placed in their hands, with discretion. At all events, the delav arising from the differences of the conflicting parties, is a deep i injury inflicted on ihe working man, which there seems no present probability of being removed. , The hands of the editor of the Times are still in i the gutter. He has been bespattering General ! Cavaignac with dirt, to prejudice h'm in the eyes ! of the world. To accomplish this he desecrates the memory of the dead, and blast-* the character of the living An obscure print at Bordeaux, furnishes him with materials to charge the father of the g -neral with saving the life of a citizen, at the cost of his daughter's virtue, during the first revolutionary outbreak. The victim wan stated to have left her native city an outcast, and having ' never more been heard of. To rescue his father's memory from so foul a charge, the general insti tnted inquiries, which were no sooner undertiken I than it whs discovered that the eldest son of the ! asserim victim was similarly empieyeci. l ne result has proved that the charge is utterly false ; as j the lady, whose name is so cruelly drained before the public, not only denies any indignity being ollered to herself by the late Colonel Cavaigdau, but shows that she never left Bordeaux, where she has long been respectably married, and is the mother of a large family. The result of the American Presidential election is anxiously looked forward to here, by the government and the urnier classes. I'pon the resuit will depend much thnt affects their political interests Indirectly, Ireland is the thorn that sticks and festers in their sides. The well founded fear that the votes of the mass of Irish citizens in the States may preponderate on the side of Cass, fills the aristocrats with alarm. And well it may, as America, at a favorable moment, when England is distracted, either engaged with a foreign power or domestic strife, might strike a blow under which she might not only stagger, but fall with an infliction that might make it impossible to resume her former posture. This contingency, added to a similar uncertainty in France, 01 the same momentous questions, entail a most painful suspense on those whose consciences remind them occasionally that they have some misdeeds to answer for. The English public have latterly been painfully interested in a variety of disclosures, which go to | prove that Doisonjhga af lrlOSt '.vhnlesale kind i nave been perpetrated, for the sole purpose of procuring money from burial societies, to which the guilty parties belonged. In one case, a wretched and ignorant woman had buried, in n brief interval, no fewer than three children, which realized her a sum of two hundred and eighty-eight dollars from ten different societies, which she subscribed to, being ninety-six dollars for the interment of each child, by winch she would pocket a net profit oftwo hundred and fifty dollars. This ha? happened in a great, a free, a glorious, and a humane co mtry, whose people pay a million and a half sterling a year to keep up an African blockade to protect the black slave, whilst its government will give nothing to educate such a woman as this. Education might not wholly prevent an evil like this, but it would lessen the chance. At present, the amount of crimeyin England shows, that a frightful maw arises from the people being brutalized and ground down bv the inhumanity and injustice of their rulers. The two poor felons' wives have re-appeared on the stage to complain of Mr. Jackson's unkind treatment. He at last has been shamed into a promise of sending them to their husbands. Lord Ashley is yet silent in the matter; he offers n?> explanation. It is evident from his lordship's antecedents, he contemplated an altered culture of tin republican vine by the corrosive irrigation he has been applying to its roots. The latest accounts from Ireland by wire show, j that when the troops removed from the hill of M-*aliff. large assemblies of armed pedants took their place. At Drombane, the chapel bells were ringing, and large armed gatherings were at Castle Otway. Dohenyisin Paris. Strange work may shortly be expected in France, Louis Napoleon being at the head of the poll at Pans, and elected for several places in the departments. If he makes no false step he willjirobably be the first president of the republic. The communists Joilow him in the majorities. Cavaignac's popularity is waning; ana it is feared he will not hold his ground much longer. The whole of Germany is still very unsettled, and cannot long remain in its present state. The Frankfort Parliaments, and its various sovereigns, will create such a conflict of interests as will make a German republic a matter of necessity. Our Paris Correspondence. Paris, Sept, 19,1848. State of France?The Death Penalty?Hie Clergy? Gen. Cats. Many people profess to believe that the present condition of things cannot last long m France. Paris is in a state of siege, and the press subject to be suppressed at any moment, and the city made a military camp, say they. They say that they do not know what the change may be?" it may be Henri Cinq, the red republic, or socialism?but it will be something different before long." Such are the sentiments of some very intelligent French citizens of Paris. I am not prepared to contradict them; but I do not see the evidences of a change so clearly; on the other hand, it appears to me that the government is gaining strength, and the people becoming more quiet under the present regime, which is pretty stringent, to be sure, but not a whit more so than is necessary for the security of the city. To allow a few such men as Girardin and j Proudnon the free license of an outrageous press, ; daily exciting the more ignorant people, would be tolly?madness; it would be more?it would j be cruelty and inhumanity, ior they would mike 1 the blooa flow in streams m the streets of Paris, i As well might the government let loose so rrnny public assassins, to slay all they might meet in the streets. Whether these men and their associates are wicked or mad, is not material, the effects produced by these presses are the same?civil yar and bloodshed?and they must be restrained, or peace cannot be established in Paris. The Assembly have decided, by a vote of 4?>3 to 21(>, against the abolition of capital punishment in criminal cases, although there is a manifest repugnance to resorting to it in any case but that of absolme necessity. There are some men, in every nation, who fear the halter and the scaffold more than any other punishment, and whom no terror, short of that, can restrain from committing depredations upon societv, and the lives of assassins are worth little to tbe world. > France is not in a eondition to remove this restraint from before the eyes of the desperate ; to do so, would be to invite murder, in the present state of society, and ofler, as it were, a premium to assassins. France still reserves, in her constitution, the principle of paying the clergy out of the funds of the State. No country, hut our own, has learned the tact, that the lostering care of the State cor- I rupte religion and its professed disciples; that there is no security for either Church or State but in a perfeet separation; that the touch contaminates both, and paralyzes their healthy , action. Kven Protestant England mak?s her church an instrument of oppression, corrup tion, and power, and the people gain no benefit from it, while they are burthened with taxes to suppoit it. There is more that is arbitrary j in the church of your city, than in any other part of the United States : but free institutions check the encroachments of the clerev, beyond a certain I point. Hut there is great toleration and liberality j in Fiance, new,for a Catholic country. Protestant churches can be established in any part of France, and the clergv are amenable to the criminal code, like other people. To those who have been accustomed to at e the priests exempt from the wontrol of nil civil tow, and to commit murder and ripe with impunity, this appears to be a great advance towards civilization. There is to be a new contest for the election of a President of the Assembly. These elections come along monthly, and they try the strength of the parties generally. Hitherto, the club Poinen have been defeated ; but they are now making preparations to make a great effort to carry La

?RR I )NDAY, OCTOBER 16, crosse, or Dufaure, into the chair. The former is now one of the Vice Presidents, and the latter a man of much talent and consideration, and one of the commission who framed the constitution. It in aai/1 that \I \lnrrnsl u'lll nut l>P n i-x ndi date tor a third election, hut will devote himself to his duties as reporterof th* Cmutitutionnel. The Americans, in Paris, wish that General Cass was minister still in France; he was so popular, and kept an open house to his countrymen, opening, ihereby, the way, to all American strangers, to the best society in Paris. I believe Mr. King did much, also, in the same way, when he w.ts here. General Cass is very popular with the French: his free, social and liberal character made all Paris his friends. lie kept an open house, and lived far beyond his salary, as any man must do who dispenses his hospitalities as an envoy in I'aris; and this part is a very important one in every point of v'cw, as well for our country as its citizens who are travellingubroad. Did it depend upon Paris, the General would he the next President of the United States; and Frenchmen would feel that, in him. they had a Iriend ami an acquaintance. This feature in the character of a man, in Pari??give? a minuter influence and friends; and* if he can speak the French language, they like him still the better. Every graduate from any one of our colleges should be able to speak the French, Italian, Spanish and German languages, correctly ?fluently they cannot do, till tliey live ia those conn ries. A portion of the time devoted, frequently lost, upon Greek and Latin, should be given to the modern languages No young man ought to be regarded as educated till he can speak the modern languages. Fluency is onlv acquired by practice. Obsbrvxb. Our CJermnii Correspondence. r RANK FORT-ON-TIIK- iVIAI NK, t August 24th, 1848. $ Fate of Poland?E/f'o>t* for her Restoration?Inflections. History scarcely presents a more interesting circumstance than a nation that has become free deciding on the fate of one that is apparently blotted out ot existence. More important questions than that of Poland have, perhaps, been discussed in the National Assembly of Frankfort, but certainly none have presented themselves in which justice appeals so loudly and forcibly to the heart. The Grand Duchy of Posen, commonly known as Russian Poland, arose in Us present extension in 1815. A part of the Duchy of Warsaw was granted to the King of Prussia, by the Congress of Vienna, and acknowledged by all the powers of Europe. In assuming the reins of government, the King of Prussia insured the inhabitants their nationality, their religion and their language, as well as admission to all public ollices and posts of honor, and the benefits of the then promised and never granted constitution. Many other royal promises made in Vienna were never fulfilled, and the (!rand Ducliy of Posen was treated as a province of Prussia, and divided into two districts?Poser. and Bromberff, The population consists oi about 81)0,000 Pules, -100,000 Germans, and nearly 100,000 Jews. The Germans are mostly descendants of colonists who emigrated thither ceniitries ago, and are principally found in the cities, where they Hre nearly always the most numerous and wealthy portion of the population. After the revolution of 1830, Prussia also laid regular plans for Germanizing the Grand Duchy. The Jews are German, and their sympathies are never with the Poles. The religious tolerance of the country has given them every opportunity to become more influential than >n most European nations. Germans predominate in the northern and western part of the province, and German peasants hold a greater proportion of the land than the Poles. National feeling has always been a barrier to friendship between them; and, since the first division of Poland, the nobility have been the sworn and bittereneniies of the Germans. The Polish nobility hud held their peasants in a state of bondage, until they were liberated and raised in the scale of existence by the Prussians. This caused the Polish peasants to take the side of Prussia against theirown nobles, and increased the bitter feeling of the latter?the desire for revenge breaking out into hostilities at the first gleam of ho|>e. After the celebrated battle of Jena, the hatred of the Polish nobility showed itself, hy a general insurrection against all the Prussian officers, which was repeated in 1830 and 1816. Unfortunately, however, in all these attempts to throw off the yoJte of foreign oppression, it was not the Polish nation, but the Polish nobility, that rose?their own peasantry became their executioners, and the bloody scenes of "-46 are fresh in the minds of all, where scythes, flails, and tire were used by the peasants in a brutal war of extermination against their masters. I was an eyewitness to the ever-memorable scenes of the bloody night of the 18th of March, in Berlin, and Polee were among thet prominent men of the b irricades. Scarcely had infant liberty recovered from the pangs of birth, when the twilight of hope began to dawn for them; they begged to share in the festival of freedom; and the men with whom they had stood back to back on the barricades, caught the sound, and with hearts overflowing with generosity, demanded from fallen royalty that the orisons should be opened. Pale and care-worn, thev left their cells to take part in the joyful resurrection of nations; enmity between Pojes and Hermans had ceased; they were drawn in triumphal cars, greeted by the shouts of thousands, through the streets of the capital, to the palace w'lere they had received the sentence that nad condemned them to an ignominious death?yesterday they were traitors, to-day they are heroes;?as heroes, they demanded a restitution ot that nationality for which they had lived, (ought, and sacrificed all, save honor. Their demands were granted, and Germans and Poles lay in each oth-rs' arm* in the streets of Berlin, intoxicated with the cup ot joy. The Pole had forgotten that the first article of his creed was hatred?everlasting hatred?to the Germans, and the latter had forgotten the war oi annihilation that was to have been waged nrrninHl if thp inanrr*/*tinn nf 'iH haA successful. Germans wore the cockade and wlute eagle of Poland, while the Poles placed the blackred-golden cockade of German liberty on the breast that had been exclusively dedicated to their own colors. I looked on, astonished at the return ot the day of miracles, but had se*n too much of the jealousy and hatred existing among the nations of Europe, not to fear that these bedlam shouts of enthusiaem would finally give way to the shouts of the battle-field. A Polish national committee was formed in Berlin, and a Polish Legion. The object of the committee was to correspond directly with the ministry, and transmit their ordeis to Posen as fust as they should decide on measures. The Poles thought immediately on the restoration of the old Kingdom of Poland, as it had existed before the division of 1772; the Germans had thought of the re-organization of the Grand Ruohy of Posen ;?Poles calculated on an extent of territory and land once occupied; Germans, in the now existing nation, expecting to grant them a re-or^anization lor themselves, to the extent of Polish institutions, officers, etc. The frenzy of the revolution of Merlin w.is, however, not shared by the 400,000 < lermans in the Grand Duchy, and the arrival of the Polish committee fiom the capital, with the announcement that their countrvmen had cast them oil", struck them with terror. They refused to submit without orders from the ministry; and, in the meantime, sent numerous deputations to Perlin to protest against their sej>aration from Germany, and propose a division of the German and Polish districts?the former being given to Germany, and the latter to the Polrsfor re-organizatton, as they might desire. The Poles proceeded immediately tc dismiss Prussian officers and abolish Prussian institutions; and the bloody and harbiroii9 scenes that followed are well known. The Prussian government soon saw itself obliged to adopt the doctrine that the earth is neutral?the soil neither Polish nor German, and that the inhabitants give it the character of nationality. On 'his basis, it was determined to annex the German districts to Prussin, and exclude them from the Polish re-org*nizaation. This was only effected bv military force, as the Poles rose everywhere in arm*, assisted for the first tune by the |>easants of the Polish and C.itholic districts, under the opinion thnt their religion was in danger. That this movement of the Poles was premature and ill-advised, I hive as the opinion of a member of the committee from his own lips. The result was, the loss of the sympathy of the Germans,and with it were blasted the brightest hopes of the Polish cause; there was a hope that Germany would raise the sword against Ruasiiui tyranny, for the liberation of Poland?but the olt- i spring of frantic enthusiasm had vanished. In annexing the German districts to the confederation every means was resorted to in order to obtain the wishes of the inhabitants, and so far from overstepping the bounds, it was found necessary to incorporate some other districts, at the express wish ot the people, who stormed the government with petitions. A new question now arose, in relit'on to the capital of the Grand Duchy?the city of Posen? | IE R A 1848. although surrounded by Polish districts, the city I itself contain* more (jermana than Poles, and has ' risen to its present importance under Prussian hus- > pices. The government has spent eiglit millions ofdollars in erecting the most powerlul fortification? on the borders of Russia, at the x|iot where the possessions of this dangerous neighbor extend into Prussia like a wedge; and, to abandon this to other than German hands, would be to lay all the eastern frontier of Prussia open to the inroads of Russia at this most dangerous epoch. Since the ,>< tl,? I. J? ..f Prussia, he population has increased from fifteen to forty thousand, and the landed property of the Poles is little more than a million of dollars, while the German Jews alone have three millions. The lire of demarcation was, therefore, ho altered that the city of Posen was also incorporated into the ! Germanic Confederation?that is to say, excluded from the Polish re-oiganization ; under theae cir- I cumstances the elections for the National Assembly, at Fiankfort, were held in those districts that were declared German. The result wa?, that twelve deputies were sent here, who were received provisionally until the subject could be fairly investigated by this Assembly. The questioa was the most interesting one th.it we hive had of the central executive power, and called forth the very best talent of the House. The sins p'eviously committed against ill-lated Poland were the work of princes; her cause was now laid into the hands of the people. Two parties presented themselves, with the following demands:?The ultra radicals contended for the entire restoration of the (J rand Duchy of Posen to the hands of tne Poles, including the halt million of Germans living within its borders; they would re-organize as they might see fit, retaining the German Protectorate, that they should not instanter fall into the jaws of Russia. ! The German party took national, not terri- , tonal, grounds, contending for a line of demarcation that would separate Germans from roiee. restoring tne former to tu^ir country and leaving the Poles free to re-orgduiv.e I under the Protectorate of Germany; at the ' same time retaining the fortification of I'osen as the only bulwark against Russia. Ut the twelve I deputies from the Grand Duchy, but one toon the i tribune for entire restoration; but he handled his cause nobly, and threw back, with contempt, the | appeals to sympathy that had been made in behalf I ol the Poles ; " we appeal to virtue and honor, we j want but justice," said the speaker, " and thit, it ! the Heavens should fall; we have long ago been 1 swallowed,.but, as lire as there is a God of nations, j we will never be digested while one Pole lives to ; tight his cause." Had enthusiasm gained the vie- i tory over expediency he would have carried his cause. It was a soul-thriiling moment to see two nations drawn upin array on the battle-field of in- j tellect; in the same Assembly?the one fighting for justice, with the weapons of poetic tl, sentt- ! mental enthusiasm, heaving a sigh for fallen greatness with every pulsation of the heart?the ' other, with the cool calculating eyes of expedien- j cy, governed by circumstances a3 th^y now pre- i sent themselves, and followingthe dictates of prac- i tical conviction. I need scarcely add that the Ger- | mans gainest the victory?for to say otherwise, I would be to announce that still another part of Poland had been delivered up to the Rus- | sian Knout ; or, the moment that Germany 1 yields her right, JLlulsia will seize, and it is tolly to suppose that Germany can involve her- | self in a war with this colossal power, to avenge the wrongs of another nation, or make good'1 those of her forefather. A war with Russia would ' blast all the prospects of new-bom lioerty, and lead a tyrant, with Ins myriads, into the heart of | Germany to annihilate the Poles and suppress the liberal movemens of the Germans, by joining the aristocratic party, and forging new chains of j bondage stronger than those so lately burst. No j man, who loves his fatherland, can be destitute of iui tin uiiiiat'i'y, uiu-i uiuru idiikmi ; for b nation whose bloody i'r.tm1nth hi-ve been dragged through halt' the continent of Lurope. But this nation has grave faults, which are the secret sprint? of all its misfortunes. "Unity is Btrengtb," is a motto that Poles have ever trodden in the dust, and for centuries that nation has been divided in itself. What Americans consider die Polish nation, is not the nation, but the nobility. The glory, the bravery, the splendor, that rests on Poland's history, is not that of the people?these belong to the nobles, and to them also belong her sins and the long catalogue of her misfortunes. It is Biiid that the Polish peasants moistened the grave-stone of one of their rulers with their tears, as he had been their only protection, and, as they too truly feared, was their last. If, in the memorable contest of 1WJ0, the Poles, who are ever | found on the battle-field of liberty against oppression, had granted those rizhts to their peasants, j which the^ demand so loudly for themselves, the fate of this chivalrous nation would have been very different. Like the Bourbons, they In.d learned nothing and forgotten nothing, and, like the Bourbons, in the family of Kings, so do the Poles, in the family ol nations, seem singled out as the shuttlecock for the battledore of fate. The I revolutions that have swept like a hurricane over j Euiope, reached the plains of Poland, but only ' revived her hopes to carry them again to an untimely grave. From the Rhine, August 23, 1848. Abolition of l\tle? in Germany?Curious Sumtitutes?German Navy?Printers' Strike, fyr. fyr. For the last six months we ha^e been blest with one continued season of April weather?I mean in the world of politics?to-day sunshine and calm, to-morrow thunderstorm and hail; or, torsooth, we have been favored with all the varieties of the I seasons in a single day. Seedtime, however; has not been succeeded by harvest, and is not likely to b? so as long as our April weather continues, j Indeed, it is beginning to be doubtful whether the political harvest will correspond to the brilliant promises of spring; and some wiseacres prophecy that April weather always makes April tools. Aotti cerrons. Be that as it may, politics, hi thia quarter ot the world, has more shady sides than sunnv ones: and. to drive awav dull ?llnw me to indulge in a little politicargossip. Everybody is writing liistoiy now-a-days, as it requires all shoulders to the wheel to keep up with the progress of events. .Among other novelties, a Ilietory of the Barricades is announced, from the 24th of Feb.. IStt) Some enthusiastic friends of this mode of warfare are about reducing it to a science, and have .made a number of admirable improvements.in " barricade architecture." I was forcioly reminded of the "old General" on the bloody night in Berlin, as I saw a splendid barn- ; cade being built, of immense ba^s of flour, sup* ported by oil hogsheads at intervals ; this barricade, it is true, was not so successful as the cotton bags, though it held out for six long hours with desperate fighting, against a strong aivison of the Prussian troops ot the line. With the science of barricades, an entirely new field for the development of musical genins lias been opened to the music-loving Germans. I allude to what we call charavarit or calithumpian concerts; but the Germans arc a simple-hearted |>eople, and always call things by their riizlit names ; their philological accuracy will admit of no other term than "cat-music," and it certainly deserves the preference over all others; cut-music is th?- only word that gives the remotest idea ftf the unearthly combination of sounds inlernxl, to which all can- I didates lor political favor are trented here, if they happen to remain behind the sovereign jieople on the political race course, imttead of keeping ah?-ad of tnem. Torchlight processions for the man that talks loudest about his own patriotism and shows his wounds, and cat-music for the modest, are the order of the day, or rather of the night, as this ! modern warfaie generally commences under noc- j tuinal auspices. To tell the truth and shun evil should be the motto of the gossip per, a* it is of the historian; and 1 would disdain to give a "chronn/uf ttcandalcust," but it is a solemn truth that the Germans are becoming decidedly ill-mannered. Th*V n? V Ipbii rPHiu>pf nn us fn nAnn?? ? I?J ??v vvu.no uuu fiiuurs than would be paid to them by tiuny of our moneyed republicans?especially it these gents were to ap- I pear with a charming moustache, a delightful impenal, and a military glance and bearing,calculated to tHke every lady's heart by storm. A deputation I of citizens was sent to I'rince Kei/.-Schlei/.-[iOb^netein, who, for ought 1 know, has as many as five thoutand subjects in middle Germany, to demand a redress of grievances. His princely highness treated some coolly, nnd insulted others. A second deputation ws then sent to demand the atnt"iie honorable in writing, or politely inform hnn of the probability of being honored with a " giant cat-music," in consideiation of his titl*. He agreed to do anything rather than receive the serenade, and the affair was amicably s-ttled by allowing the sovereign people to do anything that they, in their wisdom, might see fit. In their decreasing resfert for persons and [tapers, the (Jermans have just resolved to make the greatest sacrifice that a < Jermnn can make, namely, t.T dispense with titles. The National Assembly, in Frankfort, have abolished all titles not directly connected with oflice. This is peculiarly severe I. D. TWO CENTS. on Berlin, where every one in good society is at leant a privy counsellor. And this title is always repeated in conversation; whether with lady or gentleman?/*?r txantjAe nothing s more usual thmi "Mrs. Privy Counsellor .Tohann Hchmit," "Mr Chlef l{ailroad EngineerSchulstj" or " Mrs. Lieutenant General Fritz." To compensate, ir? som? measure, for the loss of these hmh sounding titjes, some members of the Assembly have rereived very appropriate nicknames ; the leader of the radicals is known as the "Genius of Truth '* and, to be honest about the matt?r, there is a pretty good pro|>ortion of rather ijueer ffeniuaes among tlie company ; l)iit the vry queerest ia, decidedly, onp known as the " National Canary Bird "?said bird is al ways dressed in yellow nankeen, frojn head to foot?coat, vest, and pants? and thence his significant title ()n the firstentrance of the Archduke John into the Assembly, the members, with one exception, were attired in black, this exception wan the Canary IJird, who remained true to hiscolor, and stood forth in bold reliefamong hi? black associates. Many heads had been put together and jokes cracked as to the true veraion of thin yellow story, and the general conclusion was. that nis constituents were oblmed to give hi 111 an outfit in the shape of a suit of clothes, and found nanLeen the cheapest and most likely to keep him cool during the summer session. The s -eond version, and now most generally received, is, that the radicals on the floor of the house, beinu accustomed to i?ive the sovereign people in the jalleries a sign, when it is necessary for them to shout and yell, found it advisable to have some prominent sicnal-ffiver, not calculated to confuse or mislead. The National Canary Mird has therefore been raised 'o the dignitien of office, and a twitching ol his la K.M.UH h- ? ironi the gaileriesas putting the seal of approbation on nil thnt is uttered by a " people's man." Vive la Itr/iuhhifue. Mosi of the new State assemblies have a plentiful sprinkling of peasants among them, who have a mvereicn contempt for the arts of reading and writing. The minister of finances,in Merlin,eivesioiries once a week, to which all the deputiesHre invited, and he is said to be extremely attentive to the p-ieants, endeavoring to initiate them into the mysteries of society and the duties ot their new sphere. At a late ?mre.J, one of them approached the milliter, in the early part of the evening, and beiii-d to know, with a very serious air, the name of those capital cakes he had eaten at the last visit. ' I do not know," replied the minister, "perhaps you mean the gooseberry tarts." " Gooseberry t-irts! eh ? well, they were glorious; just let's have some more the next time, and we'll always vote ye.*." This was no smull consolation to a minister of finances I was strongly reminded, a few day* a?o, of Voltaire's City on the Like of Geneva, where, as he naively expresses it, there were plenty of streets, but no houses. " Nou? uvom ties rvrx, nwis noun at tirrmx /his <le niaitont." The Germans are in about the sime <i'iandary about their navy ; they have flags already, but no ships. The Assembly has just resolved that the naval tlag shall be a black, red, golden tri-color, with the arms of the German Empire, and the blaelc double eagle. Said eagle, having two heads, will, it is auppo-ed, keep a sharp look out. In a fewweeks, a frigate, a corvette, and three steamers, of more than 200 horse power each, will be ready. Gun-boats are being constructed in nearly every German port of the Baltic, and the first o.ie w<t? launched at Kiel, a few day? ago, with great ceremony and rejoicing. Contributions for the new navyare coming in from all quarters?all the citieB and villages aresendingtheirc/uota. Schools,churches and singinc societies are making collections, and where ; while men, women und children, are all singing patriotic songs ai the idea of soon Ivins* able to take a trip over to Copenhairen, to annihilate the Danes. Indeed, patriotism is at a great deal higher premium now than bank stock. "Magyars," said the celebrated minister Kossuth, a tew days auo, in the Hungarian Chamber of Magnates, "the Turks and Kussians ar<i advancing to our borders, the Sclavonians and Croats have invHded our altars and firesides; I-in^land, our friend, is afar off", and France is busy at home; we have no arms to rely on bnt our own ; are they strong and ready for the battle unto death ? Can I rely on 200.000 Magyars and f?rty millions ai florins !" The Chamber rose, to n man, witt? deafening cries of "Elyen. elyen," (the Hungarian vive.) The tears rolled down Kossuth's cneeks as he said, " I bow in humility before the greatness of the nation ; my country is saved." Soar* ideamavbe given ol the bitter enmity existing, between Hungary and her subordinate nations, by the following from Transylvania The people of this country liave circulated thousands of copies of the Lord's Prayer amoni; the peasants, interpolated somewhat in the following manner : " Our Father, who ait io Heaven, hallowed be Thy name." What does this mean 1 Why, simply* that the name of God is ho holy that six millions of Hungarian curses cannot desecrate it; six millions of Hungarian robbers and murderers cannot injure a hair in the head of his people._ "Thy kingdom come." Does that mean the kingdom of the Hungarians, with their 1 false priests, office-holders and soldiers 1 with extinction of tne press, tyranny, and bondage ! " But deliver us from evil?that is, God deliver us from Hungarian bloodhounds, Hungarian taxes, banknotes and thieves. The effect of this appeal to n n innnrnnf itaao?n fn? man Kn imaninoil Anions the thousand-and-one new movements thai spring up here in a week, that of the journeymen compositors and printers is beginning to attain quite a formidable appearance. They, and their devils, are turning the political world toj>syturvy, by refusing to put a hand to type, paper or ink, until their demands are complied with. In their zeal to regenerate their affairs,in the general commotion, they held a convention in the city of Goitenberg-Mayence, celebrated in the history of the printing art ; here they made their owtk terms, without consulting the employers. The latter now announce that it requires two parties to make a bargain, and that the demands of the journeymen are such na to ruin the business, as they are made in sovereign contempt of the laws of trade. In l$erlin, Hamburg, and Oldenburg, they have quit work. In Leipsfc. Brunswick, and Hanover, they are negotiating,wnile preparing to retreat, if necessary Most of the journals are limping along with the assistance o? apprentices, but frequently appear in half their usual form. At this period, when all the world feeds on newspapers, their strike becomes a sensitive affair, and engages the attention of politicians especially. They will probably quarrel until the 27th of this month, when the principals and journeymen all meet, in grand convention, in Frankfort. MephisS unil ... .-J - * ? nuu a awi OIC CAJICtiru III D?" pfCSeDI, lO applet in raisins a row and building barricades. In Vienna, religious affairs are now getting out of joint; the German-Catholic fever has broken out and threatens to race. A meeting of those in favor of Ronge's doctrines hus been held, a congregation formed, and eight hund'ed members joined in one day The bitter hatred to the Po;?? in Vienna, on accounU>f Italy and Lombardy. will give a strong impetus to this movement. Quit* an excitement has just been caused by the escape of a nun from a convent. .She had heard of the glorious times in the world, now-a-days, where women, as well as men, have all become sovereign, and felt inclined to try her sovereignty. Th? clergy aie making a bold push to get ribs, notwithstanding so many have been broken in thtr it volutions; they are petitioning tor the abolition of cel:bacy. Stra- ge to say, experience proves iliat the present commotions, political and otherwise, are extremely conducive to health. This tune last year all the German baths, watering places, medicinal springs, ttc , were full to overflowing; now, they are begging for patients. ICveti Hhssians and English are suddenly in the beat of health and remain at home ; rumor says they ar? determined to patronize n<> nation that fights with barricades; they are a satire on the science ot fortification. O. P. Q. Strakok Ckjws ? We read in the Jnurmil Jea Debatt,?" The government, in order to obtain an exact acciunt of the respective strength of each party in France, has ordered to be drawn up, in every department, a general list of all the citizens who have been named members of the munici|>al councils, indicating the opinions of each. This demand, which is i:.i,iosed with great urgency upon the prefects, lays down the four following dent i{?-|>i)bl(PanH, and moifomtp Republicans " Hi.vvy Verdict for .sm.Viikr ? In the Court of Common Plena for Hampden, thf trial of a r ise for Mmiil. r r> nutted in > t. rdiot of f 1 100 damages ? The Springfitld Republican contain* the tallowing report of the ca?a Maria K \me?. by h-rnut friend Julian Wiw. The trial of thla e??? commenced Tuesday afternoon and closed Thurndaj morning The plaintiff i? ? y?unit girl who lire-" in Cheater and damawe* were oiaimed of tba datendant, who aUo li*e? In f'beiter, tor crtain alandarou* raporta alUg>'d to have b<?n olrcu'ated by biin re?p-ctthe character of the girl A trial waa bad In the nam* cafe a couple of year* ago and the jurj then (cava $800 damage* for the plaintiff Exception* wara taken and a new trial granted The reeult of the present tri tl. will w? opine, not ?uit Mr. Ware quite a* well a? the oae flr?t arrived at, for the jury. after Imlnif out tut a ohort time, brought In a verdict of $1100 in favor of ttva plaintiff.