12 Kasım 1848 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1

12 Kasım 1848 tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 1
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TH -X' NO. 5275. Our London Corw?i??nl*ne?. Lowdc*, Friday, Oot. 27?7 F M. tiohuHtt Guariit in Linden?SmilK O'biien and his btnttnct?Ntwipuptr Quarrels?TKtalrical Sews? lirfeat ?f Jvhn Rtevt?Tkt Cholera?Shotting \*wt ? Aft"-* CAorlnf Trimlt ? Mail Initlligemt ? Umoerttiij De*ugi?Election of Public Orator?Htntinck Tfifimwual ? Hallway meet? voikty .wtrxtc. We b?T? scarcely anj thing else to think about than tk? National Guards of Paris. A few days buck, a party of nearly n thousand came to visit us. What ww ehould hare done without then, I really don't know. They h?ve afforded an incessant topic of conversation for idlers and gossips, since they hare been in London, besides which, our places of amusement 1mt? been lib* rally patronised by the Frenchman. They go >n bodies of two or three hundred, to see the view of Tarin at the Collosseum, then adjourn for a mid-day visitation of the out-of-door celebrities, winding up their day with a visit to one of the theatres London la a famous place to be stared at, and yeu may suppose that our Krenoh neighbors are regarded with nn mnaxing deal of curiosity and astonishment. It Is no unusual sight to tee a great brawny English grenadier ruf'h up to a National Guard, and give Viim a hearty shake of the fist, by way of renewing the enttnte ordiaic. To show how far this street friendship may be depended upon. 1 may mention that a couple of English unaJinr oiiapdsmen. on meetimc some of the National Guard in the street, seemed mightily pleased to think their Gallic comrades had come at iMt to - perfidious Albion," and persuaded the latter to treat them to one refreshment. The Frenchmen generously responded to the request, but no sooner bad they placed come money before the shopkeeper, than one of th? Englishmen snatched and ran away with it. He wan cob apprehended, and has been sentenced by the civil power to five weeks Imprisonment, with the pleasing information from his commanding officer, that npon tbe expiration of his sentence, he will be dismissed the army. Tbe National Ouards appear pleased with tbe attention that has been generally shown to them during their sojourn in London, and have written a letter to the papers to that effect. T am very glad to be able to send you authentic information that Smith O'Brien,.and his unfortunate associates, will not b? banged. This is not yet publicly announced, but I amvtjAd by an authority, on whose statement lean place tVe greatest reliance, that this step was decided at a cabinet council held two or throe days back. Thus far. it is consoling intelligence; but in wbat manner they will be trea'ed, or whilher they will be sent, is yet a matter of speculation. The newspaper wars, of which I apprised yon m my laat, have died a natural death, and have been sue eeded by others not a whit le?s venomous or spiteful. Lieut. General Napier has made a most ferooious attack upon Sir James Hogg, the late chairman of the East India Company. From what can be gathered from tbe inky battle, it appears that Napier heard some one say. upon tbe authority of Sir James Hogg, that he had been amply remunerated for his services at Seinde, having reoelved, an prize pioney. upwards of evanty thousand pounds At this the Lieut. General was astonished, and forthwith pens a letter to the Standard, flatly denying the truth of the statement, ad applying to Sir James the epithets of " the Hogg." 'Hogg,'" this man," &o. Now, after all. it eomes out. that although the prize money hud Jiot been actually received. it was a matter ptrfeot0 understood and approved of by the East India Company, and was only waiting for some formalities to ba <1 loosed of? General Napier has been very roughly handled for bis wngentlemanly letter. Theatricals are looking up a bit with us. All tba booses are open, and in full (ling, though not all drawing such gaod audiences as the managers could wish. Wednesday night was a great night at the Lyceum, now under the joint management of Charles Matthewb and Madame Vestrls John Reeve, a son of fie Jobn Reeve, made his first appearance, and was most enthusiastically received He is very young, baa not all tba broad humor and racy wit of bis father, but closely resembles him in many po'nts of his actA short piece waflwritten, (I think by bis friend, Buckftone.) for bis appearance, entitled " My Father 4id so before me," In the course of which were many pointed allusions to his sire, that told admirably with the audience. I shall bare occasion to speak of him again uie grows older in his profession. Sims Reeves is tha iHnnstay of Covent Garden, and Charles Brabant still attracts at the Princess'. Jallien has put Cnrth an Advertisement announcing that ha will commence hi* promenade concert* on the 3d November, and continue them for one month. He looks to this style of amusement to reimburse hir? for his inany unsuccessful speculations, and will, doubtless, be well supported. Ills concerts certainly have been normeusly popular being especially suited to the prevailing taste. It is very pleasant for a shilling to be able to bear soma of the ohoicest compositions of the best masters, placed by skilful musicians, and at the tame time to have a stroll along the theatre, in place of being fixed in one's seat for a whole evening. There have not been any very bad cases of cholera since you last received intelligence The complaint may not, perhaps, be wholly eradicated, but it certainly assumes anything rather tban an alarming tispeot. One oase only is reported to have been noticed at a metropolitan hospital, in the course of yesterday, and even that is not positively stated to be the Asiatic. If we have seasonable weather, there need be no fear abont experiencing a return of the evil, ithas, never tbeless, afforded most ft vorable opportunities for the several sanatory societies and commissions to give publicity to their proceedings, as well as to ask for subscriptions to defray their expenses, which, perhaps, Blight not have been done had we not apprehended one evil from the very ineftloient state of the seweraye in London. The week has been occupied by the sptrting world at New mark* t t? witness, amongst other pates, the running for the Cambridgeshire (tikes. which were won by " Daeia," a horse belonging to Colonel I'eel. Although the weather has been very unfavorable, " Newmarket was scarcely ever known to be so crow 1 d. This extraordinary influx of the sporting fraternity in attributed to the doings of the Eastern Counties' Railway, who decided upon taking passengers to Newmarket and back for four shllllrgs. The aristocrats on the course loudly oomplain of thi* proceeding of the railway directors, who have, an they allege, entirely destroyed the (electnesg of Newmarket. Your reader* will, consequently, glean from this that there ia yet extant in England a set of people who adhere ta the belief that race- ouraen and Rreen fields were only made for the aristocracy to tread upon, and that the man who pays his humble four shillings to the station elexk is not sufficiently respectable to walk in the same oonnty as some of the satellites of the betting ring. The sessions are again on at the old Bailey and Mullin* (whose trial was postponed from the la*tst? Ions,) is now before the judges. He was concerned in the same insane proceedings as CnlTwy and his gang, and will, no doubt, meet with a similar sentence The same man who turned Queen's evidenoe on the rc- j cent Chartist trials, has become approver in thin case, o that there are no peculiarities for me to allude to. I cannot keep my letter open ti await the conclusion of the trial, but from the evidence already adduced, there does not seem the most remote chance of his acquittal. The sentence will, in all probability bo two or three years Imprisonment. The America came into the Mersey on Monday morning, with ninety-four pa*>engers ; she breugbt, in addition to the usual mails, the one that was left behind by tL'e last steamer The mails from India and Chin*, have *l?o arrived by the overland route, brlng< ( new* of the proceedings of our soldiers with the Dewan. We also have had advices from the. Cape, to the effect lha*. a skirmish had taken place between Sir Hairy Smith and the Boors, resulting In the defeat of uw miier. i ne Jamaica leiters annouuce ine ilmoic complete recovery of Sir Charles Orey from his late accident. and report the island to be in a state of absolute poverty. A little excitement has been oooaxionef amongst, university men. In oonsefjuenoe of the eleotio* of a public orator for the Cambridge students. Two gentlemen, named Iiateson and Williams, both man of superior and acknowledged talent, compete J for the honor, and at the close of the poll, the former beat his antagonist \,y a nmjority of sixty-two. Although this dignitary is styled the public orator, it by no means follows, ?s a matter of oourse, that he is the most eloquent speaker in the university; it is often the reverse. There Is a stir being made by the Duchess of S'ltherland, respecting the refusal of the direotors of one of | the Scottish railroads to convey her (iraoe on a Sunday, to her oonntry house, to visit her dying father I hould not have mentioned this, had it not been for the reply of the secretary to the line, who positively j tates that if the emergency of the case had been made known, no refural would have followed. The request was made without stating the reason, by a servant of the Duchess, and being contrary to the regulation could not be acceded to This explana lion pQtfl th<- directors or the linn in a mucn more e<mfortahi? position than the) wero before the publlaation of their servant'* letter, which I presume to b? correct. A public subscription in art on foot to defray the expanse* for creating a statue to the memory | of Lord George llentinrk which id proceeding very rapidly to ? large sum The subscribers are chiefly confined to member* of the Protectionist party, although here and there are to be found the name* of aotDe of hie lordship's private friend*. The market* are not very brisk, b'Jt *teady. Ojlnn rice Is about 8*. fid.; coflue ha* shown a ton dency to be lowered In price, Jamaica I* worth about 24* to 35* ; sugar. particularly the West Indian, is fetching good price*. I *caret-ly know what to say about, railway*, a very great want of oonfldence is apparent and to such an extent, that they are *tlll kept much below their r??| value. h astern countie*. 12'?' and ; Oreat Northern. 3 ; Great Western. 20 discount; Blaokwall*. 4'? ; Brighton 3< X ; North Western 100; South Western, 37; Midland, 71. The money market Is rather better, deoMfdly firmer, being ijuoted at these pricap : Conrols, M to 85X ; Bank 8tock, 18<: ; Reduced Th?ee per Centa. <4 a 8t; India Bonda, 30 a 41 premk'm ; Mexican. iO ; Grenada, l2\, , Peruvian. 30><; Spanish Thr?? per<"#nta, SJ;*; Dotcb Two and ? ht'fprr Cent*, 4?,\ ; Vror ju?U, 14. E NE Owv Pari* Correspondence. Pari*, Oct. 12,1*18. The Ministerial Crisis?Cause of it?Tfie Prtsi~ dential Election, What I have predicted for a few days ha* come to pass? the cabinet is broken up, Dufaure, Bedeau, Vivien, Havin, and Achille, Fould, have received o tie re of a seat in the cabinet. Dufaure and Vivien are disposed to accept; but the others have refused. What they want is an entire changeGen. Cavaignac excepted. All is in contusion and uncertainty upon this subject. The vote of yesterday, upon the question of the suspension of the journals, only adds to the necessity of immediate action, if Gen. Cavaignac intends to save himself even. All power now has gone Dy the board, and a new cabinet is necessary. It mu?t, too, com; from the right; for the extreme left has become so violent, and are b<> full of reckless projects, that no administration, except one of terror, could b?' confided to their hand*. They cannot complain if Gen. Cavaignuc takes hin cabinet from the right, for they have driven off most of the considerate men from them. There can be no stable administration, under a republican form of government, so long as tne present European practice prevails, of looking to the Ministry altogether, tor the measures of legislation, and tuning them out whenever one is pro |?upru nilivtl 10 Iiwii agjvruuiv IU lilt /isoriuuiy. Wo Ministry ought to be looked to for such measures, for they will always look to their own existence, quite as much as to the good of the countiy, and it is impracticable that they can ! always be in concord with the m ijonty of an Assembly. All I can say positively, before this letter will be mailed, which must be to-day for the boat of Swturday, is that the present Ministry is broken down, and all attempts to form a new one have wholly failed?that the crisis is critical for General Cavaignac himself; and, unless a new Miuistry be immediately formed, none hereafter cunbe formed by him. The attack against Louts Napoleon was one ot the primary causes of breaking down the first Executive, and it has been the cause of the fall of the present Ministry. Pear of his election induefdthe Ministry to vote for an election of Prefident by the Assembly, and that vote gave the Ministry the mortal blow. The proclamation of the Austrian Emperor to the Hungarian*, denouncing their leading men and their measures, dissolving the Hungarian Assembly, and appointing Jellichich, the captain of the Sciuvee, commissary general over them, has raised an excitement in Austria, which has found its way even to Paris. Civil war now rages in Austria; ana tne treacnery 01 me court at Vienna, and of the Emperor himself towards Hungary, lias been unmasked. It was first disputed, tnen discoveied by a private correspondence; and, when concealment was no longer practicable, the cloven foot was boldly put loiward. Contradictory accounts are received here of the result of the contests between the forces of Hungary and of Jelliehich; but all Hungary has gone to battle, in mass. It appears to me that now is the time for France to pufh the settlement of the Italian question, upon the Ftate of which a good deal of disquietud# is felt in France and the Assembly. 1 am by no means certain that a ministry taken from the right can survive three months; for the moderate and extreme republicans can at any time combine and overthrow it; and upon this foreign question they will be very likely to do so. All parties appear to be preparing now to push jnrwaid the Presidential question, so as to have the 'lection in November; but there is so much versatility in French politics, that what seems to be almost certain may be very improbable. 1 think that the state of siege will soon be removed?the sunpension of the journals withdrawn?and an amnesty to the insurgents proclaimed. Whether another bloody rebellion will follow these measures, remains to be seen. The French had anarchy after the revolution till they had their rebellion and a good fight. They complained, during that time, that France was not governed. Since June, they have had a firm and strong government; ana now they are tired of that; ana, like the frogs who wanted a king, they are not satisfied with any that is sent them, but are in the act of overturning again. They want a constitution that will go on trucks, and roll over upon pullies?having, therelore, a double rotary motion continually; and the Chamber wants to be the sole agent of this motion. Children! Children! Children! They act like children playing with their toys; and seem to be as incompetent to form a constitutional government that shall have the elements of liberty and permanency. Tabu. Ootobfr 18, 184S. Be/tat of the Ministry?Resignationt therein?The Presidential (iuestion?Coalition of the legitimists anil tht Orleanists?Apprehensions of another Revolution, etc. This week has been full of events, and like all which have occurred sine* February, unexpected ones. At the date of my laet letter, the Cabinet was tottering. It had received blow after blow from the overpowering majority in the Aafembly. who are secretly hostile to the democratic power of government which hao bean tatablished fince February. I announced to you the enormous majority by which it waa defeated on the rote for the mode of elroting the President. Another division took place on the question of the suspension of the journals under the powers conferred by the state of siege, in which, in a full house, the Cabinet only obtained a majority of five.baini; in fa it a minority, because if the vote of the ministers themselves be subtracted, the majority would have been the other way. The Cabinet could not survive this, and the next morning, accordingly. they gave their resignation en matte to General Cavaginac. The position of General Cavsginac has been a dim. cult one. You know his tendencies and his principles, lie is a staunch republican, a republican "Of the rciMc," as thfy are here called. He is not. however, a Montagnard ; be stops short of communism. As the chief of tbe State, standing in the shoes, as it were, of the sovereign, and bound to govern on constitution*] principles, only one oourse was opeu to him. He must appoint a ministry representing the opinions of the majority rf the chamber; but sucb majority, It must not be difguiied, is the reverse of republican. It was accepted I y the republic for peace sake, but it was opposed to It in principle. Ctener 1 Cavalgnac waa nat [ urally repugnant, therefore, to commit the infancy of [ the republic to bands which he knew would willingly choke it rather than nourish and strengthen It. He i therefore hesitated, and endeavored to make terms, j First he tried to satisfy the exigencies of tbe majority i by offering to one or two of its members subordinate ministries, such us that of publlo imtruotion and public works. This, however, wan peremptorily declined. He then tiled to tempt them with foreign affairs; but since the revolution, this mlnlstrr, which | whs formerly the principal, has become secondary, and tbe moderate party In the Assembly would have nothing less tban tban the interior. The policy or this dt niand will be easily underatood. The mlni*t?r of the interior governs the entire machinerv of the deDartment*.?nrefecta. mavors and mu nloipal*bodies! Therein not a p?rl.?li oftlcnr who does not directly or Indirectly derive hlj inspirations from the minittry of the interior of I'arls. When ih# elections. there?, re, are proceeding, whether for the I'resident, the Vice Peesident, or the Legislative Assembly, the minister of the interior possesses an immense influence, whether for good or for evil. This influenoe was exercised In the most unscrupulous manner by M. I,tdru Hollin. No means, whether of persuasion or intircidation or corruption, were spared to give the result of the election* the tendencies which this minister desired. The moderate party, therefore, was resolved that this should not again occur, or at least that the Influence should proceed from and of their own party. Acrordingly it was insisted upon th*t M Mufauie, one of the principal men of the moderate party, inclining, hoe ever, considerably towards the left, should have the ' ministry of theinteiior. After much hesitation. (Jenernl ( avalgnnc was compelled to concede this demand, and accordingly, in a supplement of the Mom'lrur, pub1 -tic (I at a late houron Monday, it was announced that M. Duroure was appointed minister of the interior; ' M. Divier. anotbir moderate member, minister of pub- j lie works and M Kreslou, also a moderate member. ' minister of public instruction. Ilesldes the e, the | moderate party gained in the members of the cabinet, who were retained in office. these being decidedly moderates ; also, (ieneral I.a Morioiere, Minister of War. the brother-in-law of M. Thiers belongs to *ti?f r,mrl u VI Tk.,,.,1 *,!_!..?? also beleng* to that party; M. Marin, Minister of .Imtice although u republican, wa* ?<rain?t the sudden transitu n which ??a effected in Kebruary and who would raiher have adopted a reg'>ncy. The first consequence of the change of ministry was the resignation of M. Ducoux, Prefoct of Police, and an exalted Montacnard; he was fsucceeded by M. Her- 1 vi Is, a uitun of little note, but{bringlng with it nothing 1 oflenslre to the moderate party. M. Thouret < hauvel continues Prefect of the Seine, notwithstanding his resignation was announced M. Ktienne Arsgo. an ultra democrat, is still Director of the I'ost (lftlre, but his resignation is talked or daily. Immediately upon the appointment of the ministry, it was retoWed that its strength should be teeted in the Assembly, and for this purpose a demand for secret ?< rvice money waa made on Monday. Previoua to this, tbesereml parties held meetings to decide upon the course to be adopted The party of the Rue de Poitiers molded to tvpprrt the eaUntt and, n nark of con W Y O SUNDAY MORNING, dilation, agreed to support the re-election of M. A. Marrast a* President of the Assembly Vou will recoVleot M. Mar rait waa one of the original provisional fovtrnment, anil was tbe ohief editor of the National. he party of the Institute resolve* not to v?te on the present occasion. either for or against the ministry, but that it would wait to see what measures it oould produce. Tbe party of tbe Palais National partly resolved upon tbe same course The party of the Rue Taitboui. consisting of Montagnards, communists and extreme demoorats. resolved to onnose the cabinet as on* man. on every point. Th* consequence of these resolutions ??i made manifest on Monday evening. There were About H'Z-'t member* present, when, after a moat tumultuous debate, .'>70 vote* were given to the new ministry, 153 against it, and the remainder abstained from voting. Thin was. of courre. oonsidered a decided triumph. The ultra democratic party are literally furious, and the cry on eveqr hand is, that the republic ia betrayed. The moderate party are stigmatlxed aa royalists in disguise?which, by the way, la not far from the truth. Geneial Cavaignac is denounced ns a traitor to the republic. Another struggle in the streets is epenly mentioned. and no one appears to doubt it must ensue. In private the moderates and old legitimists take no pains to oonoeal their convictions that things must ultimately return to a constitutional monarchy; but ; none undertakes precisely to answer the question of Shakppeikre'H here:? *' Under what King Benzonxn ??Bpeak or (lie!" You must know, however, that the legitimiits and the Orleanist*. have come to an arrangement. The partii-ana of the Duke of Bordeaux have oonsented to recognize the Count de Paris as his heir and successor. The Duke of Bordeaux has at present no i*sue, and if he should have not* hereafter, the Count de Pari* would at all events be his heir. It is assumed by the familv that he will probably have no issue, and this concession therefore to the Orleanists involved no great sacrifice. Meanwhile, it has the effect of com Dining mi luengiD 01 inr two panics. The other pretender, as you know, la Prince Louis Napoleon, the heir of the Km per or Prince Louis is a candidate for the Presidency, and at present he has by far the best chance of success. In foot, tbere is no other candidate who now could hare much ground for hope. The friends of Prince Louis of course, regard the Presidency merely as the step to the imperial throne. Prince 1 ouls onoe President, they think the pretensions ?f the legitimists ana Orleani?ts would vanish; this latter party think otherwise, and it is even said that they would vote for Prince Louis, in preference to any other President. They think that his success would be ephemeral; that tho people would get tired of him. as they have successively of all other idols since February. Lamartine rose and fell ; CansidWre rose and fell; Ca>aignac rose, and has almost fallen. At present the throne of popular favor is vaeant, and the only candidate now presented for it is Prince Louis Napoleon. His claims, It is true, rett neither on personal qualities nor on personal cervices, and perhaps on tbis very account they are mere likely to be durable. They rest on what is incommunicable?on a quality in virtue of which it is wholly imposssble be can have a rival?on bis hereditary claims aa the representative of him, whose name is associated with the most glorious reoollections of France. Claims resting on this basis, if acknowledged at all, are indisputable ; but how long the basis of the olaim will be acknowledged remains to be seen. Some assemblages took plaoe last evening on the exterior boulevards, particularly in the vicinity of the Barriers Poinsonniere, where the announcement thit a democratic banquet should be presided over by M. de Lamennais had attracted a considerable crowd. Precautionary measures were taken, and notwithstanding there was a certain effervesence. we have not wuucu uiii uruer was uuviumu uu >u) puim. i u was rumoured that a demonstration, in which a great number of workmen, incited by guilty counsel?, would take part, was to be made yesterday: but the good lense of the working classes led them to understand and battle the secret of a demonstration which could have no other result than to aggravate the diffi unities of a position with which the authorities are occupied more solicitously than ever, at the moment at which the approach of winter increases wants and renders them more imperative. From all part<3 appeals to calm and to the respect of order are addressed to the working classes, and we learn from a certain source that the members of the extreme It ft themselves decided last evening, that a sort of proclamation to the people, recommending calm, should be profusely distributed this day in the faubeurgs. This proclamation bears the signature of all the members of the extreme left. It is an follows. We leave our readers to say If it be calculated to oalm passions, and restore confidence " We are far from the ilay on whish, after heroic combats, the republic. i>?uing brilliant aid glorious from the midst of vieti ry. displayed itself to tbe world as the living image of liberty, equality and frateiniy, ai tbe sacred symbol ut all the hopes of tie future Froiu one extremity of Kurojie to theotber the nations saluted it with their acolarruitioow, ami, penetrated by tbe ie* spirit, by the regenerating breath, they broke U,cir old chains ia the name of the right which franco had inaugurated, fthe hernrlf Immediately gailurei the fruits; in political order, the abolition of privileges and universal si.Huge; in social order, the enfranehisement ef workmon, tint condition of the transformation of labor itself, to arrive at a just, er division of its pioaucts, to the piaraaty of tbe life of all in a octet) one and jointly re>ponsible. do' n, however, the coniiier,d parties nnited and organised. Everywhere that tbeir influence could extend, they applied themselves to exulting by intrigue imd calumny enemies to the republic and obstacles to its government vmuip lime uy in no uiu un uuinimiamni, vuoj more mux duied tlioir punciples an J their passions, and mfule of the revolutionary pow er which they had conquer *1 an urn agiinst the revolution itself. M e wero driven back to fie gates of the mo i aarcby, u d it in there that we now at*; it i* to the men of tho roonurcby that the destinies of the r pnblia have just been confided. W eun de I star.d the fears of the pople, and their indi/uatioD, for which oertainly there is too mueb cause. Let them, however, not alann themselves beyond mctuuru, aud especially let then: take uaie net to eode to pertiiions provocations. What, m> Bay be done to drive them to aots of dinnstrous Im prudence, let them remain calm and firm, mutcn 1 of themselves, in order to be masters of the future. It il thus that the* will prove their strength, and that tfcay will tind it uninjured, invincible by union, if it al.tuld ufain liavc to oca in aid of right. For onrselve*, honored by the title of their fprtientatives, wo kn?w to what that title obliges v?; we ki ow our in ties, aud will fulfil them. 8ontbythe I people. iibittd to the | pi< w? will struggle, and it if onr belief we ?b?U conquer wit.i tl.- hi " I.uleni;aia, l"d*w H I >? Am. Bruya, fYlix Pyat, < Ulivier (des Bon, fc<s-dn HI,.'r.?. Ma'hieti (de la Drome). ?. Baooc, < hollat. Terr <r, lirtiss, Rorjat, Ch. Robert (de I'Yocne), Bcrtholon, V. (thirbl > r. J< Ij ( !? la Hants Gnroni e), Edmond -Inly, Vjgmrto, Isid rs Mavicaier. Brivnrd Toussaint, Doutre, Eu?<' e | har|>a.!, I'h Msilet. Derlle, Oabarrv, Man ami, Benott, Yt- ix ! Hat! i-. Astaix, Th, Bae JI*. Juicai aulx, J. Pfxiot-Ogier, Pintrc Le- I fiuac, Detours, Martin-Bernard. (1. Ga'Aa, Pelletior, 0. Las>yras. Faii;in r.iyolle. Greppo, Mtiicliain, F. Qarnbon, A. Pcrdiguier. James Dim< ntiy, Xavier Durricu. Our Stutgnrd Corre*iK?mfence. Stutoaro, Oct. 23, 1S4.S. Tht National Parliament at Frankfurt, and tht A'u tility of iti Dissolution. As the late commotions at Vienna are preparing the way for an inevitable dissolution of the Austrian em*i... ~i.i tit. - I'.", m ? ouuiutuiu. parti, dividing the Ofrmaoi from the Hungarian*, the Lorn bsrdiana,the Gallicians and Bohemians, so they will alio render a final dissolution of the present National rarlinment necessary, or rather hasten that event, for the convention carries the elements of its ovn destruction within itself. The pitiful politicians of StPaul's chnrch at Frankfort, who do not comprehend the elementary principles of statesmanship, th*nk that tbsy can stay the onward march of intellect and civillxatlon. They imagine that they have found n universal remedy for revolutions, in oannon bills and grape shot. But they are sadly mistaken. They try to stem the current of the revolution, and they fill its i victims. They have sinned sgainst the laws, whhh I the history Of nations proclaim aloud,and they will I suffer the punishment which their crimes d?serve. Who does not recognise in the traglo fate of Litour and Urhnowsky, the avenging godde.n? Who i? not I fearfully impressed with the rigid justiae of fate which has made that very people whom the insolent taunts andridicrle of Llchnowsky injured, the instruments of inflicting the richly destrved penalty? The measure of those members of the parliament, who have succeeded in robbing the people of those fruits of the revolutions which they were appointed to ?uard and reeure. will soon be full; and terrible will the fate of those be. who will be obliged to encounter the wrath of an enraged, of a deceived ami injured people. Iti volutions are not made; they are not the work of I mune men wcom accident dak piaceu at tne Hea?i of their outbreaks Our representatives in Parliament i??m to have forgotten this The reroiutlon of 1848 Is not the re^nlt of ft conspiracy, or of an uproar: it is the result of that old and misapplied ?y?t?m of policy which belongs to centuries gone by, and has been forced upon the present time without regard to the progresi mankind nave made In the science of government, a* well as in every thing else. It is as necessary to the preient wants of the people, ftnd as natural a consequence of the tyrannic policy observed by the i rulers ef its several States, as the Declaration of independence and its achievement by the United States was to the oppression of (treat Drltain. Thu National Pailianient, a result of this revolution, and intended to perpetuate and secure the advantages demanded ana gained by it, now deny i'.s existence, and . labor to suppress all further symptoms of It. The I necessity, the certainty of Its 'all, mujt l>e apparent to very one wljo will take the trouble to Inquire into the details of its hirtory. and examine the baels upon which it r'fts; who will compare the demands of the people msde upon it., and the result of its deliberations l'he necessity of tbe dissolution is already acknowleged by ? great Dumber of its own member*. nnd several propositions to the ell'eothav* been nnjii, in order to sate it the disgrace of being broken up by Unpeople. An unfororm accident prevents me from finishing thie letter. \ ou can, if you see proper. make u?e ot tbe above an far an it Ron I append n few item* of news from Vienna,reaching to the I'.'th of October. At Vienna, the parlie* still stand opposed to oach other, but no encounter ha* Tft taken pla:e. 'I'he Hungarian* who had com* to the aid of Vienna hare again withdrawn oyer the Hungarian boundary, on command of the Hungarian government, but promised to return, in cafe thny should be called upon. It in not known whtther thin retreat is the eoose ;uenoe of llUKtian threat* (a* is supposed In Vienna,^ or of an agreement with General Anersperg Mnan?*h>1e, the forces of those who came to attaek \ lenna are hourly Increasing, and have already amounted to 100,000. If no agreement is brought abotu, the inhabitants of Vienna may t'nd it mueh to their disadvantage to have ^ postponed the encounter so long. Inthocarop one of tne academie legion whs taken prisoner and hunt The Ambassador* hare Left Vienna. In tbe whole eountry great eicitement prtvailt j >RK I NOVEMBER 12, 1848. Rev. Dr. Bainl'i Lecture* on Kurope. TO* itev ur. isaird commenced a aeries of lecturea on the pre pent state of Kurope, political, social and religious, at tbe Central Presbyterian Church, in Broome street, on Friday evening last. Tbe proceeds of the lecture* are to be devoted to the promotion o1 the (Ofpel in France. Tbe present lecture, which was introductory to tho oourse, he said, would be more in ! the, style of a familiar conrerr&tton than anything | elf t, upon tbe prevent state of things in Kurope generally; and his remarks on that occasion would neo?a" I sarily be of a general nature, ilia lectures would be ! much tbe same as those giTen by him on the same | subject, three or four years ago, when he lectured on Kurope. at the request of a number of gentlemen, who j augg<?ted that he might be able, without interfering with bla proper work, to give a coarse of Irctures which would Impart a good deal of information on the atate of Europe to tbe American pnblio. He a pent a number of years in that part of tbe world, and baa visited it no Use than Ave times within the last twelve years. Kurope is a quarter of the world with which the peo.? ?V,? 1 Slllu illnliM K. o.tl I_? from tbe intimate relations existing between it and this country. It is, to be sure, but a small portion of the world; but, owing to it* great olvilization, its commerce, its literature, and its great military force, we iMtmld be well acquainted with it. It operate* on ua by its commerce, its arts, Its religion, its literature and by the immense emigration which it pours on our shores, as no other part of tbe world does cr probably can do. And the probability is, that it will continue to do so. The emigration to thl8 country from Europe, during the past year, will not fall far sh'it of a quarter of a million A few years sgo it did not exceed forty thousand annually; aDd when it reachod sixty thousand, we thought it quite alarming. Now, however, it amount; to two hundred and fifty thousand, and it will go on increasli'P, a* long as North America offers the advantages which it does to the millions of tbe old world, or until, in fact, the population of the globe shall be reduced to an' tqulibrlum. Tbe population of Kurope is twobunasd fifty millions, and while it comprises not more than af fourteenth part of the area of tbe world, Its prpuiatien is nearly one-fourth. The population is principally on the western side ; that on tbe eastern side scarcely exceeds sixty-five millions which is little uvww?<?aj ?uu kUVI V JUU Will BOO lb. r U1 lUabHUOS, b?B0 Switzerland,which contains twenty-two cantons,each of which has a different variety of eottume. Thism.inife?ta lt-? If oftener in the head-dress of the women Ft is also observable in a portion of the dress of the men, but affecting oftener little things, which are very striking. Seme 01 those costumes *kre quite picturesque and Interesting as objects of contract. The only philosophical view to be taken oi these varieties of costume is, that they are landmarks to point out the differences of origin of the people. Long after language became diffused, the varieties of origin may be traced ft* the vurlet'es of cottume. For Instance, we tin 1 the varieties of costume in France and some in Germany very striking; and the same in Russia; and it is quite certain that these things indicate a diversity of origin, and are landmarks, pointing out the variety of tribes long alter language became diffused. So you will find a great variety of languages in Europe; perhaps a greater variety than some people are aware of. Vet all those languages which oontain anything ot literature, do not exceed thirteen in number These are the French, the German, English. Spanish, Italian, Russian. Turkish, and the modern Greek; and if jou go further, you can take the Dutch, the Danish, and the Swedish. which are really rich in literature. There is a good deal of literature in the TolLh and Spanish, which is very httle kco*n to the greater part of the people of tbls country; but the great languages are the Knglitb, the French, aod the German. It is re markable, that numerous as the languages are, they can all be clas?ifltd. There are three great languages. | Vow have the Latin, spoken by about seveuty five miliitns of people You have the Teatonlc spoken by ' 1 a similar number: and the great Slavonic, spoken by the r> inalnder. It in a lingular fact, that this great family of language* compose an e<iual proportion of ! the human raoe. This division does not, however, include the whole of the languages of Europe, for there are remaining in different countries I old languages which have not been extirpated by the i thrte great clastes to which reference hiw been inade. 1 Thus, in Ireland, there is the old Celtic dialect still remaining, and not yet extirpated by the Knglish language. Still, the language of Kurope may bo classified luuiipna;; nuii mini m juhi as remarmouv me re- | ligien of tbe people of Kurope corresponds In murh 1 the fame way. The Teutonic nations, for the most (art. are Protectant; the Slavosio are of the Greek , religion, and the others are (Jatho io. The reverend gen'leinan then referred to the various forms cf government In kurope, the number of which is greater than many people are apt to suppose. The entire number i f governments in Kurope is sixty six; what the number will be a year or tiro hence, no one can tell. Twenty-tivc years age, the number was sixtvelgfct; but rince that time two have been destroyed. 'J he republic of Cracow was absolved by Austria, and the duchy of I.ucca has been united wi'h Tuscany. Tbe tendency of things in Kuiope. is towards coni solidation. by the absorbtion of smaller governments by the larger. Yet tbe ;nuinb?r Is great as has been ob. trved. and those governments aro dii id?d as follows?There are twenty-one kingdoms, not all independent, however, for nineteen only of them are so. Two of them are not independent, Norway belonging to Sweden and Hungary, whieh Is united with Austria. Tbe people of Norway are tbe freest in Kurope. Poland as we aro all aware, is no longer a kingdom It is. however, in a great degree govern-d by its old laws and asages; but there is over it a viceroy of Ituifla, and it has no longer its own governirett. There are, there/ore, nineteen lniepen'ent kingdoms. Then there are thirty-two duchies, of < which twenty-nine are in Germany, and three in Italy. It is singular that there should be so j ill it u j' uui:uirn in vrmm?uj; aoa to 1111(1 om iQt'ir onKin, we mutt go back to the middle agi't. nn l trace th> m irom the downfall of the l<om?n empire to the reign of Charlemagne It la difllcult to tell the dtfftrence between a duchy and kingdom, for the j cuken which reign over them are as mach mouarchs an the Kmperor of Russia la. Some of them are very Insignificant, while other* are of great importance; ! nil h as the Crand Duchy of Baden, with a population of a million and a quarter. Many of them, however, are cot much larger than our counties. and contain. no more than seven or eight thousand inhabitaiits. while some contain as nuoy a< tifty thousand. j The territorial area of some of them is so small, that a nan can ride across them in fifteen or twenty minutes. There are thirty-eight different governments in tiermany rtlone ; but what will be said when j It is kuonn that formerly that, country h id no less than three hundred and sixty-live governments, eaoh 1 having Its own laws? But there is no doubt that tier- 1 many will, ere l?ng, be consolidated Into one or two great governments. Aa to the attempt to govern (>er- 1 in* ny as It is now, in the person of th;.- \rchduke4lohn, ! It is out of the <;ue?tlon, There are twenty-eight. In- [ dependent duchies, and the res'. ar? monarchies and republics; It will be seen, therefore, that It Id lmpo?- , iibl<' to carry en <>ermanv a? It is now carried on Eei-ides th? twenty one kingdom* ami thirty on* duchies. there are four principalities which are nut independent. and several republics. such an France, Switzerland, the Ionian lelrn; the four eiiiet of Hamburgh, Bremen. Lubee, Frankfort; and Vandory and San-Marino. In all tbrse fixuy fire, fifty lour are independent, anil the rent nro l>u)>ject to other governments. As to the ninetoen monarch*, who now rule in t'.urope, s'.stepn are males and three are females Of the sixteen malts, fourteen are married mm, and two are not married one of whom is his Holiness the Pope, who Is a t? mporal as well as a spiritual sovereign and the othirof whom Is the King < f Denmark, who was marrWd twioe, bnt has been d vorced from botX of his wives. The latter Is a i?o?t singular man, and seems to b? sBtire'y Indiflv *ni to tbe o?aforta of Married n ore tnan a lourm part 01 iae wnoie in regard to civilixatioD, the highest is confined to the westera aide, the tide with which we have the moat intimate relations. In Rus?la, Turkey and Greece, there is very little show of civilization, in oomptrison with Germany, Italy or England; the first named oountries being, in fact, more Asiatio than European in their character. As to Russia, it was not considered a part of Europe until within the last one hundred and fifty years, and to this day the Greeks and the people of Turkey do not speak of themselves as Kuropeans. or ae being in Kurope. If a man goes from Greece to Italy or England, he will say be is going to Kurope, because the Eiople of those countries, as has before been said, ardly esteem themselves Europeans. It is indeed affeeting to think that civilization should b? confined to the western side of Europe, and that if we add to that, the civilization of these United States, we have almost the whole of the civilivution of the world. No one can travel OTer Europe without being struck with the laet, that although the population of Europe is Cauoassian in its desoant. there aie still a great many varieties among them. In the nortlierD parta, the faces and features of the paople are peculiar and different from those of the South? Their complexions are lighter, and they have light blue eyes. In tbe central parts of Kurope? Russia, Germany Holland, and England? you have a people whose faces are very diftieient from those of the others. The faces are round, with the exoeption of those of the people of the highlands of Ssetland, who are to be ranked among tbe Soandinavians. and resemble very mueh the people of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. In tbe middle parts of Kurope, the fao?s are round, the hair and eyes are darker, and the people are of a greater nxe. If you descend into the couthern parts of Ku- j rope, into France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greene or Turkey, you will find the people to be of a mueh darker complexion than tbe ethers, with faces still more oval, tbe hair mueh darker, and the complexion the same. Thus, we ate, there are varieties In the population of Kurope. There is no African raoe in Kurope worth mentioning. Tbe raoes are almoet wholly Caueassian. There is tbe same variety in regard to costume, especially among the lower classes, and in retired plaoes. The middle and higher clauses dress pretty much alike, and get their fashions from Paris, which city governs | Kurope in these matters. If you want to see the varie- , tiesgof costume whieh prevail In Kurope, you must go i down to the lowest classes of society, in the different I ERA life. He is a perfvct rowdy in his character H*finds happiness only in his dog and bis gun. When the government Insisted that he should marry, h* snld he would do so, and If the government would choee him a wife, he would wed b*r, which be did. In fuot, he was willing to marry anything in the shape of a woman, if it was insisted upen. having no choice of bit own. Among tnn mint impuriini 01 wie monarcnaoi r.urope, are tb?< Kmperor of Rusaia. the Kings of Prussia. of Belgium, of Saxony. of Wurtemburg. the Sultao, and the King of Sardinia. At the present time. th? nut permanent government in Kurope la that of Russia. About a jear ago, it might have bean said that the King of France was the most permanent, lie reigned for sev?nt?en year*, after the old fan lion and without regard to the va>t progress of knowledge ,ind the eTident determination of the people not to bit governed in the old way; but. as ha ia out of the way. the Kmpetor of lluffia. in this reaped, oeoupieathe first position. In point of knowledge, he ia far inferior to I.ruls 1 hilippe, but not ao In respect to natural talent lie came to the throne quite unexpectedly to himself. for his brother Constantine was heir to it, who however, was ret aside, not by the peeple, but by the testament of his brother Alexander Me waa quite a young man when he aaoended the throne, and probably never entertained an Idea that be would be sailed upon to govern the Ruasian people lie bad devoted himaelf to the profeaaion of arms, lie visited Eailtlitwice, and learned a great deal; but in point of intelligence be cannot be compared to Louis Thllippe. He (peaks I'.njlUh, French, and Spanish as well as his own language, and is a man of very strong natural power*, possessing a great deal of natural aen?-, of good judgment; of limited inform* tion, howfT?r ; out he ban governed the empire with a great de?l of energy, and ban sought to promote its best interests. Like all the other monarchs of Rurope, he thinks hi* army and navy entitled to flrat attention ; and jet he is not a very ambitious man. or if he is, h? has failed to gratify his ambition out of the present difficulties in Kurope. From what had come to light of the character of the Kmperorof Russia, he is a man whe believes there is vast work to be done in Rnrsia. and that conviction Is shared by hiseldeit son. Indeed, most < f the people of Russia expect more from the son than they do from the F.mperor Nicholas. *1 hey believe that the \oung man tak*s more interest in the progress of civilisation; th?t be does not take the same interest in military affairs as the father does, but more in internal improvements, education, ami other things tending to the advantage of the serfs, all ><f whom will, no doubt, be liberated before twenty years. Yet the government of Russia has been as good as probably that country is capable of, although it is a despotism, a species of government which he. (Dr. Baird,) abhor.ed as much as any man. it will last for some years yet, until the nation becomes enlightened and raided from its piesent htate of ignorance and degradation. At present, there are no middle classes there, sufficient to ceunteract the influence of the nobility, and the people must wait till the large cities and towns furnish a middle cUks. and until they be formed, the serfs cannot be liberated. At present, however, there is no government in Europe so stable as that of Russia. Th? Cmnup/iv Via a mlllinn nf man mulv fnr anfinn He look* on with perfeot calmness on what is going on around bim in Europe, and says to all the nations, that if they will let him alone he will let them alone ; which , ia as much as conld be expected from such a man, sit- i uated as he is. If he were an ambitious man. he eer- , tainly would not take this position. As to the other monarchs, the first in point of talent, is the king of Prurtla. He h? had better opportunities of learning than the Kmperor of liussia ban had, but not so i;ood s he desired. He wanted, when he was a young man. to go to the universities, as other yonng men did, but he could not do so. He is especially fond of the com- j pany of literary men, and is remarkably attached to the cekbrated Humboldt, whom he has aonstantly employed to give him Information, by reading and conversation. Baron Humboldt has employed several hours every day, for years past, in imparting knowledge to the king. He spends five or six hours every day in reading, and otherwise giving him information. Indeed, so nunh has Baron Humboldt been engaged in ttiis way, that be cannot tell when he can complete his great work, Cocmue, which be ha* had on hand for several years past, and which he wishes to conclude before nis death, being now upwards of eighty years of sge. Baron Humboldt considers bim one of the best infoimed monarchs of Europe. There is roarce a monarch in Europe whose petition is so difficult as that of this king. He ia unfortunately not surrounded liy very able or wise men, He could have prevented all the difficulties by which he it enccid pasted by giving his people a liberal constitution wben he arcended the throne, instead of the miserable siTair which he did giv. them. If he had given them a liberal constitution at first, he might ha'e made himself the head of Germany, and rallied all Germany around Mm; but instead of that, he followed the advice of his family, aDd aoted an he has. As it is now. it is extremely difficult to say what the issue will De. Much will depend on the turn which things are taking in .Austria. He takes a great interest In the United States; and in reply to an invitation extended to him hv the lecturer to come and ?? this country, he n.ld he would be moat happy to do so if he could; but be could not possibly do bo. HIh eousln, tbe Duke of ?axe-Wlrmar. travelled over tbia country a good deal. Hp it ia who published a book on thin country, and re latea an occurrence that took place in the West. A stage drove up to the dcor of his tavern, and the driver acki d him if he waa the " man" who was gaing to ride with him; because if yon are, said he. I am the ' gentleman" who will drive you. From all the speaker has beard of him, tbe King Is a man who has felt more interact in religious matters than any otber monarch in K.urope. Aa to tbe King of Sweden, he la one of the . beat and ablest monarch* in Kurope. and leaa liable to be disturbed than any other, lie is a son of ' the celebrated Bernadotte, and baa been educated in the old and simple way. He 1? a belter ruler and much more instructed than bis father waa I Tbe old man knew nothing but Krench. Hnd Ttry little of anything but military affairs, tie tirnt studied law, nnd then entered the army and rose from tbe tanka to tbe station of marshal, un<)er Napo'eon. He waa a man tbat gav? Bonaparte a great deal of trouble Bernadotte waa chosen king of Sweeden in 1HU9, after (iustavug the Kourth was chared away, and reigned till 1842, when he died at tbe age of s<) He bad but little Information, but waa a man of great firmness of purpose and to the day of hia death never knew a word of tbe Swedish language. The king of Wuitimburg in one of the ablest of the Kuropean nnr. ai?ha I >u t. ., r., ? . P . I thrught to be truly religiously dlrpo ed. The kind of Holland in a man of great talent, but he Is not popular. He bas governed ably, although he has permitted hie government to trouble a great many people, An.! croapel them to emigrate. This, however, wannotao much bin fault, an it was that of the Protectant hierarchy in that country, who are not over burdened with liberality. The king of Belgium, too. Ih one of the widest and be..t roorarebs in Europe. He knows the world well, is well disposed and is remarkably able. He ha< succeeded v?ry well, although he haa had a very difficult part to play. The king of Saxony is a lloman C atho Ho. and is also an excellent, man So is the king of Sardinia, who war defeated till of late years but who In now thought to possess more talent than he erer got credit for. He ia not, however, opposed to the Protestant religion, although he wan called to rule more undtrtho influence of the Jesuits, than any other part of the population, ,4s to the Tope, he is a well difpored nan. of moderate talent, not very great rapacity for governsents. He wished to govern liis per pie well, and did make several very important reform* ; but be certainly had no intention of going to the length he baa gone. He Is in an ejtrcmely difficult position; and how he will get out of It ia bard to toll The worst Jionarchi of Kurope, are the king of !lt.noyer and the king of Naples It would be uiffl'-ult to And a worse king than the old one of Bavaiia. The speaker had ocea-ion to fee him on,:e. in relation to the temperance oauae. He b und him Handing In bis room, and the king commenced ape.tking in this stjle ' I am very happy to see you. Indee d : I hare read your book?every part of it. It is wotderful the progress of the temperance nus? in y< nr country." He tben stopped and asked question* concerning the I'nited States. Ho began by asking in wbat part of the country he (the lecturer) w,i? born ; he was fold in Pennsylvania. " That is one of the slare States,'* said the king ; " there are a great many slaves there." He told him, No ; that there had not been a Have tr.ere tor rorty yearn The kinj, replied that he n collected It perfectly well. Vou nee, continued the lecturer, wbut he has been doing for a Tear or tvro pant; he has Actually thrown hliuselt into the embraces of a cotrmon dancing girl, named I .ola Mnntes, an Irisb wemar. W ith regard to the king of Greece, be is not a man of much capacity ; and in selecting him the Greeks seem to ha>a mi\de a very bud choice. The Sultan is a man of considerable talent, and governs his country with mueh wisdom. In relation to the i|uetns of Europe. he was happy to say. there is sot one of thfin that does jot, sustain a good character and some of them are very well dispofed in a religious way. The nueeu of >Vartimhtrg. the dowager IJ.ieon of Bavaria, and also the t^ueen of Wenmark. the mother in law of the present King of Denmark, the i^ueen of Saxony, and one or two others must be mentioned as very excellent women. In fact, th< re l^not one whose character U not above reproach. It Is certainly so with the l^ue-n of Krgland. They may not all be religious women, but it Is an Interesting fa't that so m.tny of them are worthy ptrton*. The lecturer oonclud"4 by saying that the kii>?x and monarchs of ?..rope are possessed ot" agooU deal of talent; but they will have need of all they know bifrre the summer is over As to the King of Austria, ii me empire m to dj s*T?a u win not Be by him. All the monarch* of h uror? with the exception of the King cfHuorar are alUUe and gentlecanly In their niflinima the legitimate fruit of good breeding. Th?r? are thre?- mod?s of preaeTitatlon to them Klrit, publicly ; ?eeonci 1 t. more prWately through your arabnetdoi, and thtidlv, what is called premutation en 1a an. I which is the ir.ode in ?hl<ili phllanthrrpbiat*, learned men \o are pren'tttd, and on the Utter premutation there is no formality, and you nay V a* familiar with the monarch aa with any body else, on ?uch oc -a?ion?. i The next lecture will be delivered on Wednesday uTenicg next, at half pant seven o'clock. SiKAaiswr Uxitkd 5ta rr?,?The bark Pilgrim (rem Mobil?, reports exchanging signals witli the steamship l.mted State*, Hii Ifdalt, oil Monday, 6th ir.etsnt, at 12 o'clock, M., lat. :>4 46, thirty miles south of Care llatteras, going oil in fine style, with full hteairi, ?:i<i all 8&ua fc<?t. The United States left !his port on Saturday, 4th, at 4 IV M., for llavixt at d New Or.-ac*. 4-- ' ; .'I ..MP ??fS? LD. TWO CENTS. Law Intelligence. 1'witkd Stat*? Circuit cuutt, Not. II ? Judft# .Nelson -R-tponnkilitiet ?f Ikt Collector ?f thi? foit t'n relation to tie Lnu of Hun ft fit (iundt -Britae 'I o/. r? Lawrence.?In thl? enu*e whl'h *u J-cliUd ?a i TliurnJay in favor of the pUlntiff*, bin honor ohtrund. I that thin ill ?n action a?ain*t Mr. Lawrence. the col ' lector of this port, not in hi* public ebaraoter, but I against him a* a private oitlnen. charging him with ; having bee n the means ol losing property ef plaintiff*. 1 by careletHaem and neglige nee. Mr Lawrence oould not commit. (properly rpeaklng.) in his public rap* -Ity. a private wrong in the execution ofbia official duties ? yet *licti bin act* benzine in judgnent of law, * private wiong. they are beyond the Mope of hi* public I duties, and than he i? s.tlng at a private oitiien. it i i?, howHT<r rather difficult to comprehend the idea of 1 a private wrong committed officially. If, while in tb? ditch* rge of hi* public duties. he goes beyond hie power*, and. eith> r hy commission or omission, commit* 1 wrong, he Is then to be regarded a* a private citizen. , the hi me an any other private individual who may have committed a wrong on the richta of others, lathis cafe, it ha* been insisted. on the part of the plaintiffs' counrel, that defendant has been guilty of an aet of careltrsntss in the execution of his official duty under the act of Congress by which the warehousing system was connected with the coileotion of the publlo revenue. and that unon th? ucn?i>i,a nt ?k? -..?i-i..-. any Huinuriiy id Dimaeu personally or in<imuuaiiy. but by authority of law, and such subordinate* represent not the co'leotor an their principal, but the government. They are ageats of the government, engaged to discharge it* business, end responsible to It for the execution of their dut'es. Take, as an instance of it, the o Elector of this port, in this one department of warehousing, where f on? thirty- eight or forty perron* are employed, in discharging the business of thin particular department ((hern are raveral other departments conueoted with the Custom House of thin port, which stand in j the mod relation to the collector u? the persons ?ngagi d in the warehousing department,) and it'thi-collector is. upon principle of law, responsible for all dameges that may be sustained in eou*et|uence of tha j defiiult or negligenoe of all tbe individuals eng-tged ia | rarrjing on the business of the Cnstoin House of this j pert, it is obvious that no man of responsibility, who | bad a proper tense of the risk he would be obliged to I assume, would encounter the frightfal responsibility, which would at once ba appalling and in a ease where he had no pri<ate interest, or wax deriving no individual benefit fi*< m the sgetic'es of those persons. Tha principle contended for by the counsel fjr the plaintitfs. would go; tbe. length of subjecting every executive < fllci r to the pena ties of the law, who was bound to procure sub-sgents to assist In the execntion of hla public duties, fur their neglects, defaults, nonfeasance f r misfeasance Take, as an Instance, the mayor of thlt olty, who appoints, or licenses, all the cartmen, as w<ll as various othtr agents. in the discharge of the public dutiac devolving upon him as executive officer of tbia citj Now It would be difficult to maintain the proposition that he is to be held responsible for the oarrlestness of all these sub-agents who derive their authority j from him. The true rule is, that wherever a prlncloaf, 1 for, and in the axeoutlon rf hi* duty. Is obliged to err:ploy subordinates to enab'e him to axscuta thoaa | duties that be ia responsible only for the employment > of faithful and proper persona to discharge the duties I wLich be assign* fothim. that after be bw done that, hi r?apnnslbility and*, and if any injury or damage arises nut of eartleianesa or mierondnct on the part of subordinates, tbat responsibility belongs to them in<liv dually and the party aggrieved must look to them f r r.'( res ; and this principle will be found laid down by Mr Juxtiee Story, in hia book on agenoy, wbleh oontains the true doatrin* applicable to the parties in this care. He lays it down, that public officers and agents are not responsible for the misfearanee or nonfeasance I of Kub-apei.th or rervants employed under them in dlaI charge of their public duties. Again be says,heads of departments are not r< sponsible to government fur ' subordldates. unle-s the principal ia gnilty of more than ordinary negligence in selecting, and in not ex! erciiiEg proper vigilance over their acts and doiugs The only ijuestion. therefore, is, whether on the evidence In this cafe the difendant baa In any way, personally. part c fated in the carelessness nf his agents, by leaf on of abieh the goods in question bare been [ lest. If he baa not, be ia not rerpoarible; bat if he has, then, undoubtedly, be rtaoda on the same footing ; with an? other citizen who baa occasioned damage to his neighbor; but he la not liable, eonatraotlvaly. becaufe persona in bis employment are guilty of tnrn*? negligencea. It mas', be brought home to him, h>? blrr'elf must he guilty of the wrong, in order to be made responsible. i Si rminR Coi n r. ? Dechiom in Banco?Thomas K Minturn adsm.thel urmers Loan and Trust (Company. ? New trial granted; costs to abide the event. Molbram et al'vs. Mills ?Judgment for defendant. Wm 1!. raynesdnm. Henry \V Warner.?Judgment of nonfuit. Lekoy adsm. T owbor?Motion for new tri-il t'enitd Carroll vs. 1,'pton.?Judgment for plaintiff Acpenwall et al. vs. Meyer ? Judgment for plaintiff* 011|ihant ads Smith.?Judgment for defendants on the demurrer to the first and third replications to the in;ru piea, una on tae demurrer to tne rejoinder 10 tne | firft replication to the fourth pica, on the ground that the replication in bad, in substance, as wall ai tha rejoinder. Judgment tor pinlntiff on tne demurrer to the second replication to the third plea?plaint)IT to bare Imve to withdraw the replications held bad. an A to reply ilr noco, and to amend his declaration, if advifed defendants to have leare to rejoin to the second replication to the third plea on payment byeaoh party of the costs of the demurrer decided against them, witlin ten days after notice of this ruia. Horace i I)res?er vs Smith Cleft.?Ordered, the hearing of the appeal in this cause be postponed until the Hrst Satur d?y in next term; in the mean time the plaintiff be at libei ty to take reference, and, if the appeal from Judge Sandford's order be reversed, then the reference an 1 subs?<|uent proceedings on the part of the plaintiff bw 1 s?t sslde. SeTcial orders on ward justices, aad th.s Justices of the Marine Court, were granted, to return jitocei dings and judgments, ho., to this court. Corht ok Okkkrai. ShM?io/??? November 11.?Before the Hecorder and Aldermen McKnlrfbtand Fitzgerald. Cast o/ Cltarlm Carrel, alias ffAeeJer.?This ease as resumed on th? opening ef the Court this mornleg. The defence was opened by one of tho counsel fcr Garret J*?ik? C*fi?it. sworn for defenae ? Is a batcher ia Catharine market; knows the defendant, Charles (Jarret, baa kaown him some years ; witness testified to Garret having offered him KngUsh silver coin s >ms time before the alleged burglary, he had al.^o se?n him buying Kngltah gold, and small sliver coin; he had been In the habit of dealing In it. Wn.i mm H K-iai-e sworn?Testillud to having seen Murray, one of the parsons indicted for thifi offenne at Mr Mulligan's, No 10 Monroe street, from 9 o olorBjOD the eTeniii# of the J'Jd of September 1Lit evidence of thUwif nnin w?.- elicited to prore that the policemen were incorrect in statin* that th>y mw Murray in Kront, South. I'ine. and Fletcher streets, oa tie rime evening and at the same hours. William Wh i.kmi and Hk**t McCi.oi d, also gave evidence tendlDi; to the fame point. Andiikw Oi.\?s, nprliceroaa of the let war J, was al-o examined for the defence but nothing of importance was brought out The testimony was nil in at about two o'clock. aaU counsel proceeded <0 mm up?Vr Brady for the J*, fence, and the District Attorney for the prosecution. The Recorder <-hargtd the jury at son* length dwelliBjcr upon the character and foroe Of circumstantial I esidence?the kind of evidence which had b en introduced in this cafe, lie alluded to the fact that it w t* not necessary that the aocused should all bj actually present at the time of the burglary. If a nnl'jr of sction could bn itnde out, the physical preseuxe <>' all ihe t tnfid need not bo proven in order to establish the guilt cf all. Th? jury Hereout about an houraod a half, when they returned a vcrdi 't of (Juilty. Th? fuiruuci ???h nuimionu lor ifuuno. Cor? r r*r pM'tn koh Moxnd.-Cmwn P\as ? lit p?rt. 45 61. &l, A7. <">9, )>0 "> 71. 77. 62. >4 part 32, fc-l W fcb, VO. 92. 9i !*>. l?N 1U0, I0J, 104 4, 30 70. Tlmr foi- Tlmiik^lvlnm. ( b*ri?st< n (S. C.) Oct 20 MnjlanJ Nov 2" Pelawar*,........ Nov 7 Ohio , ' 2;. Main*,.. " 16 Tidmmn,! > " 2-"> New Hampshire.... ' 16 K?ntnofcy, * !? < V firmest, " 7 Missouri, " 24 N?w York,, . . . . . ' 2:1 Ma?saohu*?tts,. . . M ;>! renu?yl??o.? " 2.1 Connxntteut * :K) Vtw Jtrtty ...Khode IMand. . .. M ;*> | that not be la reeponaible for the** uooda. The act I provide*. among other thing*, that th? daty on Imported goods be paid in ca?h upon making the entry, 1 or, If the owner ultould chooae to bond bin nooda, then Ibe collector ahould tako poaneiiHon of them anil plaee them in the public atore, to be kept with due and reasonable eare, at the charge and link of the owner, and, upon payment of the dutlea to be ascertained, the property should be aubte. quently delivered to tk* consignee or owner. No* it ii> true the act proride* that, for the purpoee of b< ln^ diapoeed of in the warehouse, they are usually in posaeasion of the collector of the port, and deabtl*?e under bin care and supervision, which was to enable bim to carry nut the purpoae of the act. because he la 1 the c filoer who ia reaponaiblt for the collection of duties , chargeable upon thia deacrlptien of good* It la neees1 Bury, therefore, that nominally tho?e good* should be ri'itarded in hla po?a**alon The act alio provides, I <bat, wbilattbey are in hla poa?e?alonf they ahould be I k?pt with all due and reaaonuble care. There ia no doubt, therefore, but it ia a duty imposed upon sone , officer who baa the?e goods in charge, but the law : which imposes this duty on htm only meana aneh care I as a'prudent ra?n would take of hia own property under like circumstances The nuestlon here hnwI ?T?r, Is, who is responsib'e to the consignee or own* r for tie car* of these goods duiing the time they remain in the warehouse? la the colle jtor responsible? It to Dot tbe question whether those go d* are to remain In tbe warehouse without the responsibility of government officers or agente. but. the question to. whether . the collector, who la tbe haad of tbe department. It I r> sponsible for bia aubordinatea, by whose negllgeno* I tbe gooda were loit Now it to true, that a prlvat* ; Individual, no matter bow rxteniive the bualnesa in I wbicb be to engaged, in responsible for hi* areata and fervanta In tbe management and tonduot of hto conI pern; they are all regarded as standing In hto plaoe. 1 and as representing him while exerting tbe powers ?nd authorities he delegates to them, and therefore he is very properly held respor.aiVe for the faithful execution of their duties, and for any damage that may be sustained by third persons, by reason of their n?gligenoe or misconduct In the powera conferred upon them ; but the jury will i> at once the difference between that ca*e and the'case of a collector, who has no private Interest I in the discharge of duties devi lved upin him by law. He appoints, if at all, subordinates, not by virtue of

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