26 Mayıs 1873 Tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 3

26 Mayıs 1873 tarihli The New York Herald Gazetesi Sayfa 3
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THIERS' DEFEAT Herald Special Report from Paris. Bloodless Revolution in La Belle France. MACMAHON'S ACCEPTANCE. The Her# of Magenta as a Suc cessor to President Thiers. Peaceful Proclamations?His De sires and Intentions. No Change in the Laws or Institutions. PARIS QUIET. A Change of Presidents Not Excit ing to the Sans Calottes. SCENES IN THE ASSEMBLY. Tremendous Uproar in the Palace at Versailles. House and Galleries Densely Crowded. Male and Female Diplomats Watching Events. RIGHT VERSUS LEFT. Perier and Changarnier Creat ing Intense Excitement. lerdrel'i Patriotic Peroration?Friendly to Thiers, but More So to the Country. THE EX-PRESIDENT. The "Little Man's" Ebullitions to the Last. Be Styles the Duke de Broglie "Protege of the Empire." Torrents of Blood Saved by Judi cious Diplomacy. G AMBETT A'S PART. The Radical Commander Pre vents the Left from Voting. t THE NEW MINISTRY. Latest Probabilities ai to the Formation of the Government. TELEGRAMS TO THE NEW YORK HERALD. The following special despatch to the piwniT.Ti has been received from our special correspondent at the French capital: ? Paris, May 26?5 P. M. No fear ol a disturbance in Paris is enter tained in consequence of the change in the aspect of affairs at Versailles yesterday, and the races came off at Chantilly to-day as if nothing out of the common had occurred. The weather was splendid, and the great boulevards and avenues diverging in the direction of the Champs Elysees, as well as ?very promenade in the grand public breath ing place itself, were crowded with gaily attired pleasure seekers. POLITICS TAKE SECOND PLACE. It was remarked that politics did not occupy a very, important place in conversation, plea pare being evidently the chief aim of the populace. kackahon'S popularity. MacMahon is generally popular and is the special idol of the soldiery, who will give him an unqualified support. His portrait can be Been to-day hanging in prominent positions In all the print shops of the city, the Tenders apparently endeavoring to Bake a little capital of two kinds out of the event that has so suddenly thrust the gallant military commander into a high place in the government COUNSELLING PEACEFUL FORBEARANCE. Gambetta's journal, the IUyxMiqut Fran fake, publishes numerous proclamations to day, and eontains, amongst her peaceful state* ?lents, the following paragraph: ? ??We adjure you to avoid everything that might be of a nature tending to augment pub lie emotion." The litpuhlique, while devoting considerable space to the events and lamenting the result, nevertheless seizes every opportu nity of encouraging the friends of M. Thiers is a peaceful manner, and winds up by re peating the gld watchwords used during the , ever memorable *?g?. vi*:?"Order, concord, vigilance and moderation." PUBLIC AHNOUNOBOtNT Of THE BUCUTIVB ?ixonoH. The walls of l)?rie are thickly placarded with bills announcing to the public the fact, that MacMahon1 fcas been called upon to un dertake the Executive, large crowds in many places congregating before them, but making no demonstration of excitement or disorder. MACMAHON's A&DBE8S TO THZ PEOPLE. These placards contain the following brief address to the yublio from Marshal Mac Mahon:? ? Messieurs les Kepbesentants?I obey the will of the Assembly, the depository ot the national sovereignty, in accepting the charge of President of the Republic. It is ft heavy responsibility imposed upon my patriotism, but with God's help, the devotion of our army, which will always be the army of law, . and the support of all honest men we shall continue together the work of the liberation of the territory and the re-establishment of moral order in our country; we shall maintain internal peace ^nd those principles upon which society can repose. In saying this I pledge you my word of honor as an honest man and a soldier, MARSHAL MACMAHON, Duke of Magenta. AN ADDRESS TO THE PREFECTS. The following address to the Prefects of Paris hns also been placarded all over the city, being also froi# the pen of the hero of Magenta: ? Messieurs les Prefets?I have been called through the confidence of the National Assembly to the Presidency of the Republic. No immediate change will be made in the exist ing laws, regulations and institutions. I rely upon material order, and I count upon you, upon your vigilance and upon your patriotic assistance. The Ministry will be formed to day. The President of the Republic, Marshal MACMAHON. Duke of Magenta. Versailles, May 25, 1873. THE HEW MINISTRY. The new Ministry has not yet been an nounced, but it will probably be constituted as follows:? Minister of the Interior... .Duke de Pasquier. Minister of Justice M. Depeyre. Minister of War General Desvaux. Minister of Foreign Affairs.. Duke de Broglie. Minister of Finance M. Pierre Magne. EXCITING SCENES IN THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. The scenes at Versailles yesterday were ex tremely exciting. In the President's box were Mme. Thiers, M. le Prefet of the Department of the Seine and others, who were gesticulat ing quite wildly. M. le Prefet was called to order once for the enthusiasm with which he applauded M. Thiers. The House was crammed almost to suffocation, every avail able nook and corner being occupied by per sons interested in the debates and debaters. LADIES IN QATXEBififli There were a number of elegantly dressed ladies also in the building, who were intently gazing upon the scenes beneath from their loges (jrVUs in the ceiling; and the occasional movement of a fan, the emotional uplifting of a hand or the waving of a spotless handker chief, showed how deeply interested they were in the affairs that were being enacted below. DIPLOMATISTS WATCHING EVENTS. In the diplomatio tribune could be dis cerned, among others, Prince Orlo$ the Minister Plenipotentiary of Russia near the Republican Court, having one eye as wide open as his astute superior Gortschakoff, while the place where the other eye should have been was covered by a black patch which appeared to mourn for the member lost on the field of duty at the Crimean struggle. Near kim sat La Dame Pourtales, a celebrated beauty of the late Napoleon's Court; Madame Broet and Madame Rennville. All the ladies remained till the end of the political cere monies, which terminated at midnight. GREAT BRITAIN NOT REPRESENTED. Lord Lyons, the British Minister, was not present at the night sitting. He was engaged in a much more congenial pastime?viz., in giving a dinner and reception at the English Embassy in honor of the birthday of Queen Victoria. FLASHING THE NEW8 TO ALL PARTS. All the members of the Diplomatic Corps left the box immediately after the declaration of the vote expelling M. Thiers, evidently with the view of instantly telegraphing the news to the various governments they repre sented. Indeed, the wires in the city were laden for fifteen hours after the extraordinary event OAMBETTA ON HIS METTLE. Gambetta was very much excited, and it was only by an occasional address in brief, in ex traordinary language, by incessant and angry gesticulation and much "mum" telegraphing that he succeeded in keeping order among the members of the Left, who, between hilariU, applaudissements and angry rum nons, created a very respectable pandemonium. Gambetta held on firmly, however, never missing an op portunity to'check the turbulent outbursts of the party under his command, and finally gained his chief point in getting them to ab stain from voting in the election for Presi dent. TOMrESTUOTTS MOMXMT8. There was a great outcry from the benches of the Bight when M. Oagimer-Perier de cked that he belonged tp the OerUrt JDrpik. There was a greater outcry from the Left when it became known that M. Chan gamier wished to speak, the accomplishment of snch desire being anything but an easy task, con sidering the temper of the Assembly at the moment. KKRDREL AND If. THEIRS. M. De Kerdrel was taunted with being a friend x>l M. Thiers. The gentleman so taunted rose slowly from his seat, and when [ the tumult caused by the general applause which greeted him had sufficiently subsided to permit of his being heard he said: ? "I rise to accept the statement I am a friend of M. Thiers; but before that dnd above all I am the friend of my country," M. ARAGO's DECLARATION. The Right did some frightful yelling when the invincible Arago, pointing towards them, exclaimed, "You must take it upon your con sciences to show in the face of all Europe and before history a piece of the most monstrous ingratitude." THIERS IN THE ASSEMBLY. The expelled President of the Republic, M. Thiers, remained an interested witness of the result of pressing the "question" too closely. With his coat tightly buttoned, as is his wont under nearly all circumstances, his arms folded and his head reclining slightly over his breast, as if deeply pained at what he saw and heard, he watched the agitated Deputies with much seriousness, constantly using the excla mation, "Oh, bien, Messieurs I" He caused immense excitement on two occasions. Once, when he said : ? "They have spoken of negotiations when, it has occurred to me, thoy only wanted the government to be transferred to Paris ; but the army would not enter there. I have re pelled them in order to prevent the shedding of streams of blood at the expense of the army. If there is a man who counts the cost of thin effusion of blood it is myself. I have fallen. I rather wish to say that we have fallen. For a long time I had the hope that this detestable faction?" Here he was interrupted by the tremendous uproar that followed the echo of the last few words. PROTEGE or RADICALISM?PROTEGE OF THE EMPIRE. Subsequently an unwise member, in the heat of debate and amid the fury of that zealous volition known only in the legislative halls of the Republic, charged the "Little Man" with being the "prottgt of radicalism." In an instant Thiers was upon his feet, and in a brilliant peroration with which he concluded his reply to the insidious attack declared that there was something more remarkable than that in their midst; that they had with them the Duke de Broglie, who was a ' 'protigi of the Empire." GREETING THE DEPUTIES. There were immense crowds in the vicinity of the Palace all day, and at the end of the debate the outcoming Deputies were greeted with the cries, "Down with the Monarchy!" "Vive Ihieral" and "Five la Republiquet" ADDITIONAL DETAILS. The National Troops Confined to Their Bsrracki?Marihal MacMahon'i Official Acceptance of the Prealdenejr?Another View of the New Government. Pa.eis, May 25, 1872. The change in the Presidency has been ac complished without the slightest disturbance. Perfect order prevails throughout France. The troops have been confined to their bar racks since yesterday morning, but all is quief in Paris, and there are no signs of disorder in the Departments. OAMBETTA AND THE RADICAL JOURNALS. The radical journals to-day are calm in tone. They recommend prudence and wis dom on the part of the republicans and urge peace and a strict adherence to law. M. Gam betta has issued a manifesto calling on the republicans to respect the law. MARSHAL MACMAHON' B ACCEPTANCE. Marshal MacMahon has sent a communica to M. Buffet, President of the Assembly, ac knowledging the receipt of the official noti fication of his election to the Presidency and accepting the office. THE (GOVERNMENT. The formation of the new government has not yet been completed. It is said that the Duke de Broglie will have the Ministry of the Interior and M. Pierre Magne that of Finance, and that the Baron de Larcy and MM. Er noul and Batbie will also enter tho Cabinet. M. GOULARD REFUSES A PORTFOLIO. A portfolio was tendered to M. Goulard, late Minister of Finance, immediately after Presi dent Thiers' resignation, and he declined it. RESIGNATION OF REPUBLICAN OFFICIALS. A large number of republican functionaries have resigned. THE HEWS II WASHINGTON. ? French IMplomatUta Not Officially No tified of MacMahon1* Election. Washington, May 25, 1873. The French Legation is not yet officially advised of the election of Marshal Mac Mahon as the successor of Thiers, and the official news will not probably reach here for several days. The change of administration, it is thought in official circles, will not affect the personnel of its diplomatic representatives abroad. THE NEW FRENCH* GOVERNMENT. President Mac Mahoa. Marie some J'atrick Maoris d? Mac Mabon, Oaks of Magenta, was bora at Bally in 1808. Be grad ually rose frost the position or sab-lieuteoani to that of Marshal of Fraace. lie woa his title of Duke at tne Hattie of Magenta, being named on the battle Held June 4, I860. Io the recent war he took a prominent part, being wounded at Bed an, where he capitulated with the whole French army. Mace that time he commanded the Ver sailles army m the second siege of Paris against the Commune. Subsequently he was offered a nomination as member of the French Assembly and refused, saylug a military mao ought uot to be a politician. He held the position of Commander in-Chiet of the French armies at the time of his ele vation to the Presidency. Marquis d' AudlfTret Pasquier?Interior. Edme Armand Gaston, Marquis (PAncUffret Pasquler, uamed to the positloo of Mioister or the Iaterlor, was bora la 1813. He was grand aephew of the Due de Paequier, who married the widow of the Comte ue Roehefort during the days of the Terror, who died In 1814. The Duke having no heirs, adapted Audtffret Pasquler and made him his heir. In 1144 the dukedom was made a marqulsato, and the present Marquis was the first of the name. Pasquler belonged to the Chamber of Peers during the latter part of the reign of Louis phlllippe, but did aot signalize himself by any very prominent deeds. During the Empire he remained In retire ment. After the revolution of the 4th of Septem ber Pasquler began to appear, and was elected a member Irom the South. In the Assembly he imme diately took a prominent stand as an enemy of the existing French government. He was placed upon the Commission des Marches in the Asuemlily, a committee which examined Into the sales made to the French government during the war of arms and ammunition. He did good service on this committee, and succeeded In discovering various frauds which had been perpetrated on the governmeut. Recently he made one of the Committee of Thirty appointed to draw up a project of law, and with which committee M. Thiers combatted for so long a time. He, Indeed, from this point forward became a bit ter adversary of M. Thiers, and lu lils speeches showed a strong tendency towards Orleanism and a monarchical form of governmeut, In the recent revolution lu the Assembly, which has resulted In the overthrow ofM. Thiers, he threw all the weight of his Influence against the President, and was one of the most active members of the Assembly in hla deteat. Lonla Depeyre?Justice. Louis Depeyre, who has received the apointment of Minister of Justice, was a member of the Magis trature of the Arronllssement of tj)e Seine, and has long worn the ermine. His record Is simply that of a judge, and he has never held any promi nent office in a political sense. General Deavaux?War. General Desvaux, who has been named to the War Ministry, was born in 1810. He wont through stU(lie8 in the Military School of St. Cyr and was made a Bub-lieutenant in 1830, and subse quently was named full lieutenant, being one of those named for meritorious service during the revolution of July by the Governmental Commis sion appointed to report on those who had deserved well of the country. Ue was afterwards .ent to Algeria, where he went through the trying campaigns which ended in the conquest of that country by the French victory, jyid acted on all occasions bravely and with credit to himself. During the siege of Cons tan tia he led a brilliant charge and was wounded. He was made captain Id the Third regiment of chas seurs. in 1846 be was created Chef a'Eacadron of ,!?,Cru Altferlan corps known as the Spahis. in 1861 he was created colonel and in 1855 brigadier general. He was then named commandant of the military sub-dlvlsion of Bathua. In 1852 he was made Com mander of the Legion of Honor. When the Crimean war broke out General Desvanx was sent there, and commanded his brigade throughout the war, always fighting witn credit to himself and his corp.. After the Crimean war was over he re turnip to garrison in Algeria, and in i860 was m?de general ?f division daring the Italian *ar* JtM* campaign he waa attached to the Third Army Corps, which MacMahon subsequently commanded, and waa present with him at the battle of Magenta, where his chief was crowned with honor and a title. He also ac companied Marshal McMahon on the trip which the latter made to the Berlin Court to represent Prance at the crowning of William I. as King of Prussia (the present Emperor of Germany), and where the Marshal-Duke conducted himself with such magnificent ostontation. Returning to France General Desvaux was shortly after appointed to the Imperial Guard and fought therein in the franco-Prussian war. Attached to Hazalne's army beneath the walls of Metz, he fought valiantly at Gravelotte and was wounded. During tho short war of the Commune he was again under Marshal MacMahon's orders, and was one of the first to enter Paris at the head of the Versailles troops. . ince that time General Desvaux has been quar tered at Versailles. He Is a personal and intimate friend of President Mclfuhon, having fought under his orders for so many years. While General Desvaux has not the name of be ing a great Captain, he is known as a trusty and careful military man and personally very brave He lias had the reputation of not sacrificing the troops under him unnecessarily, but always belnjr anxious to shield them where it was possible. He lias never, during his long career, held any politi cal position before the present, nor has he ever ex hlbited any political preierences. Oac de Broglte?Foreign Affairs. The present Due de Broglte, who has been of fered the poru-jeutiw of roreign Affairs, was born in 1785. His father was guillotined during the Revolution in the dark days of <93. During the reign of Napoleon I. fee was an auditor In the department of the Council of Stale. The Emperor offered him several small missions, and he was also engaged in the drafting of one o(,the nu merous Treaties ol Peace which were made by Napoleon I. J The Due de Broglte never liked the first Emperor however, and readily attached himself to the new government of the Restoration. He was named to several embassies by Louis XV1I1. in 1814, an? followed his iortunes when he went Into exile the second time. On the return to France after the final overtnrow of Napoleon, de Broglie was petted by the King, and again received several foreign missions, in 1830 the Duke was mado a peer and took liis seat In that body. After the overthrow of Charles X. in the Revolntlon of Jnly Louis Philllppe, the new King, offered de Broglie the porle-jtuiiie of Minister of Public instruction. In 1831 the Duke de Broglie Joined hands with Tillers in defending hereditary titles, and subse quently formed, with Thiers, Guizot, and Gerard the longest Ministry which existed under the rule of Louis Philiippe, de Broglie having the portfolio of horelgn Affairs. About this time he nade the first treaty with England having roference to the slave trade, and it was mutually agreed be tween the two Powers to give the right of visita tion of suspected slavers. At length dissensions broke out in the Cabinet between Thiers and (lulzot, dissensions which it seemed could not be reconciled, and at length the King, tired of the continued wrangles between these two states men, appointed tho Duke de Broglie to draw up a new CafclneJ, which he did. and was then appointed President of the Council of State in 1834. While tn this position he drew up the severe laws against tho ilbertv of the Press, but ho was spared the main onns of the work owing to the lact that Thiers embraced tho proposed law so enthusiastically that the main blame of the flurry rested on Thiers' shoulders. When the Revolution of 1848 came De Brotlle retired and appeared again in the French Chamber as a Depute from the Department of Enre in 1861. He appeared to get a revision of a plan of a constitution so as to abolish the Republic and make way for there torn of the citizen king, when the coup d'etat waa sprung, which defeated ail his projects. In 1866 he wis elected to the French Academy, and It waa said to be more a political election than aaght else. In his speech he made hi* loot defence of tho do tsroaoa king, and attff that retired from politics. In 1M1 his booM was searched by the Prefect of Parla for forbidden boaks. He was subsequently appointed Oraud Croaa of the Leg.on of Honor. After the overthrow of Napoleon he took np with politics, and after the Commune was appointed Ambassador to London. Recently, In the Freuch Assembly, lie was President of the Committee of Thirty and a bitter opponent of Pres ident Thiers. He now returns to the position he held many years ago. Pierre Hagae?Plaaau. M. Pierre Magne, who has received the port folio of Minister of Finance, was born in Perlgueux, in the South of France, December 3, 1806. He'went through college In his native place, and became clerk in the prefecture of Dordogue soon after. He soon after be9ame a lawyer, and was cannsel to the prefecture until 1843, when he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies. There he first made his mark as a financier. He was on the commission on the budget in 1845, and made a remarkable report on the Algerian budget. Soon after he was made Under secretary of War. The revolution of 1848 put him aut of place, aud he returned to his native town as a lawyer. In 1849 he was made Under Secretary ot Finance, and Minister of Public Works in 1851. After receiving aud holding two or three other offices he was again mude Minister of Public Works In 18.VJ and Senator soon after. In 1865 the Emperor made him Minister of Finance, which he held duriug the trying times of the Crimean war. He has done much as Minister af Public Works to give France her present system of railroads. In 18flo M. Magne was again named Minister without portJoilo, and on retiring trout that position was made member of the Council of State. Since t^at time M. Magne has held several positions, but since the overthrow of Napoleon had retired to private lire. This is the first position he has held since that time. THE "WHITE" REVOLUTION. I [From the Courrier ties Ktats Unls of to-day.] It 1b done. The "white" tactlou has made Its revolution against national sentiment, against tlio electoral body, against Franoe, against the Republic; more tliau that, against the new-founded order, against peaee, agaiast confldeuce within and without; against re-eBtab Ushed prosperity; against triumphant credit and against that supreme aspirattou of the country? the liberation of French territory by the hands, the wisdom and the honor 01 the Republic. Ah I without doubt the moment 1b well chosen; It would not have been fitting to wait longer before making a last audacious Btroke with a view te restoring the mosarchy. The time Is, per naps, ripe to foment disorders anew, to kludle civil war, to render Impossible the final payment of the war indemnity, to sign a new ball bond to the Germans in the ^>sts that tney occupy, to bring them back to those they have evacuated; to destroy, In line, the fruit of two years of toll, patience and resignation at the moment of its bursting forth. Yes, such is the aim, and such, in the prevision laf the monarchist!, Is the result of the coalition?let us call it con spiracy?whlcu haB just eventuated in the overthrow of M. Thiers. Our brows would redden with Indignation and shame If this act, monstrous in Its egotism and i Ingratitude, were the work of France. Happily It Is only the effort in extremis of a faction, of an infinltesslmal, rootless, unauthoritative minority, pushed even by the feeling of Its feebleness and final impotency to desperate expedients; the effort of a handful of representatives In conflict with their constituents, and who have the over presumptuousne-s to make their pretended sover eign rights prevail against the true and sole sovereignty?that which emanates from the nation and dwells therein. Happily, also, this victory Is not and cannot be but an eye-deceit, a mirage, an illusion about which the Insensates.wno believe they Jiave graspeil It, shall be promptly undeceived. We shall soon aee what they .will do with It; aud they will find It rude work to hew out the road of usurpation, In which labor they have with suoh temerity engaged. We have recently said I that If the 'Right, by a stroke or majority, forced M. Thiers to lay down power it would be more embarrassed by Its victory than he by his defeat. The case foreseen has arrived and the difficulties are beginning rar the presumptuous. In the first place their deceptive majority, which Is only a mosaic, made up of three minorities iu revolt, will lack coheslveness and fall in pieces the moment It ceases to be cemented by the common lntereat of a victory to be gained. But. supposing, even that the three coalesced factions continue to agree, Is It possible that the 300 votes of which the ma jority Is composed can govern against a compact minority of 344 votes, which Is in reality an Im mense majority compared to any of the three elements struggling against It, and which has behind it the will of the nation? And If these 344 voices, which have already abstained from voting In tho case or the election of a successor to M. Thiers, resolve to abstain from all participation In the acts of the Assembly, what authority will tho acts of this mutilated Assembly have? Let us go farther. If these 344 send In their resignations In a body, what will the MO dof Will they eonvoke the electors, or will they continue, thus numerically reduced, to consider themselves the legal repre sentation of the country T In the latter ease they will become the Jest of the entire worlJ; In the former they will, by the roturn ef the 344 resigning members, receive from the legal nation the striking affront and crushing condemnation they have so well merited. In the history of representative government there probably cannot be found another example of a situation so abnormal and of auch a revolt by a constituent body against the constituency from which it emanates. We have had all sorts of revolutions, of the street, the Church, the barracks or the palace. We now have a Parliamentary revolution, and It Is against the electors themsolves that the Parliamentarians have conspired. The most significant act of this revolution Is the overthrow of the Elect of these faithless representatives, who has com mitted the great crime of remaining faith ful to the nation Instead of making himself the docile instrument of the conspirators who betrayed It Let the shame and responsibility of the evils which their criminal attempt may engender fall upon the ml As to him who has been overthrown, history will say that ho has guarded to the cui the sanc tity of the oaths by which he engaged to preserve the Integrity of the public liberties confided to his care; that he has contributed more than any other man.' and as much as was humanly possible, to repair the misfortunes of a catastrophe which would have been prevented had his councils been hearkened to, and that he has fallen a victim to odious machinations hatched In hate of the good he hail achieved and that which remalued for him to accomplish. By a rare privilege history need not wait for death to strike M. Thiers before being Juat to him; and posterity to glorlly him will need but to sanction the Judgment of his contem poraries. One word more on the events which have transpired. The nomination of Marshal Mar.Mahon to the Presidency of tho Republic remits, It Is true, the material power in the hands of the malorlty, which remains master of the field, and so takes Its precaution against the mob. But we have no fears on tula head. The people and their leaders will not commit the fault af furnishing a pretext for disorders which the "whites" would not ask better than to prevoke. The people have right on their side; moderation and legality are the best weapons to mske it triumph. Never have tt? monarchists been In a situation so critical as that wherein they are plaeetl. With emptiness around them, they are absolutely power less to govern, still leas to make laws, and no mili tary force can prevail agaluat the passive and legal resistance of the country. It la dear that the majority, In lta present position, con scious of Its want of accord with public opinion, woald no trocoll from civil war in order to dictate lta will to the people; but wa are certain that It will not find, at any price, a people servile enough to submit, and, despite tba menacing an thronement of a soldier, wo are also eenvlneef that It will not find to-day a Pretorian arm/ to overawe them. SKETCHES OF FREICH BET0LUTI0I8 The First Revolution. Many Cannes combined to effect the overthrew ol the monarchy In Prance In the latter quarter of the last oentury. The excesses of the Crown, the grind* lng tyranny of the nobles, the spread of tnlldel principles, the example of America and the awakening consciousness that " the divine right of kings" wan a gross imposition?ail impelled to the great denouement or the loth of August, 1702, when the Palace of the Tnileries wus entered by the pop. uiace of Paris and the reign of Louis xvi. ana hi* beautiful consort, Marie Antoinette, ended for* ever. The beginning of the flrst revolution might be said to date from the action of the king la tho granting (May, 1789) M. Necker's proposition of a double vote to the third estate (the Commons), so as to balance the votes of the other two houses, composed of the clergy and nobility. What wag called a National Assembly sprung from thia cause, and by the constitution which they formed they changed tbe old French monarchy into a representative republic. They sup. pressed feudal Jurisdictions, manorial dues and fees, tbe titles of nobility, the tithes, convents ami corporations of trade; they confiscated tbe property of the Church and uprooted things generally. The King endeavored in vain to stop this headlong career by the use of bis veto, bat tbe revolution was rushing at lull speed, 'and out* breaks occurred In tbe provinces, while every day the partisans of the King were growing fewer aud weaker. In June, 1702, an insurrection took place In Paris, iollowed by auother In August, and tbe Palace of the Tullcries was entered and all Its io? mates massacred. The King was deposed; he and his family sent prisoners to tbe Temple, tried by the National Convention and eaecute< on the 21st> of January, 1793. Mai'le Antoinette followed bint to tbe scaffold in Uotober of tbe same year. The Second Revolution changed the form of the government of Franc# from that of a republic (which took on ? boisterous life atter the monarchy), gov* erned by a Directory, to a Consulship of three, of whom Napoleon Bonaparte was first. The fall o| the Directorial government in 1800, though ever so Irregularly brought about, was certainly not a sub. jeot of regret to the great majority of the Prencb people, who had neither respect for it nor.any con. fldence In It. Tho profligacy and dishonesty of that government wer# notorious. Napoleon was now prominently on th? scene, and his power from year to year grew more and more absolute, until finally, in 1804, a motion was made In the Tribunate to Destow upon htm the title of Emperof of the French, with the hereditary succession In his family. The proposition was sub. nutted to the votcB of the people, but before they were collected Napoleon assumed the title of Em* peror at St. Cloud on the 18th of May, 1804. The Third Revolution was marked by colossal wars on the part of Na^ poleon. He squandered the blood and treasure o| France on a scale of unprecedented extravagance. The liberty and equality so ostentatiously estab. llshed by the Republic disappeared, and howevet much of the glory ef war the Empire reaped it suot ceeded effectually in emasculating the moral and physical manhood ef the nation. The Fourth Revolution came with the deleat of Napoleon before Paris, la the Spring of 1814, and his retirement to Elba. Thia gave a show to the Bourbon party to welcome Louis XVni. to the throne of his ancestor*. Loui# came, but his stay was rendered brief. He wae sincere In his professions, bat he was surrounded by disappointed emigrants and old royalists, whesO imprudence Injured him in the public estimation, while against him he had a formidable Bonapartist body. A conspiracy was hatched against Loulsu Bonaparte returned irom Elba, and Louis, forsakefl by all, retired to Ghent. The Fifth Revolution waa the return of Napoleoa and ma entry intd Paris on the 30th ef March, 1815. The return wo* accompanied by the acclamation of the military and the lower classes, but tho great body of tho citizens looked on silent and astounded. He wafl recalled by a party, bat not by the nation. A few months after Waterloo followed, and that put an end to the career of the great Napoleon. The Sixth Revolution followed Waterloo, for that battle opened the way for Louis XVIII. to return to Paris. By this time he appeared as an Insulted and betrayed monarch. Those officers who In spite of their oaths to Louia had openly favored Bonaparte's usurpation wero tried an* found guilty of treason. Somo were shot and others exile*. Loals, In the course of time, showed that the old Bourbon leaven was In him. The law of election wae altered, the newspapers were placed under a cen sorship and other measures of a retrograde nature adopted. He tied in September, 1824, and having left no issue was succeeded by his brother Charlea X., whose first act was to abolish the censorship or the press, which gave him a momentary gleam of popularity; but his arter efforts to tie up the liberty of the periodical press brought a storm around hie ears that cost him his throne. The Seventh Rtvolatloa occurred on the 2d of August, 1830, when Charles X. abdicated the crown and retired te England. Tho ordinance agalast the periodical press brought on the crisis of the 27th of July, 1830, when the flrst encounter took place between the troops and the people. The lighting next day became more gea> eral. The national guards Joined the people, the Hotel de Ville was taken and retaken, the Louvro and Tuilerles attacked, and on the 30th of July tno revolution was virtually ended and Louis Philippe was proclaimed King or France. The Eighth Revolution was the memorable one of 1848, when "tie Citizen King" had to ny Incontinently to England without his shaving utensils. His reign was a period of corruption in high places. The heart of the nation was alienated from their King, and when a tricing disturbance in February, 1848, was aggravated into a popular riot, Louis Philippe felt that he stood alone and unsupported as a constitutional King. He shrank from employing soldiers against his people and he fell in consequence. He fled in dla? guiae from Paris to the coast of Normandy, and, taking ship, found refuge again In Englaud. Thero was a republic once again. Lamartine waa the man ol the moment, but his popularity was short* lived, and in the general election of 1840 Louis Nfe poleon walked over the course. The IVlnth Revolution % . waa Inaugurated In the bloody and celebrated coup d'tlat of December, 1861, and Louis Napoleon made himself Emperor and strangled the Infant Republic His career was splendid for almost twenty year^ until the fatal blunder of declaring war against Prussia and then the gigantic bubble of his Emplr# collapsed. The news of the dlsaater at Sedan end. ed the imperial regime. The Empress fled to Enga land, and a new form of government quasi aivlf quasi military took Its place. Tho Tonth Revolution. With tile fall of the Empire all the worst slop ments of the hnge city of Paris were liberated, and though for a very long time a degree of exemplar^ order reigned, the storm that Anally burst and wronght its lury on the fair and devoied city could not have been wholly unanticipated. Under the relga ot the provislsaal government desperate effortg wero mado to restore tho loat prestige of the Frence military name, but the ffctea were nupro* pttloua and thlnga weat from bad to worse. 09 the 10th of March, 1871, the troops faithful to the provialonal government left Paris, and then Jofc lowed the reign of the,Commune. Tho Eleventh Revolution waa the worst and bloodiest of ail, for It warred upon all things, hsman and dW vine?upon life, property, art, science, lltera* ture, and all things dear to the heart a| COHT33JUED OH TEffTH PA Q&

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